Lady Quenborough ? aka Edith Starr Miller ? OCCULT THEOCRASY – 1933 ? Published ‘Posthumousley’ ? FACT or FICTION or … ?

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Full text of “Occult Theocracy by Lady Queenborough a.k.a. Edith Starr Miller – Murdered for Exposing Conspiracy”
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Theocrasy. (Adaptation of Gr. 0soxpa
ticism were widely dispersed in different schools which
were local and not international.

” While Pike laid the foundation of Palladism at
Charleston, Mazzini organized the centralization of
Political action in Rome, and two years after the foun-
ding of the Sovereign Executive and the Supreme
Dogmatic Directories, a third, the Sovereign Adminis-
trative Directory, was instituted in Berlin. This latter
functioned by means of a constantly renewed com-
mittee of seven taken from the Supreme Councils, Grand
Encampments, Grand Orients, and Grand Lodges of
the world. By means of an ingeniously contrived sys-
tem of rotation, these representatives act by virtue
of their mandate for three months only. Each of the
existing rites, with the exception of the Palladian,
send annually to Berlin two of its members of the
Superior degrees, drawn from any country except
Germany, which alone, of all those represented, is

who both belonged to the Grand Orient, Eliphas Levi became
a Mason on March 14, 1861, being initiated in the Lodge
Rose du Parfait Silence of which Caubet was the Venerable.
The ceremony was performed in the presence of many brothers.

” In his reception speech, Eliphas Levi, to the great aston-
ishment of his auditors, little inclined to paradoxes, made
the following statement.

I come to bring you your lost traditions, the exact know-
ledge of your signs and emblems, and in consequence to show
you the aim for the attainment of which your association has
been constituted. ‘

He then tried to demonstrate to his coreligionists that
Masonic symbolism is borrowed from the Cabala. It was time
wasted. No one believed him.”



entitled to one permanent member whose quarterly-
term of office expires at the end of the time allotted
to the particular lodge of which he is a delegate… The
members of the Sovereign Administrative Directory
are always given 120 days notice of their appointments
in order to enable them to plan what would appear
to be a pleasure trip or a holiday, when, in fact, they
are going on the business of the association.

” Two special delegates are permanently attached
to the Directory of Berlin, one for finance and one for
propaganda. At the present date, (1894) Bleichroeder
fills the first mentioned position and Findel, a non->
luciferian, the second. These officers are obliged to
live in Germany and to be in a sufficiently independent
position to be able to go to the seat of the Directory
at a moment’s notice.

” The business of the Propaganda agent is to fur-
nish information to the chiefs at Rome and Charles-
ton… He receives monthly, by secret messenger from
Berlin, the report of all measures formulated at the
Sovereign Administrative Directory relating to means
and methods judged useful in spreading the principles
of the association.

” After a meeting he examines, coordinates and
frames a report of the decisions upon which, three
months later, the seven members of the Berlin Direc-
tory will vote. Of these seven members, thanks to the
system of rotation explained above, there are always
at least two who, having belonged to the Directory at
the time of the submission of the resolution under
consideration, are able to furnish commentaries and
explanations to the new comers. Only resolutions having
obtained a favourable vote of five or seven voices can
be registered by the delegate recorder, and these can
be finally adopted only on the second following month,


if they pass unanimously. 19 In the event of one or more
persons opposing a measure, the matter is referred to
the Chief at Rome after which, failing his approval,
it is settled arbitrarily by the chief at Charleston from
whose decision there is no appeal.

” The business of the financial agent is not a matter
of funds, it consists in drawing up a general balance
sheet of all rites, in all countries with the brother
accountant working under his orders as a sworn expert.

” As above said, the Palladian rite has no share in
the functioning of the Sovereign Administrative Direc-
tory. This should again prove that Palladism is super-
posed to all the other rites. It is the luciferian religion
and only need concern itself with the triangles which
have a separate budget. Being the real hidden power,
known only to the perfect initiates, it need not unveil
itself even to this permanent committee which cons-
titutes the highest expression of the administrative
power of the great international association. One must
also not lose sight of the fact that among the masonic
powers, there are several countries where the Sym-
bolic Grand Lodges recognize only three grades of
which that of Master is the third and highest degree.
These lodges, like the others, are entitled to send two
delegates from time to time to Berlin, and, as a conse-
quence of having suppressed the high grades for their
adepts, these Federations are necessarily kept in com-
plete ignorance of the existence of Palladism. The
Supreme chiefs of Charleston and Rome appear to

19. Such a system, owing to its apparently democratic cha-
racter would admirably serve the purposes of an autocracy.
After five months it is obvious that none of the original mem-
bers who proposed a resolution would be present and five
months gives plenty of time for manipulation of nominees
pledged to vote according to the dictates of invisible masters.



them solely as earnest, active brothers who should be
consulted because of their great personal experience —
but that is all. ”

” Finally the Palladists have no need to be officially
represented in Berlin, as most of the members of
the Supreme Councils, Grand Encampments and Grand
Orients are their men and any important proposition
is immediately communicated to them.

” Under the Sovereign Directory, the Executive at
Rome and the Administrative at Berlin, come the Grand
Central Directories which are bureaus of registration
in the different parts of the world. These are located
in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and
Oceania. There is as well a sub-Directory for Africa.
At their heads are the high grade trusted brothers by
whom everything that emanates from the Supreme
Councils, Grand Encampments, Grand Orients and
Grand Lodges of their jurisdiction is centralized. Inde-
pendent of the Sovereign Administrative Directory of
Berlin, they operate directly under the chiefs of Rome
and Charleston and it is by these central Directories
that these two great intriguers are kept informed of
the trend of world affairs.

” As everything comes to the Grand Central Direc-
tories so everything emanates from them. Five mes-
sengers to Washington, Montevideo, Naples, Calcutta,
and Port Louis will put in motion the formidable ma-
chinery of Freemasonry the world over. ”

If the organization described in the foregoing pages
which were written by Bataille forty years ago has
progressed along the lines above indicated, one can
easily conjecture the degree of perfection which has
doubtless been attained to-day.



The game of politics is the pursuit of power. In all
democracies, there are two separate organizations
playing the political game. The open and visible one,
the members of which hold office as members of a
government, and the invisible one composed of indivi-
duals who control this visible organization and in
whom is vested the real power, the essence of which
is finance, controlling the publicity which makes or
unmakes its tools.

This financial power may be used to promote truth
or fallacies, good or evil, national prosperity or national
ruin, but so long as human nature is what it is, so long
as jealousy, greed, personal ambition and expediency
can sway the lives of men, so long will the rule of the
invisible power prevail by methods inimical to the
best interests of a nation. The strength of a democracy
thus lies at the mercy of invisible leaders who, being
nationally irresponsible, cannot be called to account
for the consequences of the acts of the governments they
control. This at the same time constitutes the inherent
weakness of any form of government, the apotheosis
of which is the control of both parties in the state,
right and left, radical and conservative, by the same




forces. Then, only the puppets change while the rule
of the individuals controlling the machine continues
unhindered. Voters who wonder why their efforts have
failed, wonder in vain. As the dupes of a controlled
publicity their privilege of the vote is a farce.

If all factions in a state can be controlled from one
source, why should International Control be impractic-
able? Italy, if one follows its history for the last hun-
dred years, gives a sequence of good illustrations of
such possibilities and affords us a chance to follow the
progressive stages of masonic centralization and impo-
sition of Internationalism upon nations, as conceived
by Mazzini, Pike, Palmerston and Bismarck.

International control was Mazzini’s dream. His
cynical remark ” We aspire to corrupt in order to
rule ” leaves one little faith in the idealism of this
Patriarch of International Freemasonry. That he applied
his motto is shown by the use he made of Francesco

As Palamenghi-Crispi writes : 1

” Crispi became personally acquainted with Mazzini
in London, in January, 1855, but they had correspond-
ed since 1850, when, their golden dream of liberty
and independence banished by the return of all the
tyranny of the past, the bravest of the patriots had
once more begun to conspire.

” While pondering the idea of founding a National
Committee in which the various regions of Italy should
be represented, Mazzini also determined to form a
fund for the carrying out of great enterprises. And
‘ as it is impossible to obtain large sums secretly and
from a few people ‘ he wrote, he worked out a plan for

1. Thomas Palamenghi-Crispi, The Memoirs of Francesco
Crispi, vol. I, p. 75.



a National Loan, to be raised by the issue of bonds to
be redeemed by a liberated Italy.

” The first act of the National Committee was to
authorise the issue of such bonds to the amount of ten
million lire. ”

In his youth, Francesco Crispi made a mistake, and
blackmail made him a ruler of men. As the tool of
Mazzini, he ruled Italy for many years, and as the ruler
of Italy, he wielded the secret power of International
Masonry in accordance with the policy of his masters.

According to Crispi 33° by D. Vaughan, ” Crispi,
in Palladism, Brother v Serafino-Chiocciola, was born
at Ribera, in Sicily, on Oct. 4, 1819. His father, Tommaso
Crispi, a lawyer, destined him to the church, but in
1837, he married Felicita Valle, a pretty young girl
with whom he was infatuated. In 1856, he abandoned
her for Rosalia Montmasson, deserting the latter
in 1878 to marry Lina Barbagallo, widow Capellani.
At this period, he was openly accused of bigamy and
though challenged to do so, he never produced the
documents necessary to prove the death of his first
wife, Felicita Valle.

” After his marriage in 1837, he practised law and
in 1838 joined one of the numerous secret societies
which in those days infested Sicily. Presently he star-
ted his career as a political intriguer and conspirator
travelling over the world on his sinister business under
different aliases and false passports provided for him
by Mazzini, who, in view of his confidential position
as friend of the King of Naples, had bought his services
as a spy. ”

Domenico Margiotta states in Francesco Crispi, son
(Euvre Nefaste, that he found among the papers of his
grandfather — a member of Young Italy who had been
condemned to death as the head of the conspiracy,



which penalty he however successfully escaped — a
telegram from Mazzini, instructing the organization
to ” give Crispi promptly thirty thousand ducats to
begin with on the account of the Neapolitan Committee
of Young Italy and let him get to work. ”

“While at Malta in 1855, he joined the masonic lodge,
” Zetland”, under English jurisdiction from which
he was shortly expelled for the theft of 800 francs from
one of its members. He went to London shortly after-
wards. There, Lord Palmerston had returned to power.
By becoming an ardent admirer and fanatical follower
of Mazzini, Crispi simultaneously entered the good
graces of Palmerston who was on the very best of terms
with the Italian leader.

In 1856, believing that Napoleon III, in cooperation
with Cavour, was the secret arbiter of the destinies of
Italy, and the greatest obstacle to the realization of
his own republican schemes, Mazzini induced Crispi
to go to Paris.

While he was there, a number of attempts were made
on the life of the Emperor, among others that of Orsini
on Jan. 14, 1858, but, though strongly suspected of
participation in these conspiracies by the police or
Paris, no evidence for a direct charge of complicity
against Crispi was ever obtained. However, it is known
that he and Orsini had previously met in London
where the latter had shown him how to make the famous
bombs, the use and manufacture of which Crispi after-
wards taught his followers in Sicily.

By August 3, 1858, he was back in London, the
Paris police having developed too great a zeal on his
behalf during his sojourn in the French capital.

At last by 1860, the various Italian conspiracies
crystallized into one. Everything was ready for the
fulfilment of Mazzini’s dream of United Italy. Bertani,



Bixio and Crispi decided to go to Turin themselves to
see General Garibaldi and, after the British Minister,
Sir James Hudson, had confirmed certain information
on conditions in Palermo, which had been furnished
by the Genoese deputies, the General seemed at last
inclined to take action. He ordered Bixio to Genoa to
charter a ship and Crispi to Milan to receive from Enrico
Besana the arms and the money already subscribed.
This subscription was begun by General Garibaldi
himself and, in view of later developments, it is a signi-
ficant fact that one of the contributions he received
for the famous expedition of the One Thousand, was
the sum of fifty thousand francs from the Jew, Corne-
lius Herz.

Twelve thousand guns were in the hands of Mas-
simo d’Azeglio, then governor of Milan who, by order
of the government, surrendered them to the rebels.

Finally, General Garibaldi arrived in Genoa on April
14. On the 16th, Crispi returned to Turin where he
saw the Minister of the Interior, Farini, who, having
by that time changed his mind concerning the Italian
expedition, had ceased to be a dictator and had assu-
med the attitude of a diplomatic satellite of Cavour.
He proved quite intractable. Back in Genoa, Crispi
found La Farina again, this time with orders to report
all developments to Cavour. Cavour, warned not to
interfere with Garibaldi, raised no obstacles to the
progress of the plot. He only advised waiting for better
news from the Island of Sicily, and promised to coope-
rate with a million guns, as soon as the time for the
expedition seemed propitious.

Still Garibaldi hesitated. The Sicilian news was con-
tradictory. On April 26, Crispi received from Niccola
Fabrizzi a message from Malta reading ” Failure in the
provinces and in the town of Palermo. Many exiles



arriving at Malta on English ships. ” Luckily a few days
later, a communication from Palermo, published by
the Gazette of Turin, told of the great proportions assum-
ed by the insurrection in Sicily, This communication
had been invented and written at Genoa by Crispi for
the purposes of overcoming the last scruples of Gari-
baldi !

One day, the second of May, Crispi and Garibaldi
were alone in a room looking seaward, in the Villa
Spinola Quarti. They were talking about the expedition.
Crispi as usual, was fighting the vacillations of Gari-
baldi. Suddenly, the General interrupted him saying,
” You are the only one to encourage me in this enter-
prise, Everyone else tries to dissuade me. Why ?”

“Because I am profoundly convinced that it will
be helpful to the fatherland and that it will cover you
with glory. I fear only one thing : The uncertainty of
the sea. ”

” I answer for the sea ” said Garibaldi.

” And I answer for the land ” said Crispi.

Garibaldi was persuaded and the die was cast.

After the victorious expedition of the One Thousand
had placed the group of conspirators in power in Sicily,
each was rewarded according to his merits, Crispi becom-
ing Minister of Foreign Affairs. Cavour had died on
June 6, 1861, poisoned, it is said, on May 28, by
order of Mazzini.

Until 1861, Crispi had cooperated whole heart-i
edly with the revolutionaries but, as time wore on, he
began to think that it might be more to his personal
advantage to serve the King than Mazzini.

His plan was discovered by Mazzini’s spies and in
1862, the deputy of Castelvetrano found himself facing
death for treason at the hands of his former friends
and accomplices, under conditions that enslaved him



body and soul forever after, to the International Sect.

Early in April 1862, he attended a Freemasonic
dinner of the Associations Emancipatrice at Turin.
Suddenly he felt ill, very ill, fire seemed to be burning
within him. He was in the throes of the most appalling
agony. Instead of offering assistance, the other guests
began to laugh, then, one of them rising, spoke to him
severely in the following terms :

” Francesco, you went to visit King Victor Emma-
nuel, without telling us of your intention and you
offered him your secret services. You let him know
that you were ready to go over at the first opportu-
nity. Till then your opinions had been republican.
Well, that is treason. We have condemned you. You
are poisoned. You are a dead man. ”

The poison had indeed been administered in the
bread. Among the organizers of the banquet was the
baker Dolfi, who had formerly contributed to the
expulsion of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and who had
become one of the members of the Radical Directing
Committee. On this occasion, Dolfi had kneaded the
bread himself, and each guest had found his place at
the table marked by a small roll bearing his name,
traced on its golden crust by a fillet of whitish dough.
All the guests, agreeably surprised, had congratu-
lated the baker for his delicate attention, but the piece
of bread marked Crispi had been separately kneaded
and contained the poison.

Crispi realized full well that he was lost. He knew
there was no escape and that all the exits to the ban-
quet hall were closed, moreover, he was too weak to
tight. Without recrimination and in the throes of acute
pain, he dropped into a chair upon which, writhing
in agony, he awaited a lingering death.

The others surrounded him, watching him in silence



with profound contempt. Suddenly, a door opened, a
curtain was raised and a man appeared. He advanced
slowly. It was Mazzini.

” Poor wretch ! ” said he to the dying man. ” I pity
you. ”

At these words, Crispi looked up. His dim eyes gleam-
ed suddenly and he murmured feebly.

” Yes, ambition made me betray… It is true … I was
going to sell myself… But I die… Do not insult my
agony… Do not mock me… 1 suffer too much ! ”

” I do not speak to you in derision, ” answered the
grand master, ” Francesco Crispi, I forgive you… Drink
this and you are saved. You will be reborn… ”

So saying, he forced his teeth apart and pressing
a small vial to the lips of the dying man poured the
counter-poison down his parched throat.

After his last words, Crispi had collapsed. Some time
passed. Was he still alive ? He seemed a corpse. Little
by little, sweat gathered on his face and hands then,
slowly, his livid countenance regained some colour.

For a long time he seemed inert. Then his eyelids
opened and, looking around with a stunned expression
of incomprehension, he asked.

” Where am I ? ”

” You have returned from the realm of the dead ”
murmured Mazzini gravely.

” Oh ! Yes, I remember now, Mercy ! Mercy ! ”
he added suddenly, recalling realities and clinging des-
perately to life. ” I live indeed, Master. Is it not a
dream ? ”

“You live, yes, Francesco; but henceforth you are
more completely enslaved than the last of the negroes
for whose freedom they are fighting over there in Ame-
rica… You live again and your ambition will be grati-
fied… You will be minister, minister of the Monarchy ;



You will hold in your hands the reins of government
but, without betraying us, without selling yourself !…
You will part from us, not privately but publicly… We
will denounce you, and while denouncing you, we will
push you to power. It is the monarchy that you will
betray by executing our orders, when we shall have
made you minister of the crown… And you will obey
us in all things, even should the orders we give you
seem contradictory, even should their execution cause
you to pass for a madman in the eyes of Europe ! Yes,
Francesco Crispi, from this day forward, you belong
to us, for you must never forget that, should you place
us in a position where it might be expedient to cut
short your own existence a second time, no power
in the world could save you from the death, the suffer-
ings of which you have known today. Live then for
Masonry. Fight Royalty and the Church. You will
be the gravedigger of this house of Savoy. It is only
an instrument for us and we have condemned it to
disappear after it has served our purpose. ”

This plan of action was carried out. In 1864, Crispi,
on orders from his master, became a Royalist and duly
denounced Mazzini. That is the explanation of his
often incoherent and erratic policies in after life. Maz-i
zini’s promise was fulfilled and Crispi became Minister
of the Interior in 1878.

In 1877, he had been on a tour to Paris, Berlin, London
and Vienna. In Paris, he had seen Thiers, Jules Favre
and Gambetta; in Germany, Prince Bismarck, with
whom he already had an acquaintance of some years
standing, and who shared his aversion for France and
the Roman Catholic Church ; in England, Lord Derby
and Mr. Gladstone ; but the true purpose of his mission
in these lands is still unknown. As a consequence of his
interview with Bismarck, at Salzbourg, Italy, fearing



France, threw herself into the hands of the Iron
Chancellor. Germany henceforth was to hold her as a
dog ready to be set at either against Austria or France
when it suited her purpose. The Triple Alliance was
formed on May 20, 1882.

Crispi’s accession to the ministry was therefore a
victory of prime importance to the sect.

After the death of Mazzini, in 1872, Adriano Lemmi
took over his masonic heritage and, along with the rest,
his slave Francesco Crispi, who, with the Jew Baro-
zilai, became his right hand man.

King Victor Emmanuel died on Jan 9, 1878, and
was succeeded by Humbert I. That same year saw the
death of Pope Pius IX and the accession to the papacy
of Leo XIII.

In 1884, Humbert I was initiated into masonry as
Knight Kadosch, under conditions of the greatest
secrecy and a lodge, that of Savoia Illuminata, was
founded in his honour.

In spite of his exalted masonic position the mon-
arch’s political information was always strictly cen-
sored by his masonic superiors.

From 1887 to 1891, and again from 1893 to 1896,
Crispi acted the part of Prime Minister.

In order to enable him to curry favour with the com-
mon people, Lemmi occasionally authorized him to
execute political turnovers. The Grand Master Lemmi
once said to Humbert ” Fear not; The socialism of
Crispi will not last; it will provoke no riots, it is sim-
ply an electoral manoeuvre ” and the king was much
gratified at being so well informed. There at least, the
33° King was not deceived. If now and again Crispi
resumed his revolutionary complexion, it was only
to obtain the votes of those whom he persecuted
mercilessly once he had obtained power. To him, a



change of opinion was as easy as a change of shirt. 2

In 1889, came the scandal of the Banca Romana,
revealed as such through the efforts of Giovanni Gio-i
litti 3 and in 1892, that of Panama involving another,
namely the Grand Cordon of Cornelius Herz, any one
of which would have swamped the political career of
any unprotected individual. Crispi, though seriously
implicated, was supported through an impossible
situation by the masonic brotherhood.

The Abyssinian War, itself the result of masonic
intrigue, was the terrible manoeuvre calculated to ruin
the House of Savoy in the eyes of the Italian people.

It was known that, at the time of the disaster of
Adowa, the succession of Adriano Lemmi to the Grand
Mastership of the Grand Orient of Italy was open, and
that competition for the position was keen. Some favou-
red the candidacy of Bovio, others that of Nathan,
later Mayor of Rome. But Crispi had promised General
Baratieri, 4 a masonic dignitary, that he should have
the preference above all others, on condition that he
win a victory over the Negus. Such an achievement
would give Italy another Garibaldi, a popular hero, while
simultaneously providing Crispi himself with a useful
tool and the position of ” top dog ” which had never
been his before.

But the disastrous defeat of his candidate by Mene-i
lek, at the Battle of Adowa on March 2, 1896, resulted
in the fall of Crispi, not that of the king.

The agent of Lemmi had played his part but the
great game of the Federated Secret Societies had only
suffered a temporary setback.

2. Much of the above is recorded in : he 33° Crispi, by
D. Vaughan.

3. Giolitti, Memoirs of my Life, p. 99 et seq.

4. Margiotta, Francesco Crispi, Son GLuvre Nefaste.



In 1900, King Humbert I was assassinated at Monza.
Crispi died in 1901.

The fate of Italy is the fate of all nations governed
by political rings. Italy in the 19th century seems to
have been the vortex of the intrigue directed against
Christianity which today ravages the world, carrying
in its wake a general disregard of all ideals, decency,
duty and loyalty.

Liberty is corrupted into licentiousness, marital fidel-
ity into perversion, equality into equality of low
standards and fraternity into a brotherhood based on
mutual slavery under the yoke of International Finance.

And the monster grows apace! Today it bestrides
the world under the name of Bolshevism, but it is the
same old monster, the heresy of the first centuries of
the Christian era and the Middle Ages, namely —



This Chapter is compiled largely of extracts,
some transcribed verbatim and others elaborated to
include information necessary to the reader, from :

Adriano Lemmi

by Domenico Margiotta 33°

Adriano Lemmi was born of Roman Catholic parents,
at Leghorn, Tuscany, on April 30, 1822. He was
the son of Fortunato Lemmi and Teresa Merlino, his
lawful wife.

At an early age, he became the despair of his parents.
He was dissolute, frequented evil haunts and formed
undesirable friendships.

Running away from home on December 29, 1843,
he forged a letter stating, under the letterhead of Fal-
conet and Co., that a credit for his account was to be
opened on Pastre Bros., Bankers, at Marseilles, where,
shortly after his arrival, he scraped acquaintance with
Monsieur and Madame Grand Boubagne whom he was
soon accused of having robbed of 300 francs. The evi-
dence against him was overwhelming, and he was
condemned to a year in prison for that and other minor
offences, and also sentenced to five years on probation.




He served his term and bolted to Constantinople,
Arriving there early in April 1845, he eked out a
precarious existence, first as a kitchen hand, then
as the assistant in the shop of an old apothecary,
whose preparations he peddled in the streets of

His employer had a friend, a Polish rabbi who,
having been condemned for conspiracy in Russia, had
taken refuge in Constantinople. This man took a fancy
to him and in an effort to curry favour with the Jews,
Lemmi presently asked if he might be received into
the religion of Moses. As a diplomatic move, the sug-
gestion was a great success for the apothecary and the
rabbi, proud and jubilant to have secured a neophyte,
taught him the Talmud, while another rabbi, Abraham
Maggioro, instructed him in the mysteries of the Cabala.
Together, they initiated him into the secrets of magic,
in which he proved an apt pupil and his lot was much
improved, but the old apothecary died in 1847, and
Lemmi found himself without employment. The Polish
rabbi having left Constantinople, he stayed on a while
under the protection of his friend Maggioro.

In those days, the few Freemasons coming to Pera
were English. Freemasonry had been introduced into
Turkey in 1738, but until the Crimean war it suffered
many vicissitudes. The English saw their lodges fade
away for want of active members, for the government
did not favour them. Adriano Lemmi was supposed to
have been initiated into Freemasonry in 1848 by an
English Mason, but this ceremony seems to have some-
how been irregular as it had to be repeated at a later

Finally, the era of his trials seemed to end. In 1849,
some of his English masonic friends gave him a letter
of introduction to the great Magyar, Kossuth, who



had come to Constantinople, a fugitive from public
opprobrium in his own country.

To save him from starvation, Kossuth took him as
his servant at low wages, but he gradually succeeded
in ingratiating himself with his patron till finally
he became his secretary on the recommendation of
Mazzini with whom he was already in correspon-

When Kossuth went to the United States in 1851,
he was accompanied by Lemmi. They were forced to
travel via Gibraltar and London as the French autho-
rities refused Kossuth permission to land in France,
and Lemmi, knowing that he was wanted by the
French police, knew better than to try to do so. In
Lodge No. 133 in Cincinnati, U. S. A., Kossuth received
the masonic initiation.

On the 2nd of December 1851, Prince Louis Napoleon,
then President of the French Republic, announced to
the people and the army his intention of submitting
to a referendum the plan of a constitution founded on
the system favoured by his uncle. It was a Coup d’Etat.
At this news Lemmi left Kossuth in America and went
to join Mazzini and Ledru Rollin in London.

By this time, Mazzini had already established his
reputation as an international intriguer. The ” Youth
Movement” of the day was already organized : —

The societies composing it were : —

Young Italy — founded by Mazzini 1831

Young Poland — founded by Simon Konarski…. 1834

Young England — founded by Benjamin Disraeli 1834

Young Europe — founded by Mazzini 1834

Young Switzerland — founded by Melegari (Emery).. 1835

Young Ireland — founded by Smith O’Brien 1843

Young Germany — founded by Hecker & Struve…. 1848



The oath taker, by the members of Young Italy
reads as follows : 1

” In the name of God and of Italy — in the name of
all the martyrs of the holy Italian cause, who have
fallen beneath foreign and domestic tyranny — by the
duties which bind me to the land wherein God has plac-
ed me, and to the brothers whom God has given me —
by the love, innate in all men, I bear to the country
that gave my mother birth, and will be the home of
my children — by the hatred, innate in all men, I bear
to evil, injustice, usurpation, and arbitrary rule — by
the blush that rises to my brow when I stand before
the citizens of other lands, to know that I have no
rights of citizenship, no country, and no national flag —
by the aspiration that thrills my soul towards that
liberty for which it was created, and is impotent to
exert ; towards the good it was created to strive after,
and is impotent to achieve in the silence and isolation
of slavery — by the memory of our former greatness
and the sense of our present degradation — by the
tears of Italian mothers for their sons dead on the
scaffold, in prison, or in exile — by the sufferings of
the millions —

“I , believing in the mission entrusted by God

to Italy, and the duty of every Italian to strive to
attempt its fulfilment — convinced that where God
has ordained that a nation shall be, he has given the
requisite power to create it; that the people are the
depositaries of that power, and that in its right direc-
tion, for the people, and by the people, lies the secret
of victory — convinced that virtue consists in action
and sacrifice, and strength in union and constancy of

1. Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of The European
Revolution (1776-1876), vol. 2, p. 147.



purpose — I give my name to Young Italy, an associa-
tion of men holding the same faith, and swear —

” To dedicate myself wholly and for ever to the
endeavour with them to constitute Italy one free, inde-
pendent, Republican nation — to promote, by every
means in my power, whether by written or spoken
word, or by action, the education of my Italian bro-
thers towards the aim of Young Italy ; towards asso-
ciation, the sole means of its accomplishment; and to
virtue, which alone can render the conquest lasting
— to abstain from enrolling myself in any other asso-
ciation from this time forth — to obey all the instruc-
tions, in conformity with the spirit of Young Italy,
given me by those who represent with me the union
of my Italian brothers, and to keep the secret of these
instructions, even at the cost of my life — to assist
my brothers of the Association both by action and
counsel —


” This do I swear, invoking upon my head the wrath
of God, the abhorrence of man, and the infamy of the
perjurer, if I ever betray the whole or a part of this
my oath. ”

The fusion of Young Italy and Carbonarism evi-
dently did not take place till after April 8, 1839, for
in a letter of that date, Mazzini writes to L. A. Melegari
at Lausanne ” It is a mixture of Young Italy and Car-
bonarism. They have had me approached indirectly
to know if I accept the fusion. ” 1

After 1851, Lemmi began playing an important part
in all politico-masonic assassinations and in all the
popular insurrections of which Italy was the scene. On
behalf of Mazzini, he kept up relations with the revolu-

1. Melegari, Lettres Intimes de Joseph Mazzini, p. 182.



tionaries of Tuscany and it was he who inspired the
attempt to assassinate the councillor of the Grand
Duke’s minister, Baldasseroni, in broad daylight, on
Oct. 21, 1852.

A letter from which we quote, written from Malta
by Francesco Crispi to Mazzini, dated Nov. 13, 1853, 2
gives a most interesting sidelight on the relations then
existing between the Great Italian Revolutionary, his
ally Crispi and Adriano Lemmi whom Crispi already
recognizes as the agent of an organization inimical to
his ideals.

” Brother, — the die is cast! At the present moment,
an uprising in Sicily is imminent, if, indeed, it has not
already taken place. God grant it may not prove a
second sixth of February !

” Knowing that I was here you should have fore-
warned me. Those to whom you have seen fit to entrust
the initiative will not be able to exert any influence
whatsoever in the provinces of Palermo and Messina !
their names, indeed, may even be greeted there with
hostility, and bring about a reaction. Now without
Palermo and Messina every attempt in Sicily will prove
vain. But what is done is done, and our plain duty now
is to work together in helping on the undertaking, and,
as far as is possible, in warding off evil consequences.
Let me know the plan of action and what orders you
have issued to the leaders. Although I have little regard
for them, I intend to do my duty, and this for the good
of our country and party, upon whose already tarnished
reputation another failure would bring utter ruin.
You will remember that ever since 1850, I have been
ready to hasten to Sicily. At that time we were working

2. Thomas Palamenghi-Crispi, The Memoirs of Francesco
Crispi, vol. 1, p. 80-81.



to form the National Committee and raise the loan that
should provide funds for any great emergency. Then
the Sicilian Committee was formed and speedily dis-
solved, while you worked to prepare an uprising in
northern and central Italy, forgetting Sicily entirely.
But not so my friends and I, who were convinced that
the greatest possibility of success lav in this island.
Nor was this all. After your misfortunes in Lombardy
you forgot your old friends, and flung yourself into the
arms of men who, up to that very moment, had held
you and your theories up to ridicule, but who had
been clever enough to deceive you through Signor
Lemmi, to whom they had declared their intention
to act.

” I am no more their enemy than are any of the
friends who belong to the party opposed to Calvi. ”

On February 6, 1853, an incipient insurrection
broke out in Milan, then under Austrian dominion,
as the result of a proclamation signed by Mazzini and
Kossuth. That it was sent by Lemmi from Switzerland
to the revolutionary Lombards is a fact well known
in Italian masonry.

Though implicated, the Swiss and Piedmontese
governments tried to appear unconcerned. Numerous
refugees from Northern Italy went to Switzerland or
Piedmont following the instructions transmitted by

Piedmont, assisted by England, (who was secretly
helping Mazzini’s masonry) tried to induce the Emperor
of Austria to issue a decree confiscating the properties
of the revolutionary refugees, but a bloody protest
was made against the measure on the 18th of February
when, by order of Kossuth and Mazzini a revolutionary
fanatic made a,n attempt against the life of the Empe-
ror. Lemmi was chosen to arm the assassin who was



a Hungarian and a mutual friend of both Kossuth and

Switzerland, under threat of severance of diplomatic
relations, was then obliged to banish indiscriminately
all political refugees.

Then came the Crimean war, the real causes of
which were known only to the chiefs of Freema-

England and Piedmont worked up a quarrel with
Russia about Turkey, over the respective spheres of
influence of the Christian Greek and Catholic churches
at Jerusalem. This rivalry was of little real consequence
either to England or Piedmont but it served to turn
France against Russia on the pretext of protecting

The truth was that for a long time, long before the
Hungarian insurrection of Kossuth, the secret chiefs
of masonry, headed by Lord Palmerston, had made a
plan according to which Prussia was to be exalted at the
expense of Austria, German unity was to be achieved
to the advantage of the Prussian monarchy, as well as
that of Italy to the benefit of the house of Savoy, and
a Polish Magyar state was to be created. 3

Fearing that the Hungarian insurrection might spread
to his Polish provinces, a community of monarchic
interests had impelled the Tsar to reach an under-
standing with the Austrian Emperor which had helped
to hinder the success of the Magyar revolutionaries.
Until this ” Entente ” could be broken up, the masonic

3. It is a curious fact that the book from which the above
is translated was written in 1894 and that these points were
actually achieved in 1919 at the Treaty of Versailles. The
machinery which the German monarchical power thought it
was using for its own ends, was already, in reality, being
guided by the unseen Jewish power controlling Freemasonry.



chiefs knew that German and Italian Unity would
remain a dream.

Austria was the dupe in this war. As for France, she
had to fight with the army of Piedmont so as to prepare
public opinion in both countries for the next move
against Austria.

All this had been combined by Lord Palmerston who
knew how to get his way with all the other secret chiefs,
not excepting Mazzini. Kossuth naturally favoured the
masonic programme. He wished death to the Tsar for
having caused him to lose his position in Hungary.
It is also easy to understand how Napoleon III was
drawn into the affair. The chiefs of the sect only had
to remind him of his oath as Carbonaro and show him
the laurels to be won.

” Mazzini and Kossuth urged on the Crimean war,
and English diplomacy prevented Austria from joining
Russia. From then on, that power, being opposed by
France, England, Piedmont and Turkey, faced inevitable
defeat, which happened after a war lasting two years.
Austria was separated for ever from Russia and was
punished for her ingratitude, for, without even waiting
for the end of hostilities, the Mason chiefs, who had
used her so successfully, started the work of revolution
on her territory. 4

This war served a great purpose for Adriano Lemmi.
It enabled him to get rich.

Through his relations with Mazzini and Kossuth,
he obtained contracts for Italian ambulances for the
Crimea. These he sent from Geneva. Pocketing a large
part of the money, he paid the rest with bad chequees
and fled to Malta. This was his first big theft, but his
flight did not prevent him and his two accomplices from

4. Margiotta, Adriano Lemmi, p. 18.



being condemned by default by the Swiss judge.

” On Jan. 4, 1855, Mazzini, chief of the Central
European Committee, — • the title Mazzini assumed
as leader of ‘ Young Europe ‘ — called a meeting

of his accomplices in London at which F.\ Felix
Pyat, the president of the branch group known as
the Communist Revolutionaries, was present. These
two committees were in correspondence with one in
Brussels, one in Jersey and one in Geneva. At this
meeting, the death of Charles III, Duke of Parma,
was unanimously voted, and Mazzini sent Lemmi a
passport in the name of ‘ Lewis Broom ‘ under the
protection of which he immediately left Malta for the
Duchy of Parma. During the one day he spent there,
he organized a secret meeting at Castel-Guelfo for
March 25, during which lots were drawn and a man
called Antonio Carra was thus duly selected by fate to
do the deed. Lessons in stabbing were then given on a
dummy and Adriano, who presided at the assembly,
adressing the assassin-elect said ” This day is the feast
of the Jesuits and nuns when they celebrate the appa-
rition to their Madonna of an angel announcing the
advent of the Messiah as her son. Brother, I announce
to thee that thou wilt be the Messiah of the Revolution
of Parma. I consecrate thee liberator of the oppressed,
saviour of tyrannized men. Strike the despot! Let not
thy hand falter. Our God, who is not the God of the
priests, will protect thee ! ”

Two days later, Charles III fell under the attack of
an alleged fanatic who made good his escape. The cir-
cumstances of the plot are known because Lemmi often
boasted of the part he played in it to Frapolli and others
who repeated the story.

Mazzini often acknowledged that his ” little Jew ”
was worth ten good men, so clever was he at choosing



the right men for important jobs, and so able at inspi-
ring them with the energy necessary for doing their


The Parma business greatly enhanced the value of
Lemmi in the eyes of the principal chiefs. He remained
incognito for several days at Sant’Ilario, but the revo-
lution did not come off, for the crime was received by
the people with horror, and the widow of Charles III,
the daughter of the Due de Berry, was proclaimed
regent for her son Robert, a child of six.

Still under the false name of Lewis Broom, Lemmi
went to Reggio, then to Modena, returning to the
duchy of Parma in the last days of June, where he pre-
pared the abortive insurrection of July 22, which
was quickly suppressed.

In January, 1855, the Piedmontese government sup-
pressed 334 religious institutions at the instigation of
the revolutionary societies which, thanks to complicity
under the guise of tolerance, were unhindered in the
development of their criminal resources.

Lemmi, who had at his disposal as many false papers
as might be necessary for his secret missions, again
changed his name. Armed with a Hungarian passport,
belonging to one of the henchmen of Kossuth, he went
to Rome under the name of ” Ulrick Putsch “, profes-
sional cook, and on June 12 there was an attempt to
kill Cardinal Antonelli! He immediately reappeared
at Genoa where, on the thirteenth of the month, a
manifesto was published by Mazzini, inciting the people
“to insurrection. This was spread by Lemmi in several
towns, notably even in Rome where, by a curious coin-
cidence, on July 9, the same day on which he returned
to the city of the popes, an attempt was made on
the life of Father Beckx, the General of the Jesuits.

In all these movements, in all these crimes where



Lemmi’s hand is not visible, those of his associates
always were.

Lemmi and Orsini — the latter also an agent of
Mazzini, had transmitted to the revolutionary com-
mittee of Milan their chiefs instructions in view of
an imminent uprising. Having received their instruc-
tions, Lemmi went to Switzerland with his Hungarian
passport, and Orsini, under the name of George Her-i
nash, went to Austria where an insurrection, timed to
occur simultaneously with that in Lombardy, was to
be fomented. Orsini was arrested at Hermanstadt,
in Transsylvania, brought back to Vienna and trans-
ferred to Mantua where he was judged and condemned
to death for high treason on August 20, 1855.

Locked up in the castle of San Giorgio, he succeeded
in escaping on the night of March 29th, 1856.

On November 13 of the same year, two other
agents of Mazzini were taken at Rome.

Under the pretext that the King of Naples was not
observing strict neutrality towards Russia, Lord Pal-
merston obtained the disgrace of Mazza, the Neapo-
litan Director of Police. In this move, he was aided by
Mazzini, who, having caused certain confidential papers
to be stolen, knew some things that were none of his
business. Mazza, devoted to the King, had been his
protector against the machinations of the secret societies.

Napoleon III, too, allowed himself to be influenced by
Palmerston who, as patriarch of European Freema-
sonry, favoured one of his pet projects. This involved
the appointment of Prince Murat, Grand Master of
the Grand Orient of France, to the throne of Naples
and the two Sicilies, and the elimination of the house
of Bourbon. England and France presently threatened
to send a squadron to Naples but owing to the protest
of Russia, the threat was never carried out.



In September, “1856, the European Committee decided
that the King of Naples should be assassinated and that
at the same time there should be an insurrection in
Sicily. A man named Baron de Bentivegna, who had
been introduced by an English high mason, Henri
Misley, to Mazzini in London, was entrusted with the
task of fomenting the trouble, while Lemmi took charge
of the murder. According to the plan, Ferdinand II
was to be blown up by a bomb thrown under his car-
riage by some fanatic selected by Lemmi.

Armed with two bombs, Lemmi went to Sicily. He
now travelled under a French passport, provided for
him by a friend through Ledru-Rollin, and made out
under the name of ” Jacques Lathuile “, merchant.

Everything was ready both in Palermo and Naples.
The dates of the assassination of the king and the
outbreak of the revolution were fixed for November
22, but the individual chosen to perform the deed,
Filippo Carabi, suddenly lost interest in the project
when he realized that the bomb destined for the king
would also inevitably prove fatal to himself.

Lemmi was angry over this unexpected check. It
was then too late to recruit another executioner but
the disobedient Sicilian was eventually punished, for,
five years later he was murdered in a Neapolitan lodge
where he had gone without apprehension. The archives
of the Directory of Naples contain the details of the
affair, the sequestration of Carabi in 1861, his accusation
before a secret tribunal, the terrible tortures to which
he was subjected and his last horrible agony, shrouded
in mystery.

Lemmi, now unable to have the assassination and
the plot coincide, stayed on nevertheless in Naples,
as he hoped to find a substitute for the defaulting



On the appointed day, November 22, Bentivegna
raised the banner of revolt at Cefalu, near Pa-

” Jacques Lathuile “, finding himself obliged to
substitute another for the bomb method of assassination,
induced a soldier called Agesilas Milano to attempt
the life of the king, so, while Ferdinand II was review-
ing his troops, Milano stepped forward and struck
him twice in the chest with his bayonet. Luckily for
the king, the instrument bent, failing even to wound
him. Milano was arrested, judged and shot, but Mazzini,
qualifying him as a martyr, had a commemoration
medal struck in his honour.

As for the insurrection in Sicily, it was suppressed,
Bentivegna was captured and shot on December 20,
but Lemmi-Lathuile left the country as soon as he
realized that things were not going well. His identity
was never revealed and can today only be definitely
established by the records of the secret masonic trial
of Filippo Carabi in the archives of the Directory of

In 1857, a splendid farce was enacted by Piedmont.
It has since been repeatedly proved that Cavour and
Rattazzi were in agreement with the Mazzinians and
the Garibaldians with regard to the scheme for a Uni-
ted Italy, under the house of Savoy — that is to say,
they favoured the dispossession of the legitimate sove-
reigns of the duchies of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, the
Papal States and the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, and
the wresting of Lombardy and Venice from Austria.
In the eyes of the European monarchs who were not
in the secret, Piedmont wished to appear innocent of
any connivance in the plot, and to have been forced
only reluctantly to acquiesce. The secretary and
faithful friend of Count Cavour was the Piedmontese



Isaac Artom, 5 while l’Olper, later rabbi of Turin
and also the friend and counsellor of Mazzini, was
one of the most open advocates of Italian Indepen-

A few Freemasons in English, French and Prussian
diplomacy alone knew what was being plotted, so the
International Committee of London decreed an up-
heaval in Tuscany for the year 1857 and, in order that
Piedmont might not be suspected of complicity, it
-was arranged that an insurrection should be staged
in that kingdom at the same time as the one in Tus-
cany. That was the comedy !

The insurrection occurred but failed in its object.

In London, the same year, Mazzini hatched a plot
against Napoleon III. It was not the first.

As the French Emperor did not seem sufficiently
active on behalf of Italian Unity, it was decided to
stimulate him by terror. Mazzini, Kossuth and Ledru-
Rollin were reinforced in the committee of London by
Herzen, Bakunin, Turr and Klapka and, early in the
year 1857, Paolo Tibaldi, Giuseppe Bartolotti and
Paolo Grilli were chosen by Mazzini and Ledru-Rollin
to kill Napoleon. Massarenti, another tool of Mazzini’s,
gave them fifty golden Napoleons when they left
for Paris to perpetrate the crime and, addressing them
before their departure, Mazzini said ” You will study
the habits of the Emperor and you will strike when you
find the opportunity favorable. ” Massarenti, Campa-
nella, Tibaldi, Grilli and Bartolotti, the active tools of
the plot, were all personal friends of Lemmi. To quote
the words of the Imperial Attorney at the hearing of
the Court of Assizes at Paris, August 7, 1857, when
Grilli was sentenced to deportation, Mazzini and Ledru-

5. Jewish Encyclopaedia, Art. ” Italy “.



Rollin were the chiefs of all plots the object of which
was assassination.

On January 14, 1858, at the door of the Opera
House in Paris, another attempt was made on the life
of the French Emperor. Three bombs killed eight and
wounded 156 persons. Some of the guilty were arrested
but others, among whom was our hero, Adriano Lemmi,
now masquerading under the name of James Mac-
Gregor, escaped. Lemmi had come to Paris ostensibly
to visit Giuseppe Mazzoni, his Tuscan compatriot,
then professor of languages in the French capital.
Orsini, who had taken the pseudonym of Alsop on
reaching Paris, Pierri, and Rudio the principal actors
in the drama were caught and condemned to death.
The first two were executed, Rudio’s sentence being
commuted to hard labour for life. Orsini was not un-
known to Napoleon III. Together, they had belonged
to the Lodge of Cesna as members of the Carbonari.
In 1874 the Giornale di Firenze published the account
of Napoleon’s visit to his imprisoned assassin who
warned him that, unless he showed a disposition to
help the Unity of Italy, other bombs were reserved
for him. Napoleon acquiesced, and one saw the famous
will of Felice Orsini published by the Imperial official
journal which enabled the French deputy Monsieur
Keller to remark before the legislative body on March
13, 1861, that “the Italian war was the execution of
the will of Orsini. ”

We must here be permitted a somewhat lengthy
digression unfolding the progress of political corrup-
tion and its affinity with secret societies.

As a result of the Orsini conspiracy, Palmerston
sponsored ” The Conspiracy to Murder ” Bill, a mea-
sure framed to hamper International Assassins in the
free use of English territory for hatching plots against



foreign potentates. The Bill passed its first reading
in Parliament, Disraeli voting for it, but at the second
reading, Milner Gibson, a Radical, moved an amend-
ment which was in effect a vote of censure on Palmers-
ton and a challenge to the French. ” This was eventually
carried by 19 votes, Disraeli’s support being, of course,
the decisive factor. An explanation of this change of
front is afforded in Ashley’s Life of Lord Palmerston.
Seated in the Peers’ Gallery, Lord Derby listened to the
debate, and watched the tide rising against the Prime
Minister. Convinced that he could be overthrown, he
” sent hasty word to his lieutenant that they should
take it at the flood which led to office, ” and thereupon
Disraeli ” plunged into the stream. ” 6

Lord Palmerston fell and was succeeded by Lord

Where does Disraeli — Lord Beaconsfield — come
into the scheme ? We know him as the author of many
novels that, while not being evidential, serve to show
the knowledge of their author on subjects of Inter-
national significance: He knew how things were done
and, like a naughty boy, told tales out of school.

Young Italy, Young Ireland, lastly Young England
with Disraeli as its founder. What do we really know of
Young England beyond what the Primrose League
would have us think ?

We know that Disraeli was always in debt, always
short of money and we know that people under such
conditions are seldom their own masters. Who were
his masters ?

Disraeli’s father, Isaac d’lsraeli, was offered the
leadership of their sect by the Jews of London. He
refused. Was it also offered to his son ?

6. E. T. Raymond, The Alien Patriot, p. 214.



Writing of Lord Beaconsfield, A. A. B. passes a
casual remark in the (London) Evening Standard
of Monday, October 29, 1928 — ” The name of the
heroine of Lothair, the work of his meridian, is that of
his wife. Mary Anne ruled the underworld of secret
societies. ” Are we to search there for the invisible
masters ?

A further light is thrown upon this epoch of English
history by no less an authority than the Encyclopaedia
Britannica, 9th Edition. In an article on Prince Metter-i
nich it says : — Metternich ” in one of his most earnest
writings places side by side, as instances of evil sought
for its own sake, the action of the secret societies in
Germany, the Carbonaria of Italy and the attempts
of the English to carry the Reform Bill! ”

We do know that the Reform Bill was one of Dis-
raeli’s victories !

Again one wonders at Metternich. That great reac-
tionary might well have disliked the Reform Bill but
this remark does not just indicate dislike — it is a
positive indictment when read with the knowledge
available to the historians of today.

Therein lies a singular coincidence of facts. On the
one hand, we have one of two statesmen, Metternich,
decrying the English Reform Bill and on the other,
Disraeli getting it passed in the English Parliament.
Yet, both men, ever impecunious, were ruled by money
coming from the same source, namely, the Rothschilds
who, in Austria as well as in London, were actively
becoming the masters of the national finances of both
countries. 7

In 1862, the First International came into being and
the part played in it by such Freemasons as Karl

7. Count Corti, The Reign of the House of Rothschild.



Marx, Tolain, Fribourg, Varlin, Camelinat, Beslay,
Malon and Corbon is well known.

But to return to the programme of Young Italy.

The Piedmontese were not quite satisfied with the
results of the hasty treaty of Villafranca (1859), but
the revolutionaries had attained their object as far as
Tuscany, the Duchies of Parma and Modena and the
Pontifical States were concerned, though they did
not dare to dispossess the Pope without some pre-
liminary political manoeuvres. The revolution in the
kingdom of the two Sicilies had failed again but it
was soon to succeed.

By way of retaliation, the International Committee
of London began a propaganda in Lombardy among
the students in the colleges as a result of which the
University of Pavia was forced to close. This movement
which started in December was the precursor of the
coming war. Lord Palmerston’s plan was in process
of realization.

To Francesco Crispi, a tool of Lemmi, was now as-
signed the task in which he and Bentivegna had failed.
He was in London when the news of the death by poison
of Ferdinand II reached the International Masonic
Committee. Mazzini’s tool in the poison plot was
Monsignor Caputo, a priest who had succeeded in
winning the confidence of the king as his confessor.
He was a Freemason, and a Sublime Maitre Parfait,
belonging to one of the most evil branches of the sect.
The poison was administered in a slice of melon and.
the king died in agony, on May 22, 1857.

Freemasonry had won, for Francis II, who now succee-
ded his father, was too young and inexperienced to be
able to cope with any serious political situation alone.

At this period, the states of Tuscany, Parma and.
Modena were trying to form a coalition but Dr. Farini,



a Freemason, had become dictator, and dictated regard-
less of popular sentiment. Lemmi was continually
running back and forth from England with instructions
from the London Committee to the local revolutionary
chiefs and, in his secret capacity, was very active
through the different assemblies where the votes of
the sold or terrorized members went for annexation
to Piedmont, regardless of the wishes of the majorities
in their constituencies.

Travelling under the assumed names of Emmanuel
Pareda and Toby Glivan, Crispi spent much of his
time during the next two years in Sicily as an agitator
fomenting trouble. A great uprising was planned for
Oct. 12, but, though Lemmi was there to help, their
combined efforts on that date were futile.

Still they persisted, and by propaganda and under-
ground work, they prepared for the great event of
1860. When Garibaldi, Grand Master ad vitam of
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites, at Palermo,
landed at Marsala with his famous ” thousand ” on
the 11th May, he found everything ready. His expe-
dition would, however, have failed had it not been for
the Piedmontese gold which bought the chief func-
tionaries of the King of Naples, one of whose ministers,
Liborio Romano, was chief of Sicilian Masonry and
presided at the Scottish Consistory at Naples. Fran-
cis’ friend and confidant, General Nunziante, Due
of Mignano, was bought by Cavour for four millions !

Organized at Genoa by Dr. Bertani, this suppo-
sedly spontaneous act of the famous general which
the government of Victor Emmanuel publicly disa-
vowed, was organized by Cavour who furnished the
money by drafts on Mr. Bombrini, director of the bank,
as proved by a letter, written by the King himself
to the American Commodore, William de Rohan.



June 27th 1860.


I enclose herewith Medici’s [one of Garibaldi’s generals]
two letters which you will put into other envelopes and give
to Cavour.

I have already given three millions to Bertani.

Return immediately to Palermo to tell Garibaldi that I
will send him Valerio instead of La Farina, and that he is
to advance at once on Messina, as Francesco [the King of
Naples] is on the point of giving the Neapolitans a consti-

Your friend,


This letter which was published in Rome, in 1881,
by the son of Victor Emmanuel in the Fanfulla with
an article by Commodore William de Rohan was never
challenged. Margiotta then adds — ” there is little
more to be said concerning the connivance of Cavour
and Garibaldi. Victor Emmanuel did nothing against
his wish as the official newspapers allege, for every-
thing that happened in 1860 was settled in advance.
It was necessary to save appearances and to deceive
Russian and Austrian diplomacy which was not in the
secret, so that was Cavour’s reason for allowing Gari-
baldi to play the part of an undisciplined revolutionary,
taking on himself alone the responsibility of his adven-

The policies of the Grand Master Cavour and the
Grand Master Mazzini, each representing two different
Masonic currents emanating from different sources,
met on the issue of the destruction of the Papacy which
it was hoped to submerge through the unification of

Cavour aimed at unity in the form of a constitutional
monarchy under the house of Savoy and Mazzini,



aiming at a republic, found himself forced into a com-
promise which obliged him to accept, temporarily at
least, a Piedmontese monarchy for United Italy.

The captain of Freemasonry was Garibaldi, the tool
of Palmerston, Cavour and Mazzini.

While working thus together and helping one an-
other, Mazzini and Cavour each followed an occult
personal and distinct line of action, the secrets of
which they did not share. Each in his mysterious work
had his chief agent, the man he trusted. The chief
agents of Cavour were his Jewish secretary Isaac Artom
and Carletti and the chief agents of Mazzini were his
Jewish secretaries, Wolf, Lemmi and L’Olper.

After the flight of the Grand Duke of Tuscany,
Lemmi went to Florence where, to better mask his
play, he became a banker. His patrons Mazzini and
Kossuth were never in want of money furnished either
by England or Masonry. He made money, practising
usury as a good Jew, charging it is said up to 200 and
300 per cent, but, in politics, he continued as a valuable
auxiliary to Mazzini.

Garibaldi and Mazzini wished to push on to Rome
but Victor Emmanuel thought it more prudent to
leave well enough alone for the time being, and the
Piedmontese government finally overruled the revo-
lutionaries. Mazzini and Crispi were even asked to
leave Naples by the authorities though Lemmi was
not molested.

Cavour knew him to be the secret agent of Mazzini
and had him watched and his record investigated but,
though he did not trouble himself much about him,
he wanted to insure himself against all anti-monar-
chist action on his part.

During this inquiry, he came across the records of
Lemmi’s youthful exploits at Marseilles in 1844, so



he asked the government of Napoleon III for an official
copy of this document which lay in the archives of
the Ministry of the Interior of the Italian government
for 31 years and proved a powerful weapon in the hands
of Victor Emmanuel, and Humbert I. Chafing under
the menace of the existence of this document however,
Lemmi induced Crispi in 1893 to arrange for its disap-
pearance, but this move was forestalled by an implac-
able enemy of Lemmi who succeeded in getting pos-
session of the famous paper. 8

In 1867, Lemmi entered into negotiations with the
Freemason Graf von Bismarck and the first projects of
alliance between Prussia and Italy date thenceforth.
Lemmi hated France as much as did Mazzini, so it
is not surprising to find them both intriguing with
Bismarck to bring about a Franco-Italian estrangement.

Napoleon III, by the convention of Sept. 15, 1864,
had established Rome and its surrounding territory
as distinct from the Kingdom of Italy, so that till
1870, the church still retained this last fragment of
its temporal possessions but, towards 1865, Mazzini
organized an association for Italian Unity, the object
of which was the Union of these States with the rest
of Italy, with Rome for the capital, according to Gari-
baldi’s programme. Mazzini however was afraid to
go to Rome without the consent of France, thinking
that the destruction of the temporal power of the Pope,
in the face of French opposition, could only be obtained
by means of a revolution.

No one is ignorant of the negotiations between
France, Austria and Italy in 1867, fruitless, because
of Napoleon’s refusal to accede to the proposal of the

8. The name of Diana Vaughan has been mentioned as that
of the person who obtained the paper.



Austrian minister de Beust to allow ” United ” Italy
freedom to march on Rome. France, subsequently
abandoned by Italy, met her fate at Sedan in 1870
and Bismarck used Mazzini and Italian Freemasonry
to break the Franco-Italian alliance and to force Victor
Emmanuel to take Rome in spite of the wishes of the
French people.

When the Franco-Prussian war broke out in 1870,
the time for revolution was ripe. In July, shortly after
the declaration of hostilities, the Italian revolutionaries
held a mass meeting in the theatre at Milan, organized
by the most notorious and dreaded agitators in Italy.
After this public meeting, there was a secret political
one attended by 15 high masons. Those present, accor-
ding to Oreste Cucchi, who was told of it by Fabrizi
himself, were : Doctor Timoteo Riboli, Francesco
Crispi, Colonel Cucchi, Asproni, Bertani, Fabrizi, Fra-
polli, Cairoli, Rattazzi, Seismit Doda, Morelli, Sineo,
Cosentini, Mancini and General Raffaelo Cadorna. The
object of this conference was to determine the line of
conduct to be adopted in the event of the defeat of
Napoleon’s army, and it was decided to send Cucchi
to Bismarck to obtain from the Prussian government
the necessary arms to go to Rome should Victor
Emmanuel persist in his attitude of vacillation. Cucchi
accomplished his mysterious mission, and Bismarck
concluded a deal whereby Prussia was to furnish guns
and money to the Italian revolutionaries, in return for
which they were to keep up agitation to prevent an
Italian alliance with the French nation.

Everything was ready. Still, Victor Emmanuel hesi-

Public opinion was rapidly being manufactured with
the assistance of Bismarck’s money, so the deputies of
the Left who signed a petition for the occupation of



Rome, on being asked what they would do if the minis-
try refused their demand answered ” We will make
barricades and with the people we will go to Rome
without you ! ”

The government then decided to act, and General
Cadorna, who had already been selected by Free-
masonry to lead a popular army should the govern-
ment not wish to send him there in an official capacity,
marched on Rome.

The operations of war began on September 15,
1870, and on September 20, at five o’clock in the
morning, the cannon of Cadorna settled the Roman
question. The Porta Pia was forced. The sacrifice was
accomplished. Freemasonry had triumphed.

But Freemasonry had won again when, according
to Mr. George d’Heylli, writing in February 1871, 9
” Mr. Gambetta, who was the arbitrary master of that
country’s (France) destiny during the three months
that his dictatorship lasted, was able, without anyone
daring to oppose his conduct, to misuse his power in
order to unsettle the country and satisfy his own ambi-
tions. He trampled the country’s laws under foot, by
slighting the most elementary rules of civilised society,
by hunting from their benches magistrates immovibles,
and from the council chambers those who had been
elected by suffrage, by taking the war into his own
hands, by promoting and depriving officers of their
rank, by suddenly changing , according to his own
whims and fancies or those of his advisers, his opinions,
schemes and plans. ”

Such indeed is the example given by all the dema-
gogues who act in the name of ” The People ” !
In the discussion concerning the fate of the fomen-

9. P. B. Gheusi, Gambetta, Life and Letters, pp. 11 and 302.



ters of the Commune, Gambetta made one of his most
eloquent speeches, the result of which was that a vote
of amnesty was passed in their favour.

In 1871, he further consolidated his power by issuing
a decree declaring that the former servitors of the Empire
would be ineligible to membership in the National
Assembly which was convened to ratify the treaty
with Prussia.

By this time, Adriano Lemmi had attained prosperity
and become the owner of vast estates near Florence.

Mazzini died on March 11, 1872, and, at his request,
Lemmi was appointed by Albert Pike to succeed him
as chief of the Sovereign Executive Directory.

In 1870, the Marquis of Ripon, who had succeeded
the Earl of Zetland as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge
of England, resigned his office and became a Roman
Catholic. He was succeeded by the Prince of Wales,
later to be Edward VII, King of England, received
Knight Kadosch in 1882 on Jan. 28, and Affilie Supe-
rieur, Grand Orient, in 1883. 10

Adriano Lemmi, a Palladist, though not yet a member
of the Supreme Council of Rome, soon concluded that
the secret superior authority conferred on him could
best be enhanced in Italy by smashing the various
Supreme Councils for the benefit of one. Unity of Italian
Masonry was then his aim. Success in this project
depended on slow, deliberate manoeuvring, secrecy
concerning his palladist affiliation, temporary restric-
tion of the number of triangles in the peninsula and,
above all, forbearance in dealing with the rival powers
established in the ordinary rites.

In 1875, the scene of Masonic intrigue had shifted
to England. The Khedive of Egypt, being at the time

10. Rosen, L’ennemi social, for oath taken by Edward VII.



financially embarrassed offered his shares in the Suez
Canal Co. for sale.

” The Due Decazes, French Minister of Foreign
Affairs, failed to inform the French authorities of the
Khedive’s predicament, while the Rothschilds “, (on
the information of their Egyptian agent, Ambroise
Cinadino) ” secretly advanced to Disraeli, then Prime
Minister of England, the necessary funds to deliver
the controlling interest of the canal to Britain, thus
striking an International Coup d’etat, the significance
of which was only dimly appreciated when, in the
following year, Disraeli had Queen Victoria proclaimed
Empress of India. ” 11

Thus the controlling interest of the great waterway
to the East was vested in England to have and to hold,
till the British Empire, about to be created, should
cease to serve the purpose of its makers.

In June 1877, Adriano Lemmi 12 became an ordinary
member of the Grand Orient of Italy at Rome, of
which Giuseppe Mazzoni was Grand Master, keeping
this affiliation secret till 1883, when he let it be known
that he was joint Grand Master with Giuseppe Petroni.

” At this date, the rivalry for supremacy in Scottish
Rites had become acute, for the Roman Grand Orient
wished to dominate over the Supreme Council of Italy
at Turin, of which Timoteo Riboli was Grand Master.
The Grand Commander of the Roman Supreme Council
was Senator Colonel George Tamajo, though its real
chief was Luigi Castellazzo. With the secret aid of the
latter and the further assistance of Count Piancini,
Tamajo was induced to abdicate his rights for 50,000
francs, and on January 21, 1885, the Supreme Council

11. E. T. Raymond, The Alien Patriot.

12. Margiotta, Adriano Lemmi, op. cit., pp. 104-105.



of Rome was absorbed by the Grand Orient of Italy.

All Lemmi now required to complete his victory was
to absorb the Supreme Council of Turin, but Riboli,
the only real and legitimate representative of Italian
Freemasonry, recognized by the Convention of Universal
Scottish Rites at Lausanne, in 1875, and by all the
Masonic powers of the world, had no wish to part with
a source of revenue or to defer to the little Jew at Rome
who was invested with no recognized superior autho-

Lemmi, who well knew that his secret title of Palla-
dist chief assured him eventual supremacy, addressed
himself to the Sovereign Pontiff at Charleston, Albert
Pike, to whom he explained the danger to Italian
Masonry of such intense dissensions and the necessity
for fusion in the great struggle against the Vatican,
stating further that the authority of Rome, the capital
of Italy since 1870, must be recognized by the foreign
Masonic powers.

His reasons appealed to the Sovereign Pontiff of
Universal Freemasonry who, in November 1886, en-
tirely disarmed Riboli by promising him an indemnity
of 30,000 francs. Riboli acquiesced and the money was
handed out from the central fund of the order.

In the Supreme Administrative Directory of Berlin,
the payment of this sum is recorded in the balance sheet
of 1887 under the heading of exceptional expenses in
the following terms :

” Suppression of the Supr. \ Cons.-, of Italy sitting
at Turin. Extraordinary indemnity allowed to F . • . T. R-
on the proposal of the F. – . A. L. and approved by the

secret committee of Feb. 28th, 30,000 francs.

Before pocketing his 30,000 francs, Riboli raised a

13. Margiotta, op. cit, pp. 105 et seq.



great row, abusing Lemmi and objecting to the fusion
of the Supreme Council of Turin with that of Rome.
Ignoring the fact that in 1885 Tamajo had received
50 000 francs for the same reason, he sent protests
broadcast in the shape of balustres demonstrating the
legality of the supreme Council of Turin and the ille-
gality of that of the Roman Centre.

Many Freemasons rallied to his assistance. A great
movement was started to do away with the despotism
of Lemmi, and numerous Lodges were founded under
the ” obedience of Turin. ”

Lemmi however, being Chief of Political Action in
high masonry, had a great advantage over his opponents,
but he could not make good his title before the lodges,
nine-tenths of whose members ignored the very exis-
tence of Universal Central Masonry, the secret of which
was to be kept under penalty of death. On the other
hand, this was solely a matter concerning Scottish
Rites for the protection of which the Supreme Council
of Switzerland existed as the Executive power of the
Scottish Confederation. This council is distinctly separ-
ate from the secret executive of Central high masonry
whose one concern is international politics, so no con-
fusion was possible.

During a nine months’ campaign, Lemmi’s opponents
gained many adherents for Riboli, who, suddenly
reversing his position, capitulated on the intervention
of Albert Pike. Thirty thousand francs had done the trick.

For the benefit of his dupes, Pike had deceitfully
declared in the fundamental constitution of high masonry
that the Constitution, Statutes and Regulations of
each rite would always be respected by Charleston.
In order to propitiate Lemmi, he tore up that rite of
which Riboli believed him to be the Patriarch and
President !



The Supreme Council of Lausanne was much embar-
rassed inasmuch as, where Scottish Rites was concern-
ed, it was obliged to admit that Lemmi’s opponents
were in the right, and that as a Scottish Rites Mason
he, as Petroni’s successor, the Chief of Political Action
of secret high masonry, was a rebel.

In an effort to beat the devil around the bush, Riboli
and Tamajo, pretending to take Lemmi as their
temporary delegate, accepted for themselves the empty
honorary title of Sovereign Grand Commander ad
vitam, while Lemmi became Sovereign Grand Command-
er delegate invested with the real power.

Italian Freemasonry was united. A meeting was
convened at Florence in January 1887, by Tamajo and
Riboli at which seven brothers from Rome and seven
from Turin, under orders from Charleston, ratified this

Lemmi misappropriated masonic funds and profited
by his position to exploit everyone, during which
period of frenzied finance, he pocketed over four hun-
dred thousand francs. Many complaints of his conduct
were sent to the Supreme Directory at Charleston but
while passing through the hands of Phileas Walder
who shared in the loot, anything to Lemmi’s discredit
was suppressed, never reaching Pike who trusted him
till the end.

It was in 1881 that Lemmi had embarked on his
campaign for the dechristianization of Italy, giving,
under his invisible direction, an organization to the
scattered forces of anticlericalism. Mazzini had made
no mistake for Lemmi persecuted the church with a
savage hatred.

During a Masonic congress held at Milan in 1881, the
following resolutions were adopted : —




Measures are to be taken to counteract the work of the
institutions known as ” (Euvres Pies ” (Charitable Works)
which were founded by Clericalism to corrupt the people
under the misnomer of Charity. The morals of the country
thus endangered need reforming as well as the laws.


Women are henceforth to be eligible for Freemasonry and
feminine lodges are to be founded as soon as possible.


It is deemed necessary by the congress to establish work-
men’s lodges in the city as well as in the country. These
lodges to be free, except for a nominal fee to cover unavoid-
able expenses.


It is decided to institute a corps of secret masonic mes-
sengers whose mission is to transmit to all lodges the orders
and instructions of the chief. These messengers are to be
chosen from among Masons having no personal encumbrances
and whose devotion to the order has been of long standing.
They are to be registered at no particular lodge deriving
their powers directly from the central authority of Italian


A corps of brother propagandists, themselves unknown
as Masons, is to be created. They are to travel from town
to town as peddlers and merchants of all kinds, spreading
everywhere, notably among the rural populations, opinions
favourable to masonry. In the course of their peregrinations
hey are to abstain from visiting local masonic lodgss and
are to be known as ” Travelling Brothers. ”




Should the order wish to initiate a personage of very high
social rank or one who, in the opinion of the Grand Master
should happen to be in a position demanding the strictest
secrecy, his initiation need be known only to the Assistant
Grand Master or the Grand Secretary and the Grand Trea-


The congress declares the solution of the social questions
and the winning for the legitimate workers of their rights
to be its chief concern. The Lodges are authorized to hold
debates on the most practical means of obtaining govern-
mental support for all measures tending to abolish paupe-
rism and the improvement of the lot of the working classes.

This, the seventh resolution of the Congress, to be made


The liberal forces of Italy are to be secretly organized and
the lodges are to act in such a way as to gain for Freemasonry
a majority of the national representation in Parliament.

The Congress adopts for Italy the rule passed by the
Grand Orient of France in 1848, under the title “Masonic
rules to be followed with regard to elections. ”


The Congress declares the chief object of the efforts of
Italian Freemasonry to be, for the present, to obtain from
the government : —

a — The regulation of the ecclesiastical patrimony, the
property of which belongs to the state and the administra-
tion of which belongs to the civil powers :

b — The strenuous application of all existing laws
guaranteeing to the civil society its independence with
regard to clerical influence :



c — The enforcement of existing laws by virtue of which
religious congregations are to be suppressed, and the sugges-
tion of measures calculated to prevent these laws from being
evaded :

d — The promulgation of the law relating to the pro-
perty of religious bodies (confiscation) :

e — The suppression of all religious instruction in the
schools :

j — . The creation of schools for young girls where the
pupils can be protected from any kind of clerical influence.


Finally the Congress decided to create by masonic initia-
tive one great, politically non-partisan, anti-clerical party
whose object would be to fight and destroy clericalism by
any and all means.

Adriano Lemmi promptly obeyed Pike’s orders and
the resolutions of the Congress which he himself had
dictated, by establishing in Rome on July 13, 1881,
ten anticlerical auxiliary lodges, the foundation
expenses of which were paid by the Supreme Direc-
tory of Rome. By his order, similar lodges were founded
in almost every important town of the peninsula.

Lemmi is a Satanist and he organized the anti-
clerical movement as a Satanist. 14 Besides his effort to
destroy the church, he led a movement to spread ” The
Nature Cult ” well knowing that the secret protection
of this sect would always be afforded him in the event
of that of the anti-catholic government of Italy being
withdrawn. This sect does not as yet dare to reveal
its supreme aim as, say the chiefs, ” the world is not
yet ready to receive enlightenment by the true light. ”

• The reader must remember that at the date when the
above was written by Margiotta, Lemmi was still alive.



So Lemmi first preached Lucifer and then fought
Christianity by combating the idea of the supernatural!

All his discourses and manifests were composed
either by Ulisse Bacci, an atheist, or Umberto dal
Medico, a Luciferian.

His instructions to the Italian anticlericals were also
put into operation by the Freemasons of other coun-
tries, for the supreme object of the sect is the suppres-
sion, by a terrible social upheaval, of the religion of
God, and its substitution by that of Satan, known to
the dupes of Masonry as ” The Great Architect of the
Universe. ”

On November 21, 1888, Lemmi wrote Pike a letter
appealing for help in his fight against the Vatican. The
letter closed with the following paragraph : —

” Help us in our struggle against the Vatican, thou
whose authority is supreme, and under thy impulse all
the lodges of Europe and America will rally to our
cause. ”

Pike needed little urging and immediately fell in
with Lemmi’s plans.

On March 30th, 1889, the Mother Lodge Archimede
took the initiative in an effort to shake off Lemmi’s
tyrannical yoke by announcing the formation of ” The
Masonic Federation of the Independent Lodges of
Italy. ” Lemmi was much perturbed by this effort at
secession which he finally succeeded in crushing by the
use of the power of gold. After the Federation had called
a second congress, he sent one of his secret agents to
Palermo with ten thousand francs to buy off the Scelsi
brothers. Discord was thus sown in the ranks of the
Federation. Soon, the disintegration was complete,
the centre of Palermo vanished and opposition was

Towards this period, Lemmi got control of the



Italian tobacco monopoly through which he succeeded,
by swindling methods, in acquiring several millions.
The whole affair was aired in Parliament but the inti-
midated deputies voted to save the reputation of the
sect and in order to suppress the scandal, although
Colonel Achille Bizzoni, Depute Matteo Renato, Impriani
Poerio and several newspapers took up the matter and
made a great row which ended in the usual way when
the public gets tired of a subject.

As a result of Lemmi’s politics in the elections of
1890, no decent honest and independent candidate
for political position had a chance of being elected
against one of his hand-picked nominees. Italian poli-
tics became a Freemasonic monopoly and the people
were mercilessly exploited by the dregs of society
backed by Lemmi and his money, much of which was
extorted from the Banca Romana.

On April 2, 1891, Albert Pike died and was suc-
ceeded in the supreme Grand College of Masons by
Albert George Mackey, who held the post for two years
and five months. There were great rivalries between
the members of Pike’s staff, and Albert George Mackey
was chosen as a compromise candidate who was un-
likely to interfere seriously with any of the others.

With neither strength of character, energy nor
activity, he was no match for Lemmi who aspired to
the supreme Masonic power as well as to the handling
of the Masonic central funds for the expenditure of a
large part of which no account was required by the
Supreme Directory at Berlin.

The International organization was now a formidable
machine composed of 77 triangular provinces, the
archdiocese of high masonry and 33 Lotus Mother
Lodges, the founder lodges and generators of Palladism.

With Phileas Walder as accomplice, Lemmi lost



no time in starting to undermine the power of Char-
leston, but to realize this project it was first necessary
to create a movement in the triangular provinces. To
this end, he employed his secret political agents of
the Executive Directory of Rome, practically all of
whom were Jews. These agents were registered in the
central directory only by a number and a special
Masonic name and were unknown even to the Grand
Masters of the provincial lodges as well as to the
brothers and sisters at the head of a Lotus Mother

His particular agent in London in 1893 was supposed
to be an old Piccadilly Jew called Daniel Mold. The
came under which he was registered for this Triangular
province, in the Grand Central Directory at Naples,
was Adam-Kadzmoun, the magical value of the letters
of which, when added, give the total of 244 exactly
as do the letters of his real name.

Lemmi was not forced to rely solely upon his special
agents, for he also had the unanimous support of the
powerful secret Jewish lodges.

By the decree of Sept. 12, 1874, which confirmed
a treaty signed by Armand Levi for the Jewish B’nai
B’rith (brothers of the Alliance) of America, Germany
and England and the supreme authority of Charleston,
Albert Pike authorized the Jewish Freemasons to form
a secret federation functioning side by side with the
ordinary lodges. This secret society was to bear the
title of Sovereign Patriarchal Council and its Universal
centre was to be at Hamburg, Valentinskamp Strasse.
In subscriptions alone, it collected one million four
hundred thousand francs a year which were used for
general Jewish propaganda. 15

15. At that date the franc was at 5 to the dollar.



Under the terms of this document (given in full on
p. 225 of Adriano Lemmi by D. Margiotta), Jewish
Masonry, unlike Gentile Masonry, was not to be graded,
its members were exempt from belonging to any other
official rite and ” the secret of its existence ” was to be
most strictly kept by those members of High Masonry
who had been informed by the Supreme Dogmatic
Directory of its existence. 16

The latter clause in the agreement is. undoubtedly
responsible for the equivocal attitude of all High Masons
with regard to the past and present, national and inter-
national, secret political activities of the B’nai B’rith.
In the interests of humanity, the conspiracy of secrecy
should be revealed, for the control of the international
balance of power and the possibilities of the interna-
tional spy system thus established, are a menace to the
welfare and peace of the peoples of the world.

” A Jew of French descent, this Armand Levi, above
referred to, had attached himself to the Napoleons
at an early time and was employed by them in
various ways… As a member of the ” International ”
he represented the possibilities of an Imperial Socia-
lism… and when the barricades were built, his name
was in the Commune and his voice was raised for the

16. De la Rive, Les Juifs dans la Franc-Magonnerie. Re
treaty between the B’nai Br’ith and the supreme authority
at Charleston.

Translation. ” … Albert Pike and the Jew Armand Levy
affixed their Palladian signatures to this document. Armand
Levy styled himself — 33 Lieutenant grand assistant and
sovereign delegate of the Grand Central Directory of Naples,
honorary member ad vitam of the Sublime Federal Consistory
of the B’nai B’rith of Germany, acting as general agent for
this Consistory as well as those of America and England,
the various federations of the B’nai B’rith having given him
full powers… ”



extremist counsels. He it was who rose in the Hotel de
Ville, to ask that all the deputies of Paris should be
summoned from Versailles, and if they would not come
should be deposed, convicted, and condemned to
death. ” 17

It was indeed in the heart of the Jewish lodges that
the plans to manufacture the public opinion necessary
to the success of Lemmi’s ambitious project were made,
and what actually happened was the result of a plot
of the Sovereign Patriarchal Council of Hamburg
against the Supreme Dogmatic Directory of Charleston.

Hamburg won in the end and the secret Jewish
control of the powerful machine of International
Masonry was assured.

The Jewish Lodges were Lemmi’s willing tools, and
fifty thousand Masons, simultaneously Palladists and
members of the Hamburg federation, under orders
given by the Jewish agents in the pay of the Chief of
Political action, made over a period of three months,
in the triangles and secret Jewish lodges, a splendid
propaganda calculated to induce discussion and approval
of the transfer of the Supreme Dogmatic Directory of
Charleston to Rome. Everywhere, by every means, the
agents of Lemmi worked indefatigably to create a
demand for the removal of the headquarters of the
order from Charleston to Rome, on the pretext that the
power of the Vatican could be better fought at close
quarters. These reclamations of a noisy minority were
then magnified for the benefit of the Grand Council
of Masons at Charleston into a threat of imminent
secession and, after much manoeuvring, Phileas Walder
succeeded in inducing George Mackey and the American

17. Onslow Yorke, Secret History of The International, pp. 52
and 55-56.



Masons to sign the decree convening the Sovereign
Convention. Walder, having remarked that Lemmi was
not to be a candidate for the Supreme Grand Mastership
in case of the passage of a vote of transfer of which he
maintained there was no danger, seeing that the majo-
rity of the triangles favoured Charleston as the seat
of High Masonry, the American Masons, over confident
of the outcome of the convention, overlooked the
importance of the choice of the town in which it was
to meet.

On May 20, 1893, after all the delegates had
been elected, Lemmi suddenly launched his decree
of chief organizer appointing Rome as the convention

Had everything been straight, Charleston would
have come out of the trial of the secret Convention
with a majority of 52 votes, for only 25 provinces
favoured the move to Rome, but to Lemmi, all ways,
including bribery and crime, were good.

On the eve of the opening of the Convention, four-
teen of the delegates favouring Charleston were sud-
denly taken ill, and elections for substitute delegates
were held in five of the Grand Triangles but in the
remaining nine, the provincial Grand Masters, owing
to lack of time or some other reason, referred the
matter by telegram to Charleston. George Mackey
answered ” Send Bovio proxy to provide a European
substitute. ”

It was suicide. Bovio, Grand Master General of the
Grand Central Directory of Naples, and his lieutenants
were entirely devoted to Lemmi in whom George Mackey
continued blindly to confide. The nine sudden illnesses
of the American delegates (the only ones he knew of)
had failed to open his eyes and he continued counting
52 votes against the transfer !



Apart from two or three American delegates, all
those who landed in England in August and were enter-
tained by the Mother Lodge of the Lotus of England
in the secret temple at 32, Oxford Street (Frascati’s)
were oblivious of the imminent crisis.

When the Grand Central Directory of Naples received
these proxies, nine Italian delegates were named to
represent Cleveland, Memphis, Guatemala, Havana,
Caracas, Lima, La Paz, Treinta-y-Tres and Port Louis,
one of whom abstained from voting while the rest
cynically voted against the wishes of the province
they represented.

The count of the ballots gave the following result
out of 77 delegates :

48 delegates for the transfer to Rome,

25 delegates against the transfer to Rome,
4 delegates not voting the transfer to Rome.

After this essentially fraudulent transfer of the real
masonic power from Charleston to Rome, the rest
was easy.

The ten Masons of Charleston retained their empty
titles in an honorary capacity while Lemmi, now self-
styled Sovereign Pontiff, named ten other active
Masons, but owing to the difficulties attendant on the
meetings of these widely dispersed magnates, he created
a Supreme Triangle, with two assistants Carducci and
Ferrari, the members of which were : —

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Germany, Findel (Kether-368)
at Leipzig.

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, of India, Hobbs (Khokhma-
926) at Calcutta.

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Hungary, Antal de Berecz
(Binah-721) at Budapest.

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Australia, W. J. Clarke (Khe-
sed-409) at Melbourne.



Patriarch Emeritus Mason, England, David Sandeman
(Din-476) at London. 18

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, France, Floquet, (Tiphereth-
1255) at Paris.

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Egypt, Gerasimos Poggio
(Netzakh-1 165) at Alexandria.

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Spain, Miguel Morayta (Hod-
816) at Madrid.

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Chili, B. Alamos-Gonzales
(Iesod-1152) at Valparaiso.

Patriarch Emeritus Mason, Belgium, Goblet dAlviella

International Masonry under Lemmi becomes Satanic
and Jewish,

International Jewry has much to explain !

Lemmi died in 1896 and was succeeded by Ernesto
Nathan, an English Jew, who, in view of the intimacy
which had existed between his mother, Sarah Nathan and
Mazzini, was said to have been the latter’s natural son.

Lemmi left a son called Silvano Lemmi.

In 1895, a schismatic masonic group calling itself
the Grand Orient of Italy was founded. On March 5,
1899, it held a meeting at which it adopted a consti-
tution of its own after which Lemmi’s Grand Orient
and the new one settled down to a state of secret civil

Secrecy was imperative for, prior to 1895, the row

18. According to ” The Royal Blue Book ” for January 1895,
p. 1065, Mr. Hugh David Sandeman’s London address was
33, Golden Square. In Devil Worship in France, Mr. Waite
refers to 33, Golden Square as the address of the Supreme
Council of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

Until two years ago, this address was that of the Faculty
of Arts, where lectures and concerts were given in a Masonic



between the various Masonic factions had become so
acute that the profane public had begun to get seriously
interested in the Political Masonic affairs of the conten-
ding factions.

The outcome of this dispute was the exposures made
in the following books :

Memoires d’une Ex-Palladiste and Le 33° Crispi, by Diana

Le Palladisme and Y a-t-il des femmes dans la franc-
Magonnerie, by Leo Taxil.

Adriano Lemmi, by Domenico Margiotta.

Le Diable au XIX” Steele, by Dr. Bataille.

La Femme et I’Enfant dans la Franc-Magonnerie and La
Franc-Magonnerie Universelle, by A. de la Rive.

L’Ennemie Sociale, by Paul Rosen.

Satan et Cie, by Paul Rosen.

To inaugurate a policy of suppression these revela-
tions were shown to have been a hoax, a mystification.
The manoeuvre was successful. On the 19th of April,
1897, the author, writing under the pseudonym of
Diana Vaughan, mysteriously disappeared and Leo
Taxil publicly repudiated his own allegations against

Once again the public heard, believed and forgot.

What happened to Palladism, the super rite ? 19 .

19. Domenico Margiotta, Le Palladisme, p. 32. Quotation
from La Croix du Dauphine. May 18th 1895.

… ” Doctor Domenico Margiotta has given us the following
details which complete the telegram which, thanks to him,
we published two days ago, on the discovery of the Temple
of Satan at Rome : —

” Naturally the agents of the Borghese family were admitted
without hindrance to all the halls and rooms of the palace,
with the exception of one which was closed, and which the
satanic keepers refused obstinately to open. Then the agents



At the foot of page 76 of Mrs. Nesta Webster’s
Secret Societies, we find the following note : ” Thus
Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, omits
all reference to Satanism before 1880 and observes :

The evidence of the existence of either Satanists or
Palladists consists entirely of the writings of a group of
men in Paris. ‘

” It then proceeds to devote five columns out of the six
and a half which compose the article to describing the
works of two notorious romancers, Leo Taxil and
Bataille. There is not a word of real information to be
found there. ”

Indeed we owe Mrs. Webster a debt of gratitude for
thus drawing our attention to this curious effort in
an otherwise presumably reliable work, to eliminate
certain phases of religious history. Those phases are
the personal histories of Albert Pike, the Great Free-
mason and Giuseppe Mazzini, the Great Revolutionist.

of the proprietor of the premises, (Prince Borghese) insisted
on being allowed entrance to that room and threatened finally
to have the door forced.

” In the face of such a threat, the guards of Lemmi were
compelled to give in and the representatives of the lessor
entered the palladian temple.

” Its lateral walls were hung with magnificent red and
black damask draperies. At the further end was a great piece
of tapestry upon which was the figure of Satan at whose feet
“was an altar. Here and there were arranged triangles, squares
and other symbolic signs of the sect as well as books and masonic
rituals. All around stood gilt chairs. Each of these, in the mould-
ing which capped its back, had a glass eye, the interior of
which was lighted by electricity, while in the middle of the
temple stood a curious throne, that of the Great Satanic

Owing to the state of terror into which this unexpected
sight plunged them, the visitors beat a hasty retreat without
further examination of the premises. ”



The photostats and documents here appended show
the re-organization of the super-rite under the general
name of Illuminism, linked as we know with ” Societas
Rosicruciana in Anglia “. Patents of the Ancient Order
of Oriental Templars, then in its embryonic stages
(1902) are also shown.

In 1917, this organization unobtrusively declared
itself the super rite.

The history of the Ancient Order of Oriental Tem-
plars is given on a subsequent page.



Freemasonry, as the average mason sees it, teaches
brotherhood and many worthy and exalted principles.
It is primarily a charity organization and only good
men are eligible to its ranks. To them the G in the
Pentagon means God, but needless to say, if its teaching
were not of a noble idealistic character it would make
few proselytes.

Within the lodges, and among the members thereof,
are members of other rites which the British Mason
is deliberately taught contemptuously to refuse to
acknowledge as Masonic. Many of these are the recrui-
ting sergeants for the secret societies who make their
selection at leisure, choosing only such initiates as
seem to them likely to serve their ends.

Once in the higher grades, a man who has, too late,
been found to be intractable, can continue to the
highest visible point of initiation along the track pre-
pared by those who mean him to know nothing. All is
beautiful, all is noble, he sees only the best, and for
ever advertises the goodness of Freemasonry.

Though in this capacity he may do nothing else,
he becomes an important factor in recruiting.

It is frequently alleged that no English Mason is




permitted to attend a Lodge meeting of the Grand
Orient or of any other so called irregular masonry.
This is nonsense !

If such a statement is to be considered, how are we
to reconcile the fact that Wm. Wynn Westcott, an
English Mason, appointed Junior Grand Deacon to
the Grand Lodge of England in 1902 and the head of
the ” Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia ” and ” Golden
Dawn, ” was also the Secretary of the Rite of Swe-
denborg, Knight Kadosch in Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rites, Grand Standard Bearer, Royal Arch,
Grand Lodge of England, and Regent of the Illuminati
and on intimate terms with one of its founders, the
German, Theodore Reuss 33° 90° 96°.

Among his other titles, Theodore Reuss included
the following : — Magus Supremus in Mundo of the
Esoteric Rosicrucians, Fra. Superior and Outer Head
in Mundo of the Ancient Order of Oriental Templars
(O. T. O.); Sovereign Grand Master General ad vitam
of the Ancient Rites of Masonry, Memphis and Mizraim
Rites of Masonry for the German Empire and its depen-
dencies : Terniasimus Regens of the I. – . 0.\ ; Sf:
I:*c 33°, etc., etc.

To further emphasize the interlocking character
of this organization, we print herewith a partial list
of the Masonic offices held by John Yarker, quoted
from an article published in The Equinox Volume X,
1913 under the title : ” In Memoriam “.

May this end for ever the oft repeated fable of Bri-
tish Masonic isolation !


Royal Grand Commander of the Rose Croix and Kadosch,
1868 to 1874.


Scottish Rite of 33° (and received certificate dating from
1811), January 27th, 1871.

Admitted 33° of Cerneau Rite and Honorary Member in
New York, August 21st, 1871.

Installed Grand Master, 96° of Ancient and Primitive
Rite at Freemasons Hall, London, October 8th, 1872.

Absolute Sovereign Grand Master, Rite of Mizraim, 90°,
from 1871 down to the present time.

Received over twelve patents of 33° of the Supreme Council
in various parts of the world.

Past Senior Grand Warden of Greece by Patent, July
1st, 1874.

Hon. Member of Lodge 227, Dublin, 1872, and of various
foreign bodies 1881-3. Among these he received the ” Crown
of Kether, ” admitting to the 5° of the Grand Lamaistique
Order of Light.

In 1882-3 he acted as General Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Grand
Chancellor of the Confederated Rites, which he arranged
throughout the world.

Hon. Grand Master of the Sovereign Grand Council of
Iberico, October 5, 1889.

Rite of Swedenborg : In 1876 he was appointed Supreme
Grand Master for the United Kingdom under the Charter
of T. G. Harrington, P. G. Master of Craft Grand Lodge of
Canada; Colonel W. Bury M’Leod Moore, Grand Master of
Templars, 33°, and Geo. C. Longley. 33°.

Elected Imperial Grand Hierophant, 97°, in Ancient and
Primitive Rite, November 11, 1902.

Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Germany,

Hon. Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Cuba (by patent),
January 5, 1907.

Hon. Grand Master ad vitam of the United Sup. Grand
Council of Italy at Firenze, and of the Society Alchemica,
etc., etc., 1910-12.

He also was interested in many of the concordant orders,
and held office in several. He was appointed President of
Sat Bhai of Prag, and was co-sponsor from 1871 to 1912.



Head of the Rite of Ishmael in England in succession to
Dr. Mackenzie and Major F. G. Irwin.

Chief of the Red Branch of Eri in succession to Major
F. G. Irwin.

High Priest of the 7th degree of Knight Templar priests,
Manchester, revived from 1868 to 1875.

More over from the correspondence of Theodore Reuss,
we find that John Yarker was also the Delegate from
the Supreme Conseil Martiniste de France.

Again we find that this same Theodore Reuss, above
mentioned, seems to become eligible in the eyes of Wm.
Wynn Westcott and John Yarker to be the founder of
the six Swedenborg Lodges in Germany, chiefly on the
grounds that he was an English Mason!

Presently, we find that Theodore Reuss, English
Mason, is the Delegate of the A. and P. Rite of Mem-
phis from Spain and Bulgaria to Germany, and from
Germany to England. Later we find him on intimate
terms with Papus, the head of the Martinist order in

Turning to the photostat of a patent which we repro-
duce we find a document which speaks for itself. It is
signed Theodore Reuss 33° 90° 96°. John Yarker 33°
90° 96° Franz Hartman 33° 90° 95° and Henry Klein
33° 95°.

In his testimonial as special War-correspondent,
Theodore Reuss includes the following letter: —

Kaiserlich Deutsches Konsulat fur Griechenland.

Athenes, le 10/22 Avril 1897.

he Consulat Imperial d’ Allemagne pour la Grece
requiert par la presente toutes les autorites militaires
et civiles de laisser passer librement le porteur Mon-
sieur Theodore Reuss, correspondant du Bureau tele-


graphique des Etats-Unis, et du Kleines Journal, qui,
pourvu d’une letite de recommandation de Son Excel-
lence le Ministre de la Guerre Mr. Metaxas a I’adresse
de Son Altesse Royale le Prince Royal, se rendra a
la frontiere lurco-grecque.

Le Consul General d’Allemagne,
(Signed) luders.

While casually perusing the Masonic Year Book for
1922 (English Grand Lodge), we find on page 522 under
the following heading : —

Foreign Grand Lodges. E. Hemisphere


Grand Orient of Italy
Grand Master — Gustavo Canti
Deputy Grand Master — Carlo de Andreis
Director of the Grand Secretary’s office.
Ulisse Bacci.

Then, turning to page 286 of our book, we find
that, many years ago, Ulisse Bacci was one of Adriano
Lemmi’s most efficient assistants !

All this belongs to the realm of history and research,
but at least, let us base the future on knowledge of
the past and not build the Temple of Solomon on the
ruins of the British Empire !

From this point onward, the articles on the various fra-
ternal organizations dealt with in this book are arranged
in chronological sequence according to the dates at which
they are said to have been founded.




(Founded 1520)

The Illuminati, a Spanish sect called the Alom-i
brados was founded about 1520.

Ignatius Loyola, while a student at Salamanca (1527),
was tried by an ecclesiastical commission for alleged
sympathy with this sect but was acquitted with an

See Erie. Brit, Ninth Edition, Art. Illuminism.




(Founded 1541)

We give the following quotations from the Encyclo-
paedia Britannica, in spite of its marked anti-jesuit bias,
solely to register certain historical facts, leaving their
interpretation to the personal judgment of the reader. 1

” The Company of the Jesuits was founded by Don
Inigo de Loyola (Ignatius Loyola), a Spanish nobleman
and soldier, on April 5, 1541, at the church of Saint
Paul without the Walls, near Rome, under the sanction
of the Pope, Paul III.

” It has six grades. These are novices, scholastics,
temporal, coadjutors, professed of the three vows, and
professed of the four vows, the latter two grades being
the only ones which confer a share in the government
and eligibility for the offices of the society. Its head,
virtually a commander-in-chief, is known as The
General. He wields absolute power over the members
who are pledged to blind obedience. The General
claims his authority from The Pope.

1. Enc. Brit., Ninth Edition, Art. Jesuits.




The ” fourth vow ” is one of special allegiance to the
Pope promising to go in obedience to him for mission-
ary purposes whensoever and whithersoever he may
order, — a pledge seriously qualified in practice, how-
ever, by the power given to the general of alone sending
out or recalling any missionary.

” The question has long been hotly debated whether,
in addition to these six avowed grades, there be not
a seventh, answering in some degree to the Tertiaries
of the Franciscan and Dominican orders, secretly
affiliated to the society, and acting as its unsus-
pected emissaries in various lay positions. This class is
styled in France ‘ Jesuits of the short robe ‘, and some
evidence in support of its actual existence was alleged
during the lawsuits against the company under
Louis XV. The Jesuits themselves deny the existence
of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative
disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their
constitutions. On the other hand, there are clauses
therein which make the creation of such a class perfectly
feasible if thought expedient. One is the power given
to the general to receive candidates secretly, and to
conceal their admission, for which there is a remarkable
precedent in the case of Francis Borgia, duke of Gandia,
afterwards himself general of the society; the other is
an even more singular clause, providing for the admis-
sion of candidates to the company by persons who are
not themselves members of it. … The general, who
should by the statutes of the society reside permanently
at Rome, holds in his hands the right of appointment,
not only to the office of provincial over each of the great
districts into which the houses are mapped, but to the
offices of each house in particular, no shadow of elec-
toral right or even suggestion being recognized.

” The superiors and rectors of all houses and Colleges



in Europe must report weekly to their provincial on all
matters concerning the members of the society and all
outsiders with whom they may have had dealings of
any sort. The provincial, for his part, must report
monthly to the general, giving him a summary of all
details which have reached himself. But, as a check on
him, all superiors of houses in his province are to make
separate reports directly to the general once in three
months, and further to communicate with him, without
delay, every time any matter of importance occurs,
irrespective of any information which the provincial
may have forwarded. Nor is this all; an elaborate
system of espionage and delation forms part of the
recognized order of every house, and, in direct contrast
to the ancient indictment and confession of faults
in open conventual chapter, every inmate of a house
is liable to secret accusation to its superior, while the
superior himself may be similarly delated to the pro-
vincial or the general.

” Nor is the general himself exempt from control
on the part of the society, lest by any possible error
he be unfaithful to its interests. A consultative council
is imposed on him by the general congregation, consis-
ting of six persons, whom he may neither select nor
remove, — namely, four assistants, each representing a
nation, an admonisher or adviser (resembling the adla-
tus of a military commander) to warn him of any faults
or mistakes, and his confessor. One of these must be
in constant attendance on him; and, while he is not
at liberty to abdicate his office, nor to accept any
dignity or office outside it without the assent of the
society, he may yet be suspended or deposed by its

” There would seem at first to be an effectual external
check provided, however, in the fact that, while all the



officers of the society, except the council aforesaid, hold
of the general, he in turn holds of the Pope, and is his
liegeman directly, as well as in virtue of the fourth
vow, which he has taken in common with the other
professed. But such is the extraordinary skill with
which the relations of the society to the papacy were
originally drafted by Loyola, and subsequently worked
by his successors, that it has always remained organi-
cally independent, and might very conceivably break
with Rome without imperilling its own existence. The
general has usually stood towards the Pope much as a
powerful grand feudatory of the Middle Ages did
towards a weak titular lord paramount, or perhaps as
the captain of a splendid host of ‘ Free Companions ‘
did towards a potentate with whom he chose to take
temporary and precarious service; and the shrewd
Roman populace have long shown their recognition of
this fact [by styling these two great personages seve-
rally the ‘ White Pope ‘ and the ‘ Black Pope ‘. In truth
the society has never, from the very first, obeyed the
Pope, whenever its will and his happened to run counter
to each other.

” The merited odium which has overtaken the Inqui-
sition, usually officered by Dominicans, has induced
the Jesuits, whose own controversial methods had
been different, to disclaim all connexion with that
tribunal, and to represent their society as free from
complicity in its acts. But, in truth, it was Ignatius
Loyola himself who procured its erection in Portugal
in 1545-6, and F. Nithard, one of the very few cardinals
of the society, was inquisitor-general of that kingdom
in 1655.

” The first successes of the Indian mission were
entirely amongst the lowest class ; but when Robert
de’Nobili, to win the Brahmins, adopted their insignia



and mode of life in 1605, a step sanctioned by Gregory
XV, in 1623, the fathers who followed his example
pushed the new caste-feeling so far as absolutely
to refuse the ministrations and sacraments of religion
to the pariahs, lest the Brahmin converts should
take offence, • — an attempt which was reported to Rome
by Norbert, a Capuchin, and by the bishop of Rosalia
and was vainly censured in the pontifical briefs of
Innocent X in 1645, Clement IX in 1669,Clement XII
in 1734 and 1739, and Benedict XIV, in 1745. The
‘ Chinese rites ‘, assailed with equal unsuccess by 9
popes, were not finally put down until 1744, by a bull of
Benedict XIV… By these rites the Jesuit missionaries
had virtually assimilated Christianity to heathenism>
and their practical reply in opposition to a papal decree
in 1700 was to obtain an edict from the emperor of
China declaring that there was nothing idolatrous or
superstitious in the inculpated usages, while in 1710 they
flung Cardinal Tournon, legate of Clement XI, into the
prison of the Inquisition at Macao, where he perished.
Finally, they disobeyed the brief of suppression issued
by Clement XIV in 1773, which enjoined them to dis-
perse at once, to send back all novices to their houses,
and to receive no more members. It is thus clear that
the society has always regarded itself as an independent
power, ready indeed to co-operate with the papacy so
long as their roads and interests are the same, and to
avail itself to the uttermost of the many pontifical
decrees in its own favour, but drawing the line far short
of practical submission when their interests diverge. ‘

The Jesuit power, much weakened in England by the
rise of the Jewish Power with the advent of Cromwell,
persisted nevertheless in its efforts to recapture its
former status in that land. During the reign of James II,
it schemed and intrigued incessantly through its repre-



sentatives Father St. Germain 2 and his successor
Father Columbiere. 3 After the enactment of the limi-
tation of the English throne to Protestant succession
the Jesuit diplomatists were hard put.

To quote the Encyclopaedia further :

” After many difficulties they had succeeded in
getting a footing in France, through the help of Duprat,
bishop of Clermont, who founded a college for them in
1545 in the town of Billom, besides making over to them
his house at Paris, the Hotel de Clermont, which became
the nucleus of the afterwards famous college of Louis-le-
Grand, while a formal legalization was granted to them
by the states-general at Poissy in 1561. ”

From the Jesuit College at Ingolstadt is said to have
issued the sect known as ” The Illuminati of Bavaria ”
founded by Adam Weishaupt under the guidance of
Nicolai, in 1776. Weishaupt, its nominal founder, how-
ever, seems to have played a subordinate though con-
spicuous role in the organization of this sect. (See
page 370).

On July 21, 1773, the Pope had abolished the order
of Jesuits but Frederic II of Prussia encouraged and
protected them with a view no doubt of using their
political knowledge and skill against the Bourbons, the
Hapsburgs and the Pope.

The well-known authority on theocratic organizations,
Heckethorn, writes the following concerning the Jesuits :
‘ There is considerable analogy between Masonic
and Jesuitic degrees ; and the Jesuits also tread down
the shoe and bare the knee, because Ignatius Loyola
thus presented himself at Rome and asked for the con-
firmation of the order.

2. Once regent of the Jesuit College of Clermont.

3. D. Jones, The Secret History of White-Hall, 1697, p. 41.



” Not satisfied with confession, preaching, and in-
struction, whereby they had acquired unexampled
influence, they formed in Italy and France, in 1563
several ‘ Congregations ‘, i. e. clandestine meetings held
in subterranean chapels and other secret places. The
congregationists had a sectarian organization, with
appropriate catechisms and manuals, which had to be
given up before death, wherefore very few copies

n 4


To show the further similarity of the Jesuit-Judaic-
Masonic-Gnostic-Brahmin-Illuminati theology we now
quote from a MS. in the library of the Rue Richelieu
at Paris entitled Histoire des congregations et socialites
jesuitiques depuis 1563 jusqu’au temps present (1709). 5

” Initiation. — From this, as well as other works,
we gather some of the ceremonies with which aspirants
were initiated into the Order. Having in nearly all
Roman Catholic countries succeeded in becoming the
educators of the young, they were able to mould the
youthful mind according to their secret aims. If then,
after a number of years, they detected in the pupil
a blind and fanatic faith, conjoined with exalted pietism
and indomitable courage, they proceeded to initiate
him; in the opposite case, they excluded him. The
proofs lasted twenty-four hours, for which the candidate
was prepared by long and severe fasting, which, by
prostrating his bodily strength, inflamed his fancy,
and, just before the trial, a powerful drink was admin-
istered to him. Then the mystic scene began — diabol-
ical apparitions, evocation of the dead, representations
of the flames of hell, skeletons, moving skulls, artificial

4. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries,.
vol. II, p. 296.

5. Schaff-Herzog, The Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge.
Art. Jesuits.



thunder and lightning, in fact, the whole parapher-
nalia and apparatus of the ancient mysteries. If the
neophyte, who was closely watched, showed fear or
terror, he remained for ever in the inferior degree ;
but if he bore the proof well, he was advanced to a
higher grade.

” At the initiation into the second degree (Scholas-
tici) the same proofs, but on a grander scale, had to be
undergone. The candidate, again prepared for them by
long fastings, was led with his eyes bandaged into a large
cavern, resounding with wild howlings and roarings,
which he had to traverse, reciting at the same time
prayers specially appointed for that occasion. At the
end of the cave he had to crawl through a narrow open-
ing, and while doing this, the bandage was taken from
his eyes by an unseen hand, and he found himself in &
square dungeon, whose floor was covered with a mor-
tuary cloth, on which stood three lamps, shedding a
feeble light on the skulls and skeletons ranged around.
This was the Cave of Evocation, the Black Chamber, so
famous in the annals of the Fathers. Here, giving himself
up to prayer, the neophyte passed some time, during
which the priests could, without his being aware of
it, watch his every movement and gesture. If his beha-
viour was satisfactory, all at once two brethren, repre-
senting archangels, presented themselves before him,
without his being able to tell whence they had so sud-
denly started up, — a good deal can be done with pro-
perly fitted and oiled trap-doors, — and, observing per-
fect silence, bound his forehead with a white band
soaked with blood, and covered with hieroglyphics;
they then hung a small crucifix round his neck, and a
small satchel containing relics, or what did duty for
them. Finally, they took off all his clothing, which they
cast on a pyre in one corner of the cave, and marked



his body with numerous crosses, drawn with blood. At
this point, the hierophant with his assistants entered
and, having bound a red cloth round the middle of the
candidate’s body, the brethren, clothed in bloodstained
garments, placed themselves beside him, and drawing
their daggers, formed the steel arch over his head. A car-
pet being then spread on the floor, all knelt down and
prayed for about an hour, after which the pyre was
secretly set on fire ; the further wall of the cave opened,
the air resounded with strains, now gay, now lugubrious,
and a long procession of spectres, phantoms, angels,
and demons defiled past the neophyte like the ‘ supers ‘
in a pantomine. Whilst this farce was going on, the
candidate took the following oath : — ‘ In the name of
Christ crucified, I swear to burst the bonds that yet
unite me to father, mother, brothers, sisters, relations,
friends ; to the King, magistrates, and any other autho-
rity, to which I may ever have sworn fealty, obedience,
gratitude, or service. I renounce… the place of my birth,
henceforth to exist in another sphere. I swear to reveal
to my new superior, whom I desire to know, what I have
done, thought, read, learnt, or discovered, and to observe
and watch all that comes under my notice. I swear to
yield myself up to my superior, as if I were a corpse,
deprived of life and will. I finally swear to flee tempta-
tion, and to reveal all I succeed in discovering, well
aware that lightning is not more rapid and ready than
the dagger to reach me wherever I may be. ‘

” The new member having taken this oath, was then
introduced into a neighbouring cell, where he took a
bath, and was clothed in garments of new and white
linen. He finally repaired with the other brethren to a
banquet, where he could with choice food and wine
compensate himself for his long abstinence, and the
horrors and fatigues he had passed through. ”



” In 1614, there was published at Cracow what pur-
ported to be the Secret Instructions given to members
of the Society of Jesus. It is said that Hieronymus
Zahorowski, who had recently severed his connection
with the society, published the book with the co-opera-
tion of Count George Zbaraski and other Polish enemies
of the order but the repudiation of the work by the
society is no conclusive evidence of its spuriousness as
it has been its policy from the beginning to deny all
discreditable reports and to take the chance of being
proved unveracious. ” 6

It will suffice to give the headings of the chapters
forming the Book of Secret Instructions of the Society
of Jesus. 1 ” The Preface specially warns superiors not
to allow it to fall into the hands of strangers, as it might
give them a bad opinion of the Order. The Chapters are
headed as follows : — I. How the Society is to proceed
in founding a new establishment. — II. How the Breth-
ren of the Society may acquire and preserve the friend-
ship of Princes and other distinguished Personages. —
III. How the Society is to conduct itself towards those
who possess great influence in a state ; and who, though
they are not rich, may yet be of service to others. —
IX. Hints to Preachers and Confessors of Kings and
great personages. — V. What conduct to observe
towards the clergy and other religious orders. —
VI. How to win over rich widows. — VII. How to hold
fast widows and dispose of their property. — VIII. How
to induce the children of widows to adopt a life of reli-
gious seclusion. — IX. Of the increase of College reve-
nues. — X. Of the private rigour of discipline to be
observed by the society. — XI. How ‘ Ours ‘ shall con-

6. Schaff-Herzog, op. cit., Art. Jesuits.

7. Heckethorn, op. cit., vol. II, p. 302.



duct themselves towards those that have been dis-
missed from the society. — XII. Whom to keep and
make much of in the society. — XIII. How to select
young people for admission into the society, and how
to keep them there. — XIV. Of reserved cases, and
reasons for dismissing from the society. — XV. How to
behave towards nuns and devout women. — XVI. How
to pretend contempt for riches. — XVII. General
means for advancing the interests of the society.

” The intermeddling of this society in the affairs,
political, ecclesiastical and civil, of many countries, is
related in numerous works, and repeatedly produced the
suppression and expulsion of the order, though it con-
stantly reappeared with new names. In 1716 the French
army was infested with Jesuitical and anti-Jesuitical
societies. The Parliament of Paris suppressed them in

” They were abolished by papal bull in 1773 at the
demand of France, Spain, Portugal, Parma, Naples and
Austria. They are, however, still to be found every-i
here, and they hold considerable property in England.
A modern writer justly calls them the ‘ Black Inter-
national. ‘ ”

Historically, the Jesuits are given credit for the
Gunpowder Plot of 1605, fomenting the Thirty Years
war, the encouragement of the aspiration of Mary
Stuart which led to her execution, the Revocation of
the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV, 1685, and numerous
other great events of history.

The Sanfedesti. was founded at the epoch of the sup-
pression of the Jesuits for the defence of religion, the
privileges and jurisdiction of Rome and the temporal
power of the popes. Their successors were the Calderari,
referred to in Chapter LXX.

The Generals of the Jesuits have been as follows :


1. Inigo de Loyola (Spaniard) 1541-1556

2. Diego Laynez (Spaniard) 1558-1565

3. Francisco Borgia (Spaniard) 1565-1572

4. Eberhard Mercurian (Belgian Jew). 1573-1580

5. Claudio Acquaviva (Neapolitan) .. 1581-1615

6. Mutio Vitelleschi (Roman) 1615-1645

7. Vincenzio Caraffa (Neapolitan) … 1646-1649

8. Francesco Piccolomini (Florentine). 1649-1651

9. Alessandro Gottofredi (Roman) .. 1652

10. Goswin Nickel (German) 1652-1664

11. Giovanni Paolo Oliva (Genoese)
Vicar-general and Coadjutor, 1661 ;
General 1664-1681

12. Charles von Noyelle (Belgian) 1682-1686

13. Tirso Gonzales (Spaniard) 1687-1705

14. Michael Angelo Tamburini (Moda-

nese) 1706-1730

15. Franz Retz (Bohemian) 1730-1750

16. Ignazio Visconti (Milanese) 1751-1755

17. Alessandro Centurioni (Genoese) .. 1755-1757

18. Lorenzo Ricci (Florentine) 1758-1775


a. Stanislaus Czerniewicz (Pole).. 1782-1785

b. Gabriel Lienkiewicz (Pole) 1785-1798

c. Franciscus Xavier Kareu (Pole).
(General in Russia, 7th Mar. 1801) 1799-1802

d. Gabriel Gruber (German) 1802-1805

19. Thaddaeus Brzozowski (Pole) 1805-1820

20. Aloysio Fortis (Veronese) 1820-1829

21. Johannes Roothaan (Dutchman).. 1829-1853

22. Peter Johannes Beckx (Belgian)… 1853-1887

23. Antoine Marie Anderledv (Swiss).. 1887-1892

24. Louis Martin (Spanish) 1892-1906

25. Francis Xavier Warnz (German).. 1906-1914

26. Vladimir Ledochowski (Pole) 1915-




(Founded 1562)

This Irish Catholic organization, similar to that of
the Spanish Guarduna, was founded in 1562 by Roger
Moore behind whom were French and Spanish Jesuits.

According to Captain Pollard, author of The Secret
Societies of Ireland, ” The nominal function of the
Defenders was the protection of the fugitive priests
during the period of proscription and the holding of the
passes while Mass was celebrated in some mountain
glen. The enemies of the faith being the Protestants,
and the Protestants standing for the Constitutional
authority of Britain, the Defenders soon became a
criminal association of law-breakers and banditti. ” 1

In 1641 they rose and massacred many Protestants,
but were duly crushed by Cromwell in 1649.

This Irish Catholic element was already opposed by
the Roman Catholic Archbishop Plunket, of whom
Captain Pollard writes : ” Archbishop Oliver Plunket,
Roman Catholic Primate of Ireland, who had attempted
to put down the criminal association of Defenders in

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 2. et seq.




the South of Ireland, was accused by the infamous Oates;
and at his trial at Westminster certain of these Irish
priests, who had been censured by him, gave false evi-
dence against him. The Archbishop, though innocent,
was, through the false evidence of these members of the
secret society, sentenced and duly hanged at Tyburn. ”




(Founded 1 641)

In The Secret Societies of Ireland Captain Pollard
writes that, founded in 1641, “The notorious modern
society known as The Ancient Order of Hibernians is the
direct successor of the original society of Defenders ;
in common with its ancestor it attempts to enable
the clerics to exercise control in politics. 1 It claims in its
own official history, published in 1910, to be the oldest
secret society in Ireland. Independent researches
show that the claim is sound and that the present
A. 0. H. is the descendant of certain criminal organiza-
tions of the past. The open admission of this chain of
descent by its own historian is important. American
sources trace the A. 0. H. to 1565 but the date 1641
is that more commonly accepted. ” 2

” The Jesuit influence in the development of the
Defenders was reinforced, and their ceremonies and
symbolism slowly changed to an elementary ritual

1. Pollard, op. tit., p. 3.

2. Ibid., p. no .




closely modelled on that of the ceremony of initiation
to the Society of Jesus of the period. This ritual has
descended with many accretions and modernisations to
the present time ; and the American branch of the
Ancient Order of Hibernians, misled by it, traces its
origin back, not to 1641 and the Guarduna, but to 1563
and the foundation of the Society of Jesus. 3

” The A. 0. H. of America is powerfully organized
and has over six thousand lodges, and it is said by
Heckethorn to be divided into two degrees ; in the first
no oath is exacted and no real secret communicated.
The second or inner degree is confined to officials, who
receive their passwords and signs from the Board of
Erin in Ireland, who send an emissary every three
months. ” 4

In 1878, the American order split into two groups.
Shortly afterwards the Irish followed suit.

” In America the breach was later healed, but in Ireland
it continued until 1902, when a conference was called and
both parties agreed to work under a joint board of control
representing both sections. This board was termed the A. 0. H.
Board of Erin. ” 5

Another split, occurring in 1905, lasted two years.

” Ten years ago, the real A. 0. H. of Ireland repre-
sented a powerful Nationalist weapon, hostile to the
forces of extremism and devoted to the Irish Parlia-
mentary party, but the Board of Erin A. 0. H. was
revolutionary. ” 6

3. Pollard, op. cit, p. 8.

4. Ibid., p. 115.

5. Ibid., p. 113.

6. Ibid, p. 115.

For root of this movement see Chapter XXXVI.



(Founded 1638)

This was a peculiar form of Calvinism inaugurated
by Cornelius Jansenius (1585-1638) from Louvain in
the Netherlands.

The doctrine of Jansenism is exposed in a work
called Augustinus, written by Jansenius, and published
after his death in 1640.

According to Jansenius’ theory of Predestination,
man was either saved or damned according to God’s
own will, regardless of his merits or demerits.

From the Low Countries, Jansenism penetrated into
France and its chief centre was in the Port Royal abbey
near Paris. It was Duvergier de Hauranne who had been
a great friend of Jansenius during their student days
who, as abbot of Saint Cyran, introduced Jansenism
into Port Royal.

Antoine Arnauld was the leader of the Jansenists
and was followed by Pasquier Quesnel. Many great
minds of the seventeenth century were Jansenists,
among them Le Maitre de Sacy, Blaise Pascal, Lancelot,
Nicole and Fontaine, Secretary of State of Louis XV.

Jansenism, which had undergone severe treatment in

France under Louis XIV, revived under the Regency




in 1715, and found supporters among the learned and
the high clergy against the policy of the Pope.

It is during this period that among the Jansenist
sectarians there arose the strange occurrences prac-
tised by what is known as the Convulsionaries of St.

The Jansenist party was very rich thanks to the
boite a Perrette (Perrette’s box). This was a special
fund whence Jansenism took out all the money for its
political and other needs. It had taken its name from
the servant of Mr. Nicole, a leading Jansenist, who had
started the fund and confided the care of it to his ser-
vant. In 1778 it amounted already to 1100 livres and in
1865 was still very substantial.

Modern Jansenism, which, since the 18th century,
had its chief seat in the Netherlands, principally
Utrecht, joined in 1889 the German party of the Old
Catholics founded in 1871 which, supported by Bismarck,
had been one of the elements leading him to his KuH
turkampf policy against the Catholic Church and insti-

1. For the root of this movement see Chapter X.

2. For the development of this movement see Chapter XLII.


(Originating 1688)

The Camisards were actually a survival of the WaH
denses and the Pastoureaux.

Calmeil, an authority on mental aberrations quoted by
Madden in Phantasmata 1 , thus describes the charac-
teristics of the Camisard movement: — ” The prophetic
madness (of the Camisards) made its appearance in
Dauphine and Vivarais in 1688 ; it very soon spread
itself over a vast number of places, and continued with-
out any interruption among the Calvinists for nearly
twenty years.

” It was especially in the course of the year 1689,
that the phenomena of theomania excited the greatest
astonishment and rose to the height of its violence.
The theomaniacs could then be counted by hundreds ;
men, women, girls, boys, young children, all of them
believed they were inspired and imbued with the breath
of the Holy Spirit.

” The punishment of fire, the rack, the torture of
the pendaison, even the massacres performed by armed
troops, whose efforts were directed to the extermination

1. Madden, Phantasmata, vol. II, p. 530 ; quoting De la
Folie, by L. F. Calmeil (1845), vol. II, p. 304.




of the pretended prophets, the military executions, all
the torments that it was possible to invent, to
repress the violence of this religious fanaticism, only
augmented the force of the evil which they were em-
ployed to abate or suppress.

” When, towards the beginning of the eighteenth
century, the Calvinists rose up in good earnest to con-
stitute small bodies of troops, and to dispute inch by
inch the soil which had given them birth, with the
king’s soldiery, by whom they were confronted, this
war of extermination was preceded by the apparition
of a sort of swarm of pretended prophets and prophe-
tesses. Towards 1701, at one time two hundred of the
inspired, who had fallen into the hands of their enemies,
were sent to the galleys.

” The madness of the theoma,niacs was less talked
of during the years 1703 and 1704 than it had been
previously; but it is certain that all the armed bands
who contended with the royal troops for those two
years, never took the field except at the instance of
some inspired celebrities. And it is certain that the
words of those prophets were listened to as if they had
emanated from the mouth of the Holy Spirit; that the
inspirations of these monomaniacs habitually decided
either the life or death of the Catholics who fell into
the power of the Protestants ; and there was often at
that time to be seen the same person fulfilling among
the Camisards the functions of a prophet, and the func-
tions of a commander.

” It was not till the year 1704 that the Marechal
de Villars had the charge of the command in Langue-i
doc; this Marechal saw, nevertheless, entire cities
infested with theomania. ” 2

2. Madden, op. cit., vol. II, p. 532 et seq.



” It was towards the latter end of 1706 that they
(the Camisards) came to England, from the mountains
of the Cevennes, where their countrymen had for a
considerable time maintained a contest with the troops
for the persecuting Louis XIV. As exiles for conscience 1
sake, they were treated with respect and kindness ; but
they soon forfeited all claim to respect by the folly or
knavery of their conduct. Of this group Elias Marion
was the prominent figure ; the others acting only subor-
dinate parts. He loudly proclaimed that he was the
messenger of Heaven, and was authorised to denounce
judgments, and to look into futurity. All kinds of arts
were employed by Marion and his associates to excite
public attention — sudden droppings down as though
death-struck; sighs and groans, and then shrieks and
vociferations, on recovering; broken sentences, uttered
in unearthly tones ; violent contortions ; and desperate
stragglings with the spirit, followed by submission and
repentance ; were all brought into play. The number of
the believers in their power soon became considerable…

” After a time the sect which they had formed
died away, but its ruin was less to be attributed to
the punishment of the prophets, or the recovery of
reason by their votaries, than by a report which was
spread that they were nothing more than the instru-
ments of designing men, who wished to disseminate
Socinianism, and destroy orthodoxy. ” 3

3. Ibid., quoting Sketches of Imposture, Deception and
Credulity, Lond., 1836, p. 42.

For root of this movement see Chapter XXIII, Waldenses.
For development of this movement see Chapter XLII.




( Founded 1 721 )

Emmanuel Swedenborg was born on Jan. 29, 1688,
at Stockholm. His father, Jasper Swedberg, was the
son of Daniel Isaksson of Fahlun, Sweden. In 1719,
Jasper Swedberg’s family was ennobled by Queen
Ulrika and his name was altered from Swedberg to
Swedenborg. 1

Emmanuel Swedenborg was initiated at Lund in
1706 and progressed to the higher degrees of the Temp-
lars as practised in Sweden.

In 1718, Colonel Baltzer Wedmar, in a Stockholm
Lodge Lecture, said that Swedenborg was a Mason and
that he had seen his signature at the Lodge at Lund.
These assertions were confirmed by King Gustavus III.

Founded in 1721, 2 the Rite was first introduced
into England by Chastanier, Springer (Swedish Consul),
C. F. and August Nordenskjold and others who were

1. U. S. E., Emmanuel Swedenborg, the Spiritual Columbus.

2. Sedir, Histoire des Rose-Croix, p. 112.




members of the first Swedenborgian Society in London
known as the Theosophical Society of the New Jeru-
salem, not to be confused with the Rite of French

The rite was carried from London to the Americas
by a Swedenborgian Minister, Brother Samuel Beswick.
He lived at Strathroy, Canada, and was the author
of a work upon the Swedenborgian Rite. This rite,
called the Illuminati of Stockholm, was well known until
the middle of the 18th century when it amalgamated
with that of Zinnendorf.

What is properly known as the rite of Swedenborg
was another modification of the order of the Illuminati
of Avignon effected by the Marquis de Thome, in 1783,
wherein he endeavoured to restore the true meaning
of the doctrine of the Swedish mystic. 1

1. Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 301.

2. For root of this movement see Chapter XXII.

3. For development of this movement see Chapter XCVI.



(Founded 1725)


Freemasonry was introduced in France in about
1730, some say 1725.

Its implantation bore a singular character. Due to
the time of exile spent in France by Queen Henrietta,
widow of Charles I (1649), English ways and customs
had become fashionable among the members of the
French aristocracy. The exiled English Royal Family
and their adherents, warmly welcomed by the Jesuits
of France, plotted in secret to regain the throne for
Charles II. Later, when the Catholic King James II
was also overthrown in 1688, he found refuge in France
and his son, The Pretender, and later his grandson,
Charles Edward, headed numerous plots fomented to
enable them to regain their father’s and grandfather’s
throne from William of Orange.

Meanwhile Masonry had been instituted in England
(1717) and introduced in France in 1730. The Jaco-
bites, partisans of the Pretender, secretly plotting as




they constantly were, found the newly created Masonic
lodges a ground no less well adapted to serve their ends
than the Jesuits’ colleges whence all their schemes

Lodges, having thus become fashionable resorts for
French aristocrats, presented a double aspect, one
which might almost be termed theatrical, inasmuch
as the comedy of equality between the lord and his
varlet was enacted in the Lodge, and the other far more
serious was of a political character. This latter aspect
of budding English symbolic Freemasonry in France
was anxiously watched by the minister Cardinal de
Fleury who ordered its suppression in 1737. Up to
that time the French lodges that had been formed
considered themselves as depending from the English
Grand Lodge, had an English Grand Master and were
confining their activities to the practice of the three
grades of Blue Masonry.

Then appeared the would-be reformers of Masonry.
At their head, in France, was the Chevalier de Ramsay,
and with their advent came the innovation of a fourth
grade followed by others. This was the beginning of
Scotch Masonry whose unavowed aim seems to have
been to interpose itself between the existing Lodges
and the governing Grand Lodge of France.

De Ramsay, who was one of the foremost exponents of
Scotch Rites and already dreamed of the Universal
Masonry of Albert Pike, exposed some of his theories
in his famous Discourse made in 1740.

By that time, the Grand Lodge of France, known as
the Grand English Lodge of France, was no longer
headed by an English Grand Master, but by the Due
d’Antin who was succeeded by Louis, Prince de Bour-
bon, Comte de Clermont, who held the office of Grand
Master from 1743 until 1771. During his Grand Master-



ship, in 1754, the name Chapter of Clermont was given
to what might be called an offshoot of the Primitive
French Masonry on which, later, the Chevalier de Bon-
neville grafted some additional degrees. This name
” Chapter of Clermont ” has been the cause of much
confusion arising from the fact that a Jesuit college
founded in Paris, in 1550, also bore the name of Cler-
mont College and had been a centre for Jacobite secret
plotting against the Protestant rulers of England. 1

This grafting of higher degrees on those of Symbolic
or Blue Masonry gave Scotch Masonry its vitality and
strength and a continual superposition and absorption
of one rite, to and by another, took place.

The period during the Grandmastership of the Comte
de Clermont was eventful for the craft. A masonic
writer, William H. Peckham, in his work on Scottish
rites, gives a succinct but clear sequence of some of
the changes undergone by Masonry in France men-
tioning Thory, Le Blanc, de Marconnay, Ragon and
Clavel as his sources. Thus we learn that the English
Grand Lodge of France became the ” Grande Loge du
Royaume ” in 1756, and declared itself independent;
further, that an inner body known as the Supreme
Council of the Emperors of the East and West had
been founded in 1754 by the Chevalier de Bonneville.
It had its chamber in the Grand Lodge of France and,
likewise, was under the authority of the Grand Master

1. Rev. E. Cahill, S. J., Freemasonry and the Anti-Christian
Movement, p. 213, definitely refutes the story of certain Masonic
authorities by whom it has been alleged that The Chapter of
Clermont was founded in the Jesuit College of that name. He
states that it was ” founded in 1754 and was named the
Chapter of Clermont’ manifestly borrowing its name from
the title of the Masonic Grand Master who in fact became its
head. ”



Comte de Clermont whose substitute Chaillon de Join-
ville was also that of the Council.

The Supreme Council of the Emperors of the East
and West practised twenty-five degrees.

As to the disorders in the bosom of Masonry they
are attributed to the negligence of the Comte de Cler-
mont who, in 1744, had ceased to take much interest
in the Lodges and delegated his authority to two
appointees, one a banker named Baure and the other
a dancing master by the name of Lacorne who sold
charters and degrees. The latter caused a scission in
the Grand Lodge whose members rejected him and
he formed an independent Grand Lodge. Both these
Grand Lodges, as also the Council of the Emperors of
the East and West, constituted Lodges and granted
charters throughout the kingdom, but in 1772, the
Council united again with the primitive Grand Lodge
as of yore, and becoming one body they practised the
right of perfection of twenty-five degrees. At that
time, the Grand Master was the Due de Chartres, later
Philippe Egalite, Due d’Orleans, who had succeeded
the Comte de Clermont in 1771.

But ten years previously, on August 29, 1761, a Jew,
Stephen Morin, had obtained a charter from the Council
of the Emperors of the East and West and had gone
to America as Grand Inspector General. There he foun-
ded what is now known as Scottish Bites. Morin held
his authority from the Comte de Clermont who, at
the request of Lacorne, charged him with establishing
Masonry in all parts of the world. His patent was
signed by Chaillon de Joinville, Prince de Rohan,
Lacorne, Savalette de Buckolay, Taupin, Brest De
La Chaussee, Count de Choiseul, Chevalier de Lenon-
court and D’Aubertin 1 .

2. Wm. Peckham, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.



The early history of French Freemasonry is a maze
of quarrels, but finally, in 1766, under the auspices
of a new Grande Loge Nationale de France, afterwards
called the Grand-Orient, a representative system was
at last adopted but the quarrels continued, the Orient
and the original Grand Lodge being each supported
by a separate Rosicrucian organization besides its
own proper lodges. 3

In contradiction to other masonic authorities, Yarker
makes the assertion that the primitive Scottish Rite
of 33 degrees was established at Namur in 1770 by
Marchot and in 1787 united with the Grand Orient. 4

In he Culte de la Nature dans la Franc-maconnerie
Universelle (page 143) D. Margiotta states that Adam
Weishaupt and his favorite, Baron von Knigge, intro-
duced the organization of the Holy Vehm as well as
certain legends of Illuminism into Masonry in 1783.
The only persons exempted from the jurisdiction of
this terrible court of ” Justice “, the Holy Vehm, were
the clergy, women and children, Jews and heathens
and certain members of the higher nobility.

The Revolution issued from the Masonic Lodges,
said Lombard de Langes. France, in 1789, counted
over 2,000 lodges affiliated to the Grand Orient : The
adepts numbered over 100,000. The first events of
1789 were but Masonry in action. All the Revolutio-
naries of the Constituent Assembly were 3rd degree

In the Viennese Freemasonic newspaper of Decem-
ber 1927, the Freemason Arthur Singer of Budapest
publishes the following interesting document which
he claims to have taken from a book by Comte Vogt

3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Art. Freemasonry.

4. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 479.



d’Hunolstein, which appeared in 1864 under the title
Unpublished letters of Marie-Antoinette.

It is a letter from the unhappy queen to her sister
Marie Christine.


” I believe that as far as France is concerned, you
worry too much about Freemasonry. Here, it is far
from having the significance that it may have elsewhere
in Europe ; here everything is open and one knows all.
Then, where could the danger be ?

” One might well be worried if it were a question
of a political secret society. But on the contrary the
government lets it spread, and it is only that which
it seems : an association, the objects of which are union
and charity. One dines, one sings, one talks, which
has given the king occasion to say that people who
drink and sing are not suspect of organizing plots. Nor
is it a society of atheists, for, we are told, God is on
the lips of all. They are very charitable. They bring
up the children of the poor and dead members, they
endow their daughters. What harm is there in all that ?

” A short time ago the Princess de Lamballe was
named Grand Mistress of a Lodge. She told me all the
charming things they said to her. Many glasses were
emptied, many verses sung. Then two good young
maidens were endowed. Admitted. One can do good
without all that fuss : but one must let everyone act
according to their wishes, the more so when good only
only results. ”

The letter sounds as if it had been written yesterday
by one of our good English Masons concerning English

Masonry in France became dormant during the French
Revolution, but in 1799, a national union was effected



by Roettiers. No sooner, however, was this done, and
the statutes, originally based on the English consti-
tutions thoroughly revived, than French masonry
again suffered from an invasion of mysticism, — first
in the form of the Scottish Philosophic Rite (including
such profundities as the luminous ring and the white
and black Eagle), and secondly in the American Ancient
and Accepted Scottish Rite of 33 degrees, which the
charlatan De Grasse-Tilly expounded with great success
but which in 1804 was amalgamated with the Grand
Orient, the great Marshals Massena and Kellerman
being then the leading members of the two bodies. The
union did not last, as Napoleon disliked the constitu-
tion of the Supreme Council which was largely influenced
by the aristocracy. His brother, Joseph, assisted by
Murat and Cambaceres, was allowed to take office
in the older organization. During the reactionary
Catholic policy of the Grand Master Murat the younger
(1852-62), the liberties of the Orient were greatly inter-
fered with and its funds almost exhausted. Since then
it has slowly recovered. 5

Murat was succeeded by General Magnan who had
been appointed by Napoleon III to group all Masonic
bodies into one. This he succeeded in doing in 1862
with the exception of Scottish Rites, then under Jean
Baptist Viennet, which still held aloof.

In 1868, the Supreme Conseil (of Scottish Rites) and
the Alliance Israelite Universelle became merged in
the person of the Jew Adolphe Cremieux who was
president of both.

We must not omit to mention that Cremieux was
also a member of the Rite of Mizraim which in 1862
was absorbed by the Grand Orient of France.

5. Erie. Brit., op. cit.



On attaining the 18th degree, a Grand Orient Mason
automatically becomes a member of the Alliance
Israelite Universelle.

The Grand Orient ceased to require belief in a per-
sonal God as a test of membership in the year 1877.

From the political movements, the origins of which
can be traced to the influence of the Grand-Orient de
France, one is forced to believe it to be a political orga-
nization. 6

The following quotations from the speech made by
Domenico Anghera, Grand Master of the Supreme
Council of Scottish Rites when conferring on General
Giuseppe Garibaldi the 33rd degree and administering
his oath of allegiance, are here of interest in view of
the connection of the two masonic powers in France.

Translation : 1

“… Our first step, as builders of the new temple
to the felicity of human glory, must be destruction.
To destroy the present social state, we have suppres-
sed religious teaching and the individual rights of per-
sons. As we have overthrown the temporal power of
the Pope, our most terrible and infamous enemy, by
means of France and Italy, we must now break France,
the strongest prop of the spiritual power. That we must
do with the help of our own power and that of Ger-
many. ” (This speech was made before the Franco-
Prussian War of 1870).

” Brother, thou hast finished thy instruction as
chief of Freemasonry. Pronounce thy supreme oath.

‘ I swear to recognize no fatherland but that of the

6. Gould, Hist, of Freemasonry, vol. Ill, p. 179.

7. Domenico Margiotta, Le Culte de la Nature dans la France
magonnerie Universelle, p. 45 et seq.



world. I swear to work hard, everywhere and always,
to destroy frontiers, borders, boundaries of all nations,
of all industries, no less than of all families. I swear
to dedicate my life to the triumph of progress and uni-
versal unity and I declare to profess the negation of
God and the negation of the soul’.

” And now, Brother, that for thee, fatherland, reli-
gion and family have disappeared for ever in the immen-
sity of the work of Freemasonry, come to us, illustrious,
most puissant and very dear Brother and share with
us the boundless authority, the infinite power that we
hold over humanity.

” The only key of progress and happiness, the only
rules of good, are thy appetites and instincts ” (Compare
with 0. T. 0. Chapter CX).

(For the Esoteric explanation of the Masonic Motto
” Deus Meumque Jus ” and the Masonic three dots
.•. see chapter on Symbolism).

On the 4th Sept. 1870, the Second Empire fell at
the battle of Sedan. The International and Freema-
sonry seized power, calling their government ” The
Government of National Defence “, and that same
day the handpicked ministry of Freemasonry was
constituted with Leon Gambetta as Minister of the
Interior. Its eleven members, all deputies of Paris
had, according to him, been acclaimed by the people.
They were : — Emmanuel Arago, Cremieux, Jules
Favre, Ferry, Gambetta, Garnier-Pages, Glais-Bizoin,
Pelletan, Picard, Rochefort, Jules Simon.

Nine of them at least were Freemasons, three were
Jews — Cremieux, Glais-Bizoin and Gambetta. The
Mayor of Paris, Etienne Arago, nominated twenty
other mayors to provincial posts, twelve of whom were
prominent Freemasons, the others being merely



The fourth of September was the nominal procla-
mation of the Republic, but that date marked the
actual seizure of power in France by Freemasonry just
as the 20th of September of the same year marked
its seizure of power in Italy.

Then came the ” Commune “, famous through his-
tory for its revival of the atrocities of the first French
Revolution of 1793.

Slaughter, ruin, torture, all again perpetrated in
the name of the people who mutely suffered and died
that the Men of Destiny might rule upon the earth I

For root of this movement see Chapter XXVI.

For development of this movement see Chapter LIII.



(Founded 1731)

St. Medard was the name of a cemetery in Paris
wherein was the tomb of a famous Jansenist, the deacon
Francois de Paris, and it was said that miracles of all
descriptions took place there.

The first recorded case of convulsions in the St. Me-
dard cemetery occurred in August 1731.

On this subject, Madden tells us the following : —

” The tomb of the deacon Francois became the scene
of wonderful cures, and some very remarkable con-
versions, which were reputed miraculous. People who
came there, especially afflicted with nervous disorders,
appear to have been affected in a singular manner,
some with cataleptic, others with hysteric and convul-
sive symptoms. 1

” The convulsionnaires exhibited not only occasion-
ally, but frequently, all the phenomena which are
ascribed by mesmerists to animal magnetism, som-
nambulism, ecstasies, raptures, submission of the will
and the senses to the power of the volition of another
person, connected in some way with the dominant idea

1. Madden, Phantasmata, vol. II, p. 541.




which possessed their minds at the time of falling into
the trance. Increased subtlety of thought, quickness
of perception, heightened powers of imagination, a
vivid energizing influence, fraught with enthusiasm and
even eloquence ; claims to clairvoyance, to commu-
nion with another world, to ‘ spirit life 1 ; all these
phenomena were to be found too, though not all in
the same individual, in occasional instances in this
epidemic of convulsive theomania…

” Till the month of August, 1731 “, says Picart,
” the wonders wrought at the burying place of the
deacon Paris were not accompanied with any consider-
able difference from those mentioned in Scripture or
ecclesiastical history. Those who were afflicted with
sickness, and begged the holy deacon’s intercession, were
laid upon or under his tomb-stone, which was raised
from the ground, and were cured. But in August, 1731,
God was pleased to work his miracles in a different
manner ; violent pains, agitations of the body, extraor-
dinary convulsions, were the means by which the sick
were healed, not all at once, but gradually. This hap-
pened to one Abbe Becheran, to Chevalier Follard, an
ancient officer in the army, and to several others. The
number of people afflicted with convulsions increased
so fast, and consequences of the meetings at the tomb
appeared, or were represented to the King, so dange-
rous, that on the 27th of January, 1732, he issued an
order to shut up the little churchyard belonging to
St. Medard’s parish, where M. de Paris was buried,
and to open it only when necessary for burials. Some
weeks afterwards, the Abbe Becheran was arrested and
confined at St. Lazare, and set again at liberty about
three months after in June. But the miracles and con-
vulsions did not cease upon these oppositions ; on the
contrary, they daily spread further, and gained ground.


” Towards the end of the year 1732, those who were
jn convulsions began to foretell what was to happen,
to discover secrets, to make speeches, pathetic exhor-
tations, sublime prayers; even those who at other
times were wholly unable to perform any such things. 2

” Montgeron informs us : ‘ There is nothing which
the convulsionnaires did not undertake to mortify
themselves, to break down and to enfeeble their bodies.
The most of those from the time they had convulsions,
hardly made use of a bed; they laid down with their
clothes on, winter and summer, with only one covering,
some lying on planks, and others on the bare ground,
others on logs of wood, and some of them on bars of
iron. ‘

” The fact is, not only the means used for effecting
cures were evil in themselves, but many of the leading
persons by whom the remedy of the Grand Secours
was administered or superintended were persons of
ill repute. 3

” Montgeron reckons that four thousand enthusiasts
were employed to kick, and to strike without cessation
the infirm, and all those young girls who begged for
the violence of their blows. ‘ They were not ashamed to
maintain’ says Calmeil 1 that it was to be ignorant of
pious and charitable duties, not to obey under these
circumstances the desires of the convulsionnaires
whilst the reasonable Jansenists repeated aloud, that
it was only a frantic madness which could suggest
to these young women to encounter such dangers, and
make an excuse for the criminal barbarity of those who
had the audacity to boast of the advantages of so
scandalous a mode of mortification, or rather martyr

2. Madden, op. cit., vol. II, p. 544.

3. Ibid., p. 573.



dom, and the wickedness to consent to take on them
the office of executioners’.

” An observer has recounted that a young girl
named Jeanne Mouler, had insisted upon their admi-
nistering to her as many as a hundred blows with an
andiron, on the stomach, and that a brother, who had
one day given her sixty, had caused a breach in a wall
at the twenty-fifth blow, and then went on repeating
the same violence on her person which had been pre-
viously inflicted upon her. Montgeron, acknowledging
that he was the person designated ‘ the brother’,
who inflicted the blows, adds : ‘ The convulsionnaire
continued to complain that the blows that I was giving
her were so slight that they did not bring her any relief,
and she forced me again to put the andiron into the
hands of a large strong man… This person in no way
spared her. Having seen, by the proof that I had already
given, that he could not administer too violent blows,
he bastinadoed her in so frightful a manner, always
in the hollow of the stomach, that they shook the wall
against which she was leaning. 4

” The convulsionnaire made them immediately give
her, with all their force, the hundred lashes that she
had already asked for, counting as nothing, those sixty
which I had already given her. ‘

” A physician, hearing an account of these things,
maintained that they could not be true, as according
to him it was physically impossible. He objected,
amongst other things, that the flexibility and the soft-
ness of the skin and flesh, and all the other fibrous parts
of which the skin and the flesh are essentially composed,
are incompatible with a force and resistance so extraor-
dinary… They allowed him to make an anatomical

4. Madden, op. cit., vol. II, p. 579.


demonstration, to set forth all his proofs, and in the
end, for reply, they said to him — Come and verify the
facts — He hastened to do so, and at the very sight
he was struck with astonishment. Scarcely believing
his eyes, he begs to administer himself the secours…
They immediately put into his hands the iron instru-
ments, the strongest and the fittest to beat effectually ;
He spared nothing, he struck with the greatest violence,
he thrust into the flesh the instrument with which he
was armed, he made it penetrate beyond the surface…
Notwithstanding which, the convulsionnaire laughed at
all his vain efforts ; all the blows which he gave her
only served to do her good, without leaving the slightest
impression, the least trace, or any vestige whatever,
not only in the flesh, but even on the skin itself “.

Among other duly attested cases of torture to which
the Convulsionnaires submitted the most astonishing
are those of crucifixion and burning. 5

Like the Fakirs of India, these people seemed to
have achieved invulnerability and the power to defy
nature ! Science, so far, has still to find a satisfactory
explanation of this phase of phenomena.

Hippolyte Blanc, another writer, records the follow-
ing observations : —

” The girl Sonet, nicknamed ‘ The Salamander’,
was seen to rest in the flames for 36 minutes on one
occasion without sustaining any burns. 6

” The mania of the convulsionnaires broke out at
St. Medard, in the spring of 1731. The royal order,
which caused the cemetery of St. Medard to be closed
and the pretended miracles to cease, was issued in
January, 1732. ”

5. Hippolyte Blanc, Le Merveilleux, p. 118.

6. Ibid., p. 1 14.



In 1733, the Due d’Anjou, the infant son of Queen
Marie Leckzinska and Louis XV, fell a victim to a
Jansenist plot which caused his death.

In Phantasmata, already quoted, we read further : .

” From 1732 onward the delirium of theomania
began to manifest itself more signally than it had
hitherto done, by ecstatic phenomena, and cataleptic
symptoms, by predictions, and pretensions to mira-
culous operations, in the same way as the Calvinist
convulsionnaires progressed in their fanaticism in the
Cevennes, when they were interfered with by the civil
authorities ; and many of their chiefs were imprisoned,
as those of the Jansenists of St. Medard were immured
in the Bastille, and the Bicetre. The plea or the pretext
of persecution, and the consequent assemblage of the
convulsionnaires of Paris in secret, concurred greatly
and rapidly to augment the evils which it was intended
to prevent by those governmental measures. And those
evils were not effectually repressed during the following
ten years. Nor were they totally then put a stop to.
It was of no avail that, in the year 1762, the ‘ Grand
Secours ‘ was forbidden by act of parliament.

” The insanity of the convulsionnaires “, says Hecker,
” lasted without interruption until the year 1790. ”

The convulsionnaires of St. Medard and the Cami-
sards were only manifestations of Gnosticism such as
have existed in the esoteric branches of various sects,
religious and secret societies ever since the days of

Among others can be mentioned :
The Albigenses, The Moravian Brethren,
The Anabaptists, the Baptists, the Quakers,
The Waldenses, the Shakers, the Methodists etc.
Their name is legion!

Sects rise, sects fall or fade away, but God remains.



(Founded 1750)

The Royal Order of Scotland is composed of two
degrees — HRDM and RYCS — or those of Heredom
and Rosy Cross.

The antiquity and origin of ” Mother Kilwinning ”
is a favourite theme with Masonic authors according
to whom the degree of Heredom of Kilwinning was
founded in the reign of David I, King of Scotland, and
that of Rosy Cross by Robert Bruce in 1314.

Robert Freke Gould, however, places the date of the
foundation of the Royal Order of Scotland in ” the
middle of the last century “, and gives us the name of
William Mitchell, a Scotsman who obtained his patent
as its founder from the Provincial Grand Master of
South Britain on July 22, 1750. 1

1. Robert Freke Gould, The History of Freemasonry, Pub.
1887, p. 75.



( Founded 1 751 -52 )

The following main facts concerning the Strict
Observance are mostly gathered from the profusely
documented work of R. Le Forestier who, having made
a comprehensive study of the subject, took as one of
his chief authorities Nettelbladt.

The Templar rite of the Strict Observance was founded
in 1751 by Charles Gotthelf, Baron de Hund (born
1722) Chamberlain and Councillor of the Elector of
Saxony, King of Poland, as well as Councillor of the
Empress Maria Theresa.

In 1764, the Anglo-Jewish adventurer Leucht, va-
riously known as Johnson, de Martin, Robert de Leich-
ten, Becher, Despocher, de Bousch, Somery, Scheel
and Koenig, made an attempt to amalgamate the
Templar System of Clermont, the control of which he
had seized the previous year from Rosa, with that of
von Hund, with the view of dominating the latter also.
In this he failed.

Rosa had been the Legate for Germany, Holland
and the kingdoms of the north while, in Paris, the
Comte de Clermont occupied a similar position with
regard to France, Spain, Portugal and Italy.




The legend of the Strict Observance is very much
involved. Stating that the Stuarts were the unknown
superiors of the Order it claimed descent from Pierre
d’Aumont, Banneret d’Auvergne, at the time of the
death of the Grand Master Jacques de Molay and the
successor of Beaujeu, Molay’s nephew who, with two
Commanders and five Knights had escaped to the
Island of Mull where they encountered George Harris,
the Grand Commander of Hampton Court, likewise a
refugee. They elected d’Aumont Grand Master and
adopted the costume and customs of Masons in memory
of d’Aumont and his companions who, for two years,
had lived thus in disguise while exercising the trade
to earn a livelihood. Not daring to recruit openly, the
Templars were eventually permitted to marry to per-
petuate the order. For over 250 years, admission to the
degree of Scotch Master had been restricted to the sons
of Templars and only within the last 150 years had the
secrets of this order been available to Scotch Masters
born of free parents. D’Aumont was succeeded as Grand
Master by Harris. ” 1

According to Le Forestier, again quoting Nettel-
bladt, the initiation ceremony ot the Strict Observance
included the presentation to the postulant of a ribbon
to which was appended a small cross which had been
in contact with the Baphomet. 2

At the Convent, sitting from June 4 to 24, 1772, at
Kohlo in the Basse Lusace, it was decided to refuse
further obedience to the illusive ” Invisible Superiors”
continually referred to by Hund, and the Duke Fer-
dinand of Brunswick (Luneburg) (1721-1792) was, with

1. R. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc-
maconnerie Allemande, p. 162.

2. Ibid., p. 172.



the consent of the Banneret, elected Magnus Superior
Ordinis per Germaniam Inferiorem and Grand Master
of the United Lodges of Scottish Rites, the name of
Strict Observance being abandoned as objectionable
to Masons of other systems. From that time forward
Hund’s position in the order was purely an honorary
one. 3

3. R. Le Forestier, op. cit., p. 175.

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII.

For development of this movement see Chapter XLVI I.



(Founded 1754)

Martinez Paschalis first founded in Paris an order
called the Elus Cohens or Priests, then in 1754 that
of the Martinists. This order was reformed by Louis
Claude de Saint Martin in 1775. It had ten degrees.

St. Martin was on intimate terms with the Illumine
Jean Willermoz who presided at two of the Great
Masonic Conventions — that of Les Gaules in 1768 and
that of Wilhelmsbad in 1782 at which was voted the
death of the King of France.

The Modern Martinist Order was established with
three degrees in Paris in 1887 and was constituted in
England in 1902.

Its Grand Master, Marquis Stanislas de Guaita,
died in 1897 and was succeeded by T. Ch. Barlet whose
successor was Dr. Encausse, generally known as Papus,
who became the occult adviser of the ill-fated Czar
Nicholas II.

Mr. A. E. Waite tells us that, while Papus was
its Grand Master, a Martinist ” Supreme Council ”
was founded with power for the formation of regular

1. Papus, Martines de Pasqually, p. 152.




lodges, male and female members being admitted on equal
terms. This was in 1894. By the year 1899, there were
general and special delegations of the Order established
in a number ‘of European Countries — Great Britain
included — in the United States, the Argentine and
Guatemala and even in more than one Oriental land.

As regards the Martinist relations with Masonry,
Mr. Waite tells us on page 161, Vol. II, of his New Ency-
clopaedia of Freemasonry that Martinism ” had of
course shut its doors against Masons under authorized
obediences. ” Yet we are able to reproduce (see
Appendix IV) a private letter, dated March 26, 1906,
written by ” Dorec ” to Theodore Reuss 33° 90° 96°,
English Mason, etc. in which the latter is incidentally
informed ” that John Yarker is our (‘ the Martinist’)
delegate in London. ”

Another private letter in which Papus refers to
himself as the Delegate of John Yarker for the Swe-
denborg Rite in France is also in existence. Such a
correspondence with one of the most noteworthy Masons
of their day does not look as if Mr. Waite’s information
concerning the alleged feud between Masonry and Mar-
tinism can have been very reliable !

The Martinist sign is :\:

By 1920, Mr. Waite states that Martinism had aban-
doned the Rituals of 1887 and appeared to have become
a clandestine organization!

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII.

For development of this movement see Chapter LI.



(Founded 1760)

The Illuminati of Avignon were founded in 1760
by Antoine Joseph Pernety, an unfrocked Benedictine,
a Cabalist and alchemist. Modified in 1766 by Chas-
tanier, one of the founders of the English Rite of
Swedenborg, this rite was introduced into Paris in
the Lodge Socrates of Perfect Union under the name
of Theosophical Illumines. In 1770, Pernety, founded
La Grande Loge Ecossaise du Comtat Venaissin. This
Lodge was raided in 1774 and its papers confiscated
by order of the Pope. It was revived in 1789

Among its members were Cagliostro and his friend
Baron de Corberon, Mesmer, Marquis de Thome and
the Marquis de Puysegur, self-styled Professor of
” Mesmerism “.

In Les Illumines d’ Avignon by Joanny Bricaud (page
103) we read that ” today, its members having become
affiliated to Martinism, the society has ceased to exist “.
This author also states that the degree of Knight of

1. Marc de Vissac, Dom Pernety et les Illumines d’ Avignon,




the Sun, founded by Pernety, which is divided into
two degrees, forms now the 27th and 28th grades of
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites. 2

2. Joanny Bricaud, Les Illumines d’Avignon, p. 103.



(Founded 1761)


The reader has already been made acquainted with
the formation phase of this rite in Chapters XXVIII-
XXX of this book. We are here therefore mainly con-
cerned with the framework of the order.

This rite, of Jewish origin, has 33 degrees. They are
named as follows : —

Symbolic or Blue Masonry : — the Craft Degrees.
These are practically the same as in Lodges under the
Grand Lodge of England, Scotland and Ireland.

1. Entered Apprentice

2. FeUow Craft

3. Master Mason

Red Masonry or Chapters : — these degrees are
conferred in a Lodge of Perfection, the presiding officer
must be of the 16th degree at least.





Secret Master

x 5.

Perfect Master

x 6.

Intimate Secretary

x 7.

Provost and Judge


Intendant of the Buildings


Elected Knight of Nine or Elect of Nine

+ 10.

Illustrious Master Elect of Fifteen


Sublime Knight Elect

x 12.

Grand Master Architect

x 13.

Royal Arch of Enoch or Knight of the

9th Arch

or Royal Arch of Solomon.

X U.

Scottish Knight of Perfection or Grand


Knight of the Sacred Vault or Sublime


A Council of Princes of Jerusalem confers the next
two degrees : —

x l. r ). Knight of the East or Knight of the Sword
x 16. Prince of Jerusalem

A Chapter of Princes of Rose-Croix confers the next
two degrees : —

x ]7. Knight of the East and West

°18. Knight of the Eagle and Pelican, Sovereign Prince
Rose Croix of H. R. D. M.

Black Masonry, or Philosophical Lodges or Areopagi:
these degrees are conferred in a Consistory of Princes
of the Royal Secret.

°19. Grand Pontiff or Sublime Scotch Mason
°20. Grand Master of all Symbolic Lodges
+ 21. Patriarch Noachite or Prussian Knight
22. Prince of Libanus or Knight of the Royal Axe

xOf Illuminati Origin
°Of Templar Origin
+Of Jewish Origin


003. Chief of the Tabernacle

*o24. Prince of the Tabernacle

°25. Knight of the Brazen Serpent

Prince of Mercy or Scotch Trinitarian
Sovereign Commander of the Temple
Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept
Grand Scottish Knight of St. Andrew
Grand Elected Knight Kadosch.
Illustrious Knight of the Temple
Knight of the White and Black Eagle
Grand Elected Knight Kadosch

“White Masonry is Administrative and consists of
three degrees conferred by the Supreme Councils : —

31. Grand Inquisitor Commander

32. Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret

33. Sovereign Grand Inspector General 1

In A sketch of the Philosophy, Traditions, and records
of the Masonic Order of the Red Cross of Constantine
by the Editor, (see The Rosicrucian and Masonic Record,
page 204) we read : —

” The Premier Conclave of England, which has
existed from time immemorial, gave rise, it is said,
to the foundation of the Council of ‘ Emperors of the
East and West ‘, a body which was established in
Paris about the year 1758 and is considered as the parent
of the Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite. (Compare
with page 336).

” The Scottish Rite “, according to Le Forestier,
” issued from the Chapter of Clermont, as a develop-
ment of the Ramsay Rite. Its foundation dates from

1. Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, The Speculative Mason,
vol. 19, Jan. 1927.



1748 at which period it was introduced into Germany
by Count de Schmettau. ” 2

The Supreme Council is the arch-stone of this edifice
of degrees. It is composed of a minimum of nine and a
maximum of thirty-three members, Grand Inspectors
General of 33°. Is that a secret 33 ? 3

In its present form, the Rite in France dates from
1804. ” At that date the pecuniary situation of the
Grand Central Lodge was however not up to its pretentions.
It was already in debt. Brother de Grasse had personal
debts and Brother Abraham was a man of venal cha-
racter. The Grand Orient paid the debts of the Grand
Scottish Lodge and of Brother de Grasse, making a life

2. R. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc-
magonnerie Allemande, p. 145.

3. Blanchard, Scottish Rite Masonry Illustrated, 33°, vol. II,
p. 451.

” But the one ‘ mission and object’ (Mackey) of Masonry
is kept steadily in view ; which is the worship of the god of
this world, who is Satan, as the ‘ Grand Architect of the Uni-
verse ; ‘ and to accomplish this by inventing ‘ a religion in
which all mankind agree ; ‘ and this, by putting all earth’s
religions upon a level, and uniting them together in Masonic
worship, which is boldly avowed in rituals, lexicons, and
philosophical degrees. This is (in Revelation, XIII, 14) called
the image of the beast, made by ‘ them, that dwell on the
earth’ that is, everybody ; every creed, and no creed ; all who
join the secret lodges. But this world-religion must have some
form, and shape, to hold together ; and be taxed ; hence, it
takes the form, or image, of the beast. Lodge despotism is as
absolute as Romish despotism and is the image of it…

” Note now the profound craft, by which this is to be accom-
plished, viz., Masonry promises men salvation by ceremonies
invented by men, administered by priests, and inhabited by
devils. This is the sum and substance of all the false religions
on earth, and will ultimately unite them against Christ. But
the only opponent Masonry dreads is Christ, who refused to
worship Satan, and his followers. ”


pension of 800 francs to Brother Abraham and pro-
posing the annexation of the Grand Central Lodge to
the Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite among those
recognized by the Grand Orient. ” 4

In 1804, in France, a Supreme Council of Sovereign
Grand Inspectors General of the 33rd degree of the
Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite was duly consti-
tuted. In the construction of this Council, Comte
Alexandre F. A. de Grasse-Tilly, (the son of the Admi-
ral) played a leading part. He had been initiated in
Paris several years before he went to America where
we find him a colonist of San Domingo.

His successor was the Due Decazes.

As regards the development of Scottish Rites in
England, Stillson and Hughan state that : —

” After the Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite had
been established in England, the Templar body re-
signed control over the degrees of the ‘ Rose-Croix ‘
and ‘ Kadosch, ‘ which then became incorporated with
the rite, as the 18th and 30th ; it was therefore neces-
sary to suppress the old ceremonies and relegate them
to Templar history, but they were still retained in
some of the older English encampments.

A revised ritual was issued in 1851 consequent on
the omission of the ‘ Rose-Croix ‘ and ‘ Kadosch ‘. 5

Another authority, Paul Rosen, makes the follow-
ing comment : —

” The philosophy of the degree of Kadosch (30°),
the apotheosis and real aims of Masonic teaching, can
be summed up in the following words : — I, I alone,
All mine, All for me, by any and every means.

4. Histoire du Grand Orient, p. 305, Rennes, 1865.

5. Stillson and Hughan, History of Freemasonry and Con-
cordant Orders, p. 774.



There are seven different ways of carrying out this
programme and consequently seven different grades
of Knight Kadosch which are : —

N° 1. The Jewish Kadosch

N° 2. The Primitive Christian Kadosch

N° 3. The Kadosch of the Crusades

N° 4. The Kadosch of the Templars

N° 5. The Kadosch of the Puritan

N° 6. The Kadosch of the Jesuit

N° 7. The Scottish Kadosch (alone true Freemasonry). 6

Presidents of the United States are honoured by
being made 33rd degree Masons, Scottish Rites. King
Edward VII and countless other magnates were 33rd
degree Masons. What does this prove ? — Unfortuna-
tely nothing!

This is the great deception. The success of the entire
system depends on the solid integrity and political
and social prominence of its affiliates whose virtues
make them valuable as decoys.

” Antient and Accepted Scottish Rites ” runs its
own Secret Service which cooperates with the national
Secret Services of all countries thus serving the aims
and purposes of Internationalism.

Blanchard, himself a high Mason whose masonic
studies were induced by a keen desire to fathom the
truth and impart the result of his discoveries to those
whom he feared might also be duped, thus sums up
Scottish Rites : —

” Let the authoritative teaching of Dr. Mackey be
continually borne in mind, that : — ‘the mission and
object of Masonry is the worship of the Great Architect
of the Universe ‘. It follows that the lodges must have
something for their dupes to do, called worship. And

6. Paul Rosen, Satan et C’ e , p. 142.


what could wicked men and devils invent craftier or
better suited to deceive the simple, than this very-
scheme of ‘ the Ancient Scottish Rite ‘, which now
rules the rites of the world. It seizes and appropriates
all of religion but its holiness and justice ; and all of
Christ but his truth and his atonement. It mixes things
sacred with things profane, till the whole compound
is profanity ; and quoting the Bible’ as if it believed
it true, which notoriously it does not, it has furnished
a dark system, which angels flee from and which devils
inhabit 7 . Every Lodge is a Synagogue of Satan and
its ritual is Sorcery. ” 8

Anyone interested in the rituals etc. of this rite will find
much that is interesting in D. Margiotta’s he Culte
de la Nature dans la Franc-Magonnerie Universelle.

Masonic philosophy is well summarised in the follow-
ing expose made of it by a Jewish mason, Paul Rosen,
in Satan et C ie . —

Official ritual of the 33rd and last degree of Antient
and Accepted Scottish Rites

” For the Sovereign Grand Inspector General
the 33rd is the last degree of the Rite. The Order is
the Great Avenger of the assassinated Grand Master
and the grand champion of humanity, for the innocent
Grand Master is man, man who is Master, King of
Nature, man who is born innocent and unconscious.

” Our innocent Grand Master was born for happi-
ness and for the enjoyment of all rights without excep-

“But he has fallen under the blows of three assas-
sins, three scoundrels have thwarted his happiness
and rights and have annihilated him.

7. Blanchard, 33° op. cit., p. 162.

8. Ibid., p. 462.



” The three infamous assassins are Law, Property
and Religion. 9

” Law, because it is not in harmony with the rights
of the individual man and the duties of social man in
society, rights which belong to all. Duties are but the
immediate consequence of the right inherent in all,
for the enjoyment of all rights.

” Property, because the earth belongs to nobody
and its fruits belong to all in proportion as they are
required by each for the needs of his own well being.

” Religion, because religions are but philosophies
evolved by men of genius and adopted by the people
in the belief that they would increase their well being.

” Neither law, property nor religion can be imposed
on man and as they annihilate him by depriving him
of his most precious rights they are assassins on whom
we have sworn to wreak vengeance, enemies against
whom we have declared war to the death and without

” Of these three infamous enemies it is on religion
that we must concentrate our most deadly attacks,
because no people has ever survived its religion. Once
Religion is dead, Law and Property will fall to our mercy,
and we shall be able to regenerate society by founding
on the corpses of the assassins of man, Masonic
Religion, Masonic Law, and Masonic Property “. 10

Who will not see therein the dreaded theories of
Marxism and Bolshevism and their results, as they are
practised in Russia ?

9. Esoteric explanation of the legend of Hiram.

10. Paul Rosen, op. cit, p. 335. (Documents justificatifs).
Also compare with The Theosophical Society Programme.

For root of this movement see Chapters II, III, IV.



(Founded 1763)

Pope Clement XIV having excommunicated the
Freemasons in 1763, many German Catholics, frigh-
tened by the Papal Bull, definitely renounced the

They formed however another association which,
while restoring their former organization, should not
expose them to the censure of the Vatican and, having
found a protector in the person of one of the most
august German Sovereigns of the day, they secured
an influential German nobleman as Grand Master. Many
distinguished persons joined the ” new ” order which,
like the Freemasons, had laws, words, signs of recog-
nition, reception ceremonies and appointed officers.

One of the principal lodges was at Frankfort.

Adherence to the Roman Catholic faith was de-
clared a requisite of membership, but the rule was not
enforced and as a protection from papal excommuni-
cation a promise, instead of an oath of secrecy, was
exacted from candidates.

Women were eligible to any dignity in the order,
excepting that of Grand Master, which position was
held for life. There were two Lodge Masters or Grand




Mopses in each lodge, one of which was a man and one
a woman, while the lodge was governed six months
by a man and six months by a woman alternately, 1
In Italy, the Mopses called themselves Xeropha-
gists. 2

The following is quoted from an article in Freema-
sonry Universal Vol. 2, part 4, Spring Equinox, 1927 : —

” Mingled with points clearly stolen from the Masonic
ritual, such as the use of the square and compasses,
was the veneration of a sort of mascot which was a
dog, known as the Mopse, and resembled a rather large
pug dog with a curly tail.

” During the ceremony the candidates were admitted
blindfolded and were instructed to kiss something. This
was nothing more nor less than a life sized model of a
mopse, and on the bandage being removed the initiate
found that he or she had kissed the tail end of the dog.
Whether the ceremonies were merely boisterous fooling,
or whether they had any esoteric significance it is
difficult to say, as students differ on the point.

” The Order was certainly at one time wide spread
and popular, but seems to have entirely died out.
Probably its death blow was given by the Revolution,
which swept away so many of the aristocrats of France
and brought secret societies into disrepute, owing ta
the supposed share of the Illuminati in starting that
tremendous upheaval. ”

The statement in the last paragraph can hardly be
accurate as certain official papers are in existence
bearing, as letter head, under the insignia of the double
headed masonic eagle, the following words : —

1. L’Ordre des Franc-Macons Trahi et le Secret des Mopses
revele. Author unknown, Published Amsterdam, 1763.

2. The Rosicmcian and Masonic Record, p. 87.



” Antichi ed Ortodossi Sup.-. Cons.-. Dei/. 33/. Federali
Italiani de Rit/. Scoz/. Ant/, cd Acc/. Delle Valli Sebeto-
ed Oreto e Delle Sorelle Mopse.

Gr/. Orienti D’ Italia Sedenti in Napoli e Palermo.

Sup/. Cons/. Gen/.

These papers bear the date 1902.



( Founded 1 766)

This rite was founded in 1766 by Zinnendorf, the
chief surgeon of the general staff of Berlin and a Knight
Commander in von Hund’s Strict-Observance. Zinnen-
dorf received the rituals and instructions for this order
from a Swede named Cklack.

On Dec. 27 1770, Zinnendorf formed a Grand Lodge
in Berlin with the cooperation of twelve lodges which
had adopted his opinions. On March 29 of the follow-
ing year, he demanded a constitution from the Grand
Lodge of London. This he finally obtained in 1773
through the influence of Prince Louis George Charles
of Hesse-Darmstadt, the Grand Master of the Lodges
following his system. 1

The Rite of Zinnendorf was absorbed at the Convent
of Wolfenbuttel in 1778 into the Lodge of the Three
Globes of Berlin.

1. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Nov. 19, May 6,
1928. p. 397.





(Founded 1773)

The Philaletes, an offshoot of the Martinists, was
founded in Paris on April 28, 1773, within the Lodge
of Les Amis Reunis, by Savalette de Langes, Keeper
of the Royal Treasury, M. de St. James, Comte de
Gebelin, Condorcet and others.

This order was divided into 9 degrees, which were,
Elu, Chevalier Ecossais, Chevalier d’Orient, Chevalier
Rose-Croix, Chevalier du Temple, Philosophe Inconnu,
Philosophe Sublime, Initie, Philalethe ou Maitre a tous

Among its members were Frederic-Louis de Hesse-
Darmstadt, Baron de Gleichen, Willermoz and lAbbe
Sieyes. 1

1. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Nov. 19, May 6
1928, p. 400.

For root of this movement see Chapter XLV.

For development of this movement see Chapter LIII.




(Founded 1776)

The sect of the Illuminati of Bavaria was founded
on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, a professor at the
University of Ingolstadt, educated by the Jesuits.

It was composed of three classes of adepts, each of
which was again subdivided into degrees, in the follow-
ing manner : —

Nursery Minerval

Illuminatus Minor

Symbolic Fellow Craft
Master Mason






Illuminatus Major, or Scotch

Illuminatus Dirigens, or
Scotch Knight

Epopt, or Priest
Prince, or Regent

Magus, or Philosopher,
Rex, King, Homme Roi, or




This society seems to have borne a close resemblance
to the Order of the Golden Cross which was reorga-
nized in 1767.

According to Le Forestier, Illuminism was just as
much Masonry as the system of the Rose Croix, that of
the Templars or the crowd of Masonic French degrees,
and it is wrongfully accused of having taken in Bavaria
the cloak of Masonry. 1

The intention of the Founder was to constitute a
Protestant organization to fight Jesuitism, using Jesu-
itical methods. He was ably assisted in his efforts by
Adolph, Baron von Knigge, Massenhausen, Bode,
Anacharsis Clootz, Fischer, Zwack, Merz, Hertal, the
Marquis de Constanza, Count Saviola, Bassus, Baron
de Montgelas and Nicolai.

Behind Nicola’i was Moses Mendelssohn, and behind
Mendelssohn the Jewish Kahal, the Jewish Interna-
tional World Government. 2

” Nicola’i had established about the year 1765 at
Berlin a literary review with the object of propagating
the pernicious doctrines of a shallow Illuminism, and,
in that, the infancy of German literature, when this
periodical had scarcely a rival to encounter, the
influence it exerted was more extensive than can at
present be even conceived. Bahardt and Basedow, at
the same time, in cheap and popular tracts, scattered
among the lower classes the poison of infidelity ; and
they, as well as Nicola’i, were in close communica-
tion with Weishaupt, carrying on with the most
reckless violence, and with the weapons of a most
shameless ribaldry, the warfare against Christianity.

1. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc-Macon-
nerie Allemande, p. 486.

2. Samuels, Memoirs of Moses Mendelssohn, p. 159, appendix,
Published by Longman & Co.



The great critic Lessing, the founder of the modern
German literature, lent his powerful support to the
anti-Christian League. While librarian at Wolfenbuttel
he edited a work, composed by Reimarus, consisting
of various irreligious essays entitled Fragments of
Wolfenbuttel, and which, from the tone of earnestness
and dialectic acuteness wherein they were written,
exerted a very prejudicial influence over public opi-
nion. ” 3

As the organization of the Illuminati developed, so
did its ambitions, which ended in a plot to subvert
Freemasonry to its aim of world dominion by any and
all means.

Politically speaking, its tendencies were republican ;
religiously, it was anti-christian. Its members were
pledged to blind obedience to their superiors and this
was insured by a strict system of secret confessions, and
monthly reports checked by mutual espionage. Each
individual used a pseudonym instead of his own name
to help disguise his identity.

But for the Freemason Baron Adolph von Knigge,
a Templar, who succeeded in having it absorbed by
Freemasonry, the order would have perished soon after
its creation.

After obtaining control of certain Masonic Lodges,
Weishaupt and his associates recklessly vaunted their
growing power. Their organization then, soon becoming
permeated by the agents of their enemies, the Jesuits
and Rose Croix Orders, they were denounced to the
Elector of Bavaria, Charles Theodore, by the Duchess
Marie-Anne of Bavaria (Princess Clementine), his
cousin whose secretary, Joseph Utzschneider, had,

3. J. A. Moehlen D. D., Symbolism, translated by James
Robertson, pp. 34-36, introduction.



as an Illuminatus, become acquainted with certain
methods of the order.

Constanza had ordered him to hand over certain
letters written by Frederic II to the Duchess Marie-
Anne and, suspecting blackmail, instead of complying
with the request, he denounced the order.

On March 2, 1785, the Elector wrote his second
and final edict, suppressing the order of the Illuminati,
but it was not until July 10, 1785 that incriminating
evidence was obtained on the activities of the sect
when one of its members, a priest, Jacob Lang, was
struck dead by lightning while walking with Weishaupt
at Ratisbon. His body was placed in the chapel of
Saint-Emmeran and a Benedictine found some docu-
ments and a list of the members of the Illuminati sewn
in his clothes. These he handed over to the Councillor
of the Government of Upper Bavaria.

More papers were found when the authorities, who
were watching Zwack’s relations with a certain Jew,
Mayer, the superintendent of Bassus’ chateau of San-
dersdorf, near Ingolstadt, decided to raid the place,
and in 1787 the judge charged with the inventory of
the succession of the valet of Baron Maendl, the Cham-
berlain of the Elector, found among his effects an iron
box full of papers concerning the Illuminati.

This discovery, Maendl, himself an Illuminatus, was
summoned to explain. Among the details of his evidence
is the statement that the Lodge Bader had 97 degrees.
The coincidence of this number becomes of interest
when compared with the 97 degrees of Memphis sent
to England in 1762 by the Grand Orient of France.

When Weishaupt was banished from Bavaria by his
sovereign, he was received at the court of the Duke
Ernest-Louis de Saxe-Gotha who, besides a pension,
gave him the title of Honorary Councillor.



The Marquis of Constanza, his secretary, and Count
Saviola, the Keeper of the Archives of the order, two
Italian accomplices, were also banished with pensions
of 400 and 800 florins respectively, and as Illumi-
nism was already said to have found its way into
Italy, there is no reason to suppose that these
gentlemen failed in their administration of the sub-

In 1788, after the suppression of Illuminism in Bava-
ria, Bahrdt and Knigge attempted to revive it in the
” German Union ” but it was not till 1810 that it really
reappeared in Germany, this time under the name of
The Tugendbund.

The introduction of Illuminism into Prance was
effected by the Marquis de Mirabeau who, during his
residence in Germany, was initiated by Mauvillon, a
professor of the Caroline college at Brunswick. He rose
high in the order, and, on his return to France in Sep-
tember 1788, initiated the Due d’Orleans, who was
Grand Master of the Freemasons of that country, and
also Talleyrand.

Frost, in Secret Societies of the European Revolution
refers to Barruel as asserting ” that the whole of the
Masonic lodges comprised in the Grand Orient, 266
in number, were ‘ illuminated ‘ by the end of March
1789 and there is no doubt that, with the ground so
well prepared by the works of Voltaire and Bousseau,
d’Alembert and Diderot, and with the example and
influence of the Duke of Orleans, and the exertions of
men such as Mirabeau, Talleyrand, Sieyes, and Con-
dorcet, the system spread with rapidity. ” 4

General La Fayette, Barnave, Brissot, La Boche-

4. Thomas Frost, Secret Societies of the European Revolution,
vol. I, p. 53.



foucauld, Payne and Fau:het were also members of
the sect for France. 5

The following curious piece of information is fur-
nished by he Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX 6
Steele by Larousse in the article on ” Illuminisme ” : —

” The Illuminati did not disappear after the last
century. They are still to be found in Germany, England
and Russia where they have formed a queer sect in
which castration is one of the features of initiation.
The taste for the supernatural, the passion of the mar-
vellous constantly urge these mentally unbalanced men
in whom the imagination is fanaticised, to throw them-
selves into the fantastic visions which constitute Illu-
minism. ”

5. Le Foreslier, op. cit, p. 654.

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII.
For development of this movement see Chapters LI I, LV,



(Founded 1786)

The name of Tugendbund or Union of Virtue was
first given to the association of men and women who
met at the house of the Jewess Henrietta Herz whose
husband, Marcus Herz, a Jewish Illuminatus, was the
disciple, friend and successor of Moses Mendelssohn.
Noted Illuminati were frequenters of this abode of
licentiousness about which Graetz, the Jewish his-
torian, wrote :

” The salon of the beautiful Henrietta Herz became
a sort of Midianite tent. Here a number of young
Jewish women assembled whose husbands were kept
away by their business. The most prominent male
member of this circle was Frederick von Gentz, the
embodiment of selfishness, licentiousness, vice and
depravity whose chief occupation was the betrayal of
women. 1

” A so-called Band of Virtue (Tugendbund) was
formed of which Henrietta Herz, two daughters of
Moses Mendelssohn 2 and other Jewesses together with
Christian profligates were members. ”

1. H. Graetz, History of the Jews, vol. V, p. 422.

2. Dorothea and Rebecca Mendelssohn.




He also adds that ” Mirabeau, in whose mind the
storm-charged clouds of the Revolution were already
forming, and to whom the Jews owed so much during
his secret diplomatic embassy (1786) to Berlin, was
more in the society of Henrietta Herz than in that
of her husband. ”

Other frequenters of this salon were William von
Humboldt, Jean Paul Richter, Schleiermacher, a fore-
most Moravian brother, and his friend Frederick

Later, in 1807, a second Tugendbund or Union of
Virtue was formed, a purely political league of which
Thomas Frost wrote : —

” The nucleus of the Association devised by von
Stein which received the name of the Tugendbund,
or League of Virtue, was formed during the latter
months of 1807. His colleagues, Hardenberg and
Scharnhorst; Generals Wittgenstein and Blucher ; Jahn,
a Professor of the Berlin Gymnasium, and Arndt, the
popular author, were amongst the earliest members.
The initiations multiplied rapidly, and the League soon
numbered in its ranks most of the Councillors of State,
many officers of the army, and a considerable number
of the professors of literature and science. By the active
and zealous exertions of Stein, Hardenberg and Jahn,
its ramifications spread quickly from the Baltic to the
Elbe, and all classes were drawn within its influence.
A central directorate at Berlin, presided over by Stein,
had the supreme control of the movement, and exer-
cised, through provincial committees, an authority
all the more potent from emanating from an unknown
source, and which was obeyed as implicitly as the
decrees of Emperor or King. ” 3

3. Thomas Frost, Secret Societies of the European Revolution,
vol. I. p. 183.



With Heckethorn, we follow the Tugendbund fur-
ther, for he tells us that after its suppression by the
police of Napoleon I, the Tugendbund continued
” concealing itself however more strictly than before
in the masonic brotherhood. ” 4

One of its first acts ” was to send auxiliary corps to
assist the Russians in the campaign of 1813. Prussia
having, by the course of events, been compelled to
abandon its temporizing policy, Gneisenau, Scharn-
horst and Grollmann embraced the military plan of
the Tugendbund. A levy en masse was ordered. The
conduct of these patriots is matter of history. But,
like other nations, they fought against Napoleon to
impose on their country a more tyrannical government
than that of the foreigner had ever been. They fought
as men only fight for a great cause, and those who
died fancied they saw the dawn of German freedom.
But those who survived saw how much they were
deceived. The Tugendbund, betrayed in its expecta-
tions, was dissolved ; but its members increased the
ranks of other societies already existing, or about to
be formed ” such as the ‘ Black Knights ‘ under Jahn,
‘ The Knights of the Queen of Prussia ‘, ‘ The Concor-
dists ‘ under Dr. Lang and the Deutscher Bund, foun-
ded in 1810.”

The Tugendbund was revived in the Burschens-
chaft, or associations of students of the universities,
where they introduced gymnastics and martial exer-
cises, but the organization was broken up and its
objects frustrated, after the stabbing of Kotzebue by
a student. It revived between 1830-33. It is said to
have failed again.

4. Heckethorn, op. cit, vol. II, p. 187 et seq.
For root of this movement see Chapter LI.




(Founded 1786)

The Bishop of Autun (Talleyrand), Mirabeau, and the
Due d’Orleans, Grand Master of the Grand-Orient
de France founded a Lodge in Paris in 1786 which
was duly ” illuminated ” by Bode and Guillaume Baron
de Busche. This was the Club Breton which afterwards
became known as the Jacobin Club, a name of Templar
origin, recalling that of Jacques de Molay.

Le Forestier in Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc-
Maconnerie Allemande gives the substance of a book
written by Girtaner, quoting the latter as to the funds
available at that date for revolution.

” In his Nouvelles Historiques et considerations poli-
tiques sur la Revolution Frangaise (1793) the Swiss
Girtaner, an ex-freemason who had joined the ranks
of the enemies of the sect, states that, from 1786,
there had existed in Paris a Propaganda Club whose
chiefs were then the Due de la Rochefoucauld, Grand
Master of the Lodge in the rue Coq-Heron, Condorcet
and Sieyes and that the aim of the organization was
to further the triumph of dogmatic Atheism and create
a great social upheaval.




” The members charged with spreading the pro-
ganda of the subversive principles of the club numbered
50,000. In 1790, it had twenty thousand livres at its
disposal, but by the end of 1791, these had increased
to thirty millions. ” 1

The conspiracy formed by Philippe of Orleans (Due
de Chartres, Masonic name, ” Egalite “) to overthrow
Louis XVI, was directed by Sillery and Mirabeau and,
of the 605 elected members of the Tiers Etat, 477
deputies were Freemasons. 2

Revolutions cost money. ” L’Or de Pitt” (Pitt’s
gold) had to go through some channel that would not
compromise the English government and, in dealing
with such a delicate matter as the fostering of revolution
in a foreign country, it was good policy to organize a
similar movement at home which however should
remain abortive, being led by Lord Stanhope, Pitt’s

In this connection, the history and failure of Wolfe
Tone’s Bantry Bay expedition is interesting.

The history of the Terror in the French Revolution of
1793 is the history of lodges such as that of the Phila-
letes, among whose members the following Jacobin
leaders are known to us chiefly for their uncompro-
mising bestiality.

Among the members of the ” Club de la Propagande ”

Condorcet, Due de la Rochefoucauld, Sieyes, de Beauharnais,
Charles Theodore Lameth.

Among the members of the Lodge ” Les Amis Beunis ”
Babeuf, Ceruty, Marat, Hebert, Dupont.

1. Le Forestier, Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc-Magon-
nerie Allemande, p. 635.

2. Louis Aimablc, Les Neuf Sceurs. La R.\ L„\,



Among the members of the Lodge ” Les Xeuf Soeurs ” 3

Condorcet, Jean Sylvain Bailly, Emmanuel Joseph Sieves,
Dom Gerle, Claude Fauchet, Jean Pierre Brissot, Benoit
Camille Desmoulins, Cerutti, Danton, Nicolas de Bonne-
ville, Babaud Saint Etienne, Lalande, Due de la Roche-

Among the members of the ” Amis des Noirs ”
(Founded 1787)

Brissot, Sieyes, Condorcet, Mirabeau (the elder) Due de la
Rochefoucauld, Pelletier de St. Fargeau, Lafayette, Gorsas,
Valadi, Carra.

Other prominent Jacobin Freemasons of the Revolution
of 1793 were :

Guillotin. Dupui, Fouche, Robespierre, Collot-d’Herbois,

According to Barruel (Histoire du Jacobinisme, vol. II,
page 446 et seq.) the last mentioned lodge of the ” Amis
des Noirs ” appears to have been only the cover name
behind which operated the Comite Regulateuf or
Central Committee of the combined lodges and clubs.
An international organization with foreign branches in
America and Europe, the deliberations of this group of
conspirators were sent to the Central Committee of the
Grand Orient from where they were relayed to the
provinces, addressed to the various Worshipful Masters
or Presidents of the Lodges. This group according to
Barruel, was the central guiding committee of the Revo-
lution. The ” Club Regulateur ” is said to have num-
bered at least 500,000 brothers.

Lafayette (Loge de la Candeur), when he marched on
Versailles at the head of 15,000 national guardsmen
and brought the King back to Paris, was already, pre-

• Louis Aimable, op. cit.



sumably, fully informed of Dupont’s plan of revolution
which he himself and Mirabeau had approved at a
session of the ” Amis Reunis ” early in June.

While remarking that the vote for the death of the
King of France, Louis XVI, was carried by a majority
of one, Pignatel 4 further states that, in consequence of
certain irregularities in the balloting, some five votes
for death were cast by unqualified persons while four
others voted twice.

After the storm of revolution had subsided, the power
in France seems to have been vested in the Comite de
Salut Public, but the 300 who controlled France and
of whose power we read in Memoirs of the time 5 were
the 300 masonic leaders. That they in turn were con-
trolled by a small clique is obvious. Even the 300
masonic leaders of the French Revolution of 1793 seem
to have had their successors in modern history —
Rathenau mentioned them in his works.

One of the most interesting episodes of the French
Revolution was that known as the Conspiracy of Babeuf.
Babeuf formed the Society of the Pantheon which,
according to Professor Laski, 6 was operated by ” a
secret committee of direction. Among them were some
extraordinary men, Darthe, Sylvain Marechal, Germain
and Buonarroti, who was to survive them all and be
their historian. ”

The particular brand of communism favoured by the
conspirators was based on the theory that the poor
could not help themselves or improve their position, that
the rich must be suppressed and that the ideal state

4. Fernand Pignatel, Batailles Maconniques, p. 143.

5. Autobiography of Wolfe Tone.

6. Harold J. Laski, The Socialist Tradition in the French



could only be reached by class war, and a dictatorship
of the proletariat led by the Babouvists. Prof. Lasky
remarks that anyone who reads the voluminous lite-
rature of this period ” with attention and compares the
habits it postulates with the operations of Bolshevism,
cannot help being impressed by the resemblance. ”

The Babouvist movement though suppressed by the
Directory in 1796 survives today having successfully
penetrated an English Literary Society called the
Fabians where its predatory principles pass for Socia-

For root of this movement see Chapter LI.
For development of this movement see Chapters LXV,



( Founded prior to 1 790)

In an address by Col. W. J. B. Macleod Moore, of
the Grand Cross of the Temple Royal Arch, Grand
Prior of the Dominion of Canada, published in The
Rosicrucian and Masonic Record, page 167, we find that,
in America, Templarism is founded on the craft degrees
of Masonry and that one is inseparable from the other.

The earliest records in the United States of a Templar
Lodge meeting are dated 1790.











(Founded 1791)

In 1791, the Society of The United Irishmen was
founded by Theobald Wolfe Tone and Napper Tandy,
both of whom were high in rank in the Masonic lodges.
The organization sought to unite Catholics, Protestants
and Dissenters in order to throw off the oppressive yoke
of England or, to use the graphic language of Tone
himself, ” to subvert the tyranny of our execrable govern-
ment, to break the connection with England, the never-
failing source of all our political evils, and to assert the
independence of my country — these were my objects.
To unite the whole people of Ireland. ” 1

The priesthood and the nobles however stood solidly
behind the English power ; but the social conditions
imposed by England on its Irish-Catholic subjects
rendered that country a fertile soil for the sowing of
the Revolutionary seed. These disabilities are described
by Lecky in the following article which appeared in
Macmillan’s Magazine, January, 1873.

” To sum up briefly their provisions, they (the Eng-
lish) excluded the Catholics from the Parliament,

1. The Autobiography of Wolfe Tone, p. 51.




from the magistracy, from the corporations, from the
university, from the bench and from the bar, from the
right of voting at parliamentary elections or at vestries
of acting as constables, as sheriffs, or as jurymen, of
serving in the army or navy, of becoming solicitors
or even holding the position of gamekeeper or watch-
man. They prohibited them from becoming school-
masters, ushers, or private tutors, or from sending
their children abroad to receive the Catholic education
they were refused at home. They offered an annuity
to every priest who would forsake his creed, pronounced
a sentence of exile against the whole hierarchy, and
restricted the right of celebrating the mass to registered
priests, whose number, according to the first intention
of the Legislature, was not to be renewed. The Catholics
could not buy land, or inherit or receive it as a gift
from Protestants, or hold life annuities, or leases for
more than thirty-one years, or any lease on such terms
that the profits of the land exceeded one-third of the
rent. A Catholic, except in the linen trade, could have
no more than two apprentices. He could not have a
horse of the value of more than £5, and any Protestant
on giving him £5 might take his horse. He was compelled
to pay double to the militia. In case of war with a
Catholic Power, he was obliged to reimburse the damage
done by the enemy’s privateers. To convert a Protestant
to Catholicism was a capital offence. No Catholic
might marry a Protestant. Into his own family circle
the elements of dissension were ingeniously introduced.
A Catholic landowner might not bequeath his land as he
pleased. It was divided equally among his children,
unless the eldest son became a Protestant, in which
case the parent became simply a life tenant, and lost all
power either of selling or mortgaging it. If a Catholic s
wife abandoned her husband’s religion, she was immo-



diately free from his control, and the Chancellor could
assign her a certain proportion of her husband’s pro-
perty. If his child, however young, professed itself a
Protestant, he was taken from his father’s care, and the
Chancellor could assign it a portion of its father’s
property. No Catholic could be guardian either to his
own children or to those of another. ”

The investigations of R. C. Clifford detailed in his
book The Application of Jacobinism to the Secret Societies
of Ireland and Great Britain led this author to the con-
clusion that The United Irishmen and The Illuminati
bore one another a close resemblance and, in his Diary,
Wolfe Tone himself refers frankly to having on ” seve-
ral occasions pressed his friends the Jacobins to try
to extend their clubs through the North. ” 2

The history of the United Irishmen is largely the
history of Theobald Wolfe Tone.

In a note to page 77 of his Autobiography, we are
given the following information concerning the origin
of The United Irishmen. “Before Tone’s arrival in
Belfast a political club, composed of Volunteers, and
directed by a Secret Committee, was in existence.
Among the members of the club were Neilson, 3 Russell,
the Simses, Sinclair, McTier and Macabe after which
Tone remarks ” Mode of doing business by a Secret
Committee, who are not known or suspected of co-ope-
rating, but who, in fact, direct the movements of
Belfast. ”

After also drawing attention to the above, Captain
Pollard in The Secret Societies of Ireland, page 14, pro-

2. The Autobiography of Wolfe Tone, p. 51.

3. Samuel Neilson (1761-1803), referred to in Tone’s Auto-
biography as ” The Jacobin “. He was the founder of The
Northern Star, the first organ of the society in the press.



ceeds to make the following observation : — « The
enormous influence of the French revolution had
begun to make itself felt in the councils of the secret
associations, Jacobin missionaries spread the doctrine
of the revolution, and a new spirit of militant republi-
canism was born. These emissaries from France aimed
at bringing England low, and spreading the doctrine
of world-revolution by means of an alliance between
the Catholic malcontents of the south and the Republi-
can Presbyterians of the north. ”

Suppressed in 1794, the order had reorganized in 1795
as a secret republican revolutionary society with sub-
ordinate societies and committees and had absorbed
that of The Defenders.

John Keogh was the leader of the Roman Catholic
branch of the movement among the other supporters
of which were Archibald Hamilton Rowan, Robert
Emmett, Thomas Addis Emmett, Arthur O’Connor and
Lord Edward Fitzgerald.

In 1795, having become seriously implicated in the
treasonable activities of the Rev. William Jackson, an
emissary of the French Government to the Irish Revo-
lutionaries, Tone went to America where he saw the
French Minister Citizen Adet. With his approval and
instructions, Wolfe Tone sailed for France on Jan.
1, 1796 where he spent the remainder of his days
planning the downfall of England. He held that ” unless
they can separate England from Ireland, England is
invulnerable. ” 4

From the beginning of his French intrigues, he feared
treason to his cause and, in his diary, we find the follow-
ing entry dated March 21, 1796, quoting General
Clark in a conversation he had just had with him :

4. The Autobiography of Wolfe Tone, op. cit., p. 242.



” Even in the last war when the volunteers were in
force ” said the General ” and a rupture between England
and Ireland seemed likely, it was proposed in the
French Council to offer assistance to Ireland, and
overruled by the interest of Comte de Vergennes, then
Prime Minister, who received for that service a con-
siderable bribe from England, and that he (General Clark)
was informed of this by a principal agent in paying
the money. So, it seems, we had a narrow escape of
obtaining our independence fifteen years ago. It is
better as it is for then we were not united amongst
ourselves, and I am not clear that the first use we
should have made of our liberty would not have been
to have begun cutting each other’s throats : so out of
evil comes good. I do not like this story of Vergennes,
of the truth of which I do not doubt. How if the devil
should put it into any one’s head here to serve us so
this time ! Pitt is as cunning as hell, and he has money
enough, and we have nothing but assignats ; I do not
like it at all… ” 5

Six months after his arrival in Paris, Tone received
a commission in the French army, and with the assis-
tance of the Directory, General Hoche and others
organized the ill fated Bantry Bay expedition of 1796.
Every effort to thwart their plans was made by the
French navy till, as Tone tells us in an entry dated
Nov. 14 to 18, ” Villaret de Joyeuse, the Admiral, is
cashiered, and we have got another in his place. Joyeuse
was giving, underhand, all possible impediment to
our expedition. ”

His successor, Rear-Admiral Bruix, however, seems
to have shared the indifference of his predecessor
in Irish matters, and the fact that it was ” always in

1. Ibid., p. 290.



their (the navy’s) power to make us miscarry ” is men-
tioned by Tone in his diary.

On Dec. 15, the expedition finally started and on the
17th, in a fog, the Fraternite with two of the Admirals
and General Hoche aboard got separated from the rest
of the fleet leaving Tone and General Grouchy with
only about half of the original expeditionary force at
their disposal.

Tone’s efforts to effect a landing at Bantry Bay were
frustrated by Grouchy’s dilatory tactics and on Dec.
26 we find the following entry in Tone’s Diary :
” Last night, at half after six o’clock, in a heavy gale
of wind still from the east, we were surprised by the
Admiral’s frigate running under our quarter, and hailing
the Indomptable (Tone’s ship) with orders to cut our
cable and put to sea instantly ; the frigate then pursued
her course, leaving us all in the utmost astonishment. ”

Did Wolfe Tone think of Vergennes then ? History
fails to tell us !

The activities of The United Irishmen ended with the
uprising of 1798 and another attempt by the French
to land troops on Irish soil. This rebellion was however
also crushed, and Wolfe Tone, who was taken prisoner
and ordered to be hanged, cut his throat in his cell.

For root of this movement see Chapter LIII.
For development of this movement see Chapters LXIII,




(Founded 1795)

The Battle of the Diamond between the Peep-o’-Day
Boys and the Defenders took place on Sept. 21, 1795.

We cannot improve on Captain Pollard’s documented
information in The Secret Societies of Ireland from
which we quote :

” On the evening of the battle a number of the
delegates of the Peep-o’-Day Boys met at the house of
Thomas Wilson at Loughgall. There and then the name
of the Society was changed to The Orange Society,
and a grand lodge and subsidiary lodges initiated.
The ritual was founded on Freemasonry (1° York Rite),
and the legend was that of the Exodus of the Israelites.

” The original Peep-o’-Day Society had been con-
fined to the lower orders, but with the change in
Orangeism the upper classes began to take place and
rank in the organization which was secretly fostered by
the Government as a counter-poise against the seditious
United Irishmen. 1 ”

” Prom 1828, the Orange Society was under the

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 20.




Grand Mastership of the Duke of Cumberland, and
in 1835 there were no less than 140,000 Orangemen in
England, 40,000 being in London alone. These members
were not Irish Orangemen, but purely English, and
they were engaged in a plot which recalls the best
traditions of the Palais Royal and Philippe-Egalite.
The purpose of the plot was to establish the Duke of
Cumberland as King of England, on the plea that
William IV was still insane and the Princess Victoria
a woman and a minor. ” 2

” The revolutionary mechanism staged by the
Orangemen was in many ways similar to that of the
Orleanist party of Philippe. Wild rumours were set
about. Colonel William Blennerhasset Fairman, Deputy
Grand Secretary of the Orange Society, was the ruling
spirit of the organization, and he conspired to such end
that 381 loyal lodges were established in Great Britain.
Another thirty were in the army, and branches were in
many of the colonies.

” The conspiracy prospered from 1828 to 1835,
when it was exposed by Mr. Hume, M. P., and a Com-
mittee of Enquiry in the Commons was granted. As
the conspiracy, however, implicated half the Tory
peers, some of the Bishops and most of the Army,
everything passed off quietly; important witnesses
vanished, and the Duke of Cumberland as Grand
Master decreed the dissolution of the Orange Society
in England without recourse to violence. ”

” The Volunteer movement began in 1914 in Ulster
as the direct consequence of an attempt on the part of
the Liberal Government to force the Home Rule Bill
on that province. This unfortunate measure had passed
the Houses despite the most rigid Unionist opposition,

2. Pollard, op. cit, p. 41.



but Ulster had no intention of surrendering to its provi-
sions without a struggle. The situation portended Civil
War. A ‘ Solemn League and Covenant ‘, to resist it,
was drawn up, and Ulster, organizing largely through
the Orange Lodges, recruited an Ulster Volunteer
Force which was completely organized throughout the
North. ”

” The Orange Lodges had been reorganized in 1885,
when Gladstone introduced the threatening Home Rule
Bill. Prior to this the Order had somewhat relapsed
and had been little more than a convivial friendly
society. The threat of Home Rule brought it once more
to the fore as a powerful political organization, and the
Ulster electorate, which had until then been predomi-
nantly Liberal, became and remained solidly Unionist.
The membership of the order expanded enormously,
and the existing mechanism adapted itself to the new
needs of the old motto, ‘ No surrender. ‘

” The Orange Lodges had been legally drilling since
January 5, 1912, when application was made to the
Belfast Justices for leave to drill on behalf of Colonel
R. H. Wallace, C. B., Grand Master of the Belfast and
Grand Secretary of the Provincial Grand Lodge of
Ulster ; but, the skeleton organization had long been
in existence, as was evident by the splendidly disci-
plined marching of the Lodges at the great Craigavon
meeting in Sept. 1911. 3

The Ulster Volunteers, under Sir Edward Carson,
rejected all suggestions for partition and proclaimed
their intention of smashing once and for all the whole
Home Rule movement.

The Irish Volunteers while claiming Home Rule
refused to consent to the exclusion of Ulster on the

3. Ibid., p. 125.



ground that Ulster being Ireland it should remain
Ireland, thus annulling all the efforts of Mr. Asquith,
England’s Prime Minister, to effect a compromise.

Further quoting Pollard : ” Affairs became more
and more chaotic and at last John Redmond, the leader
of the Home Rule party, realized in some measure what
a menace the Irish Volunteer movement was becoming.

” He decided to attempt to control them… He tried
to raise funds for the advertised purpose of purchasing
arms at some future date, but before this came about
the members of the original committee purchased a
stock of serviceable weapons with money supplied by
the Irish Republican Brotherhood and succeeded in
running the cargoes in at Kilcool and Howth. ” 4

Then came the declaration of war between Britain
and Germany and the part played by Ireland during
the World war is a matter of history.

Interlocked with the history of the Irish Republican
Brotherhood, The Clan-na-Gael and Sinn Fein, the
activities of this society after 1914 can be followed
in the articles on these other organizations.

4. Ibid., p. 131.

For root of this movement see Chapter LV.
For development of this movement see Chapters LXXXVIII
and CXVI.




(Founded 1798)

The Philadelphians, a Royalist Anti-Bonapartist
Secret Society, was founded on masonic lines about 1798
at Besancon, France, by General Malet and organized
by a Freemason, Lieutenant Colonel Oudet.

Using England as a base of operations, it cooperated
for a while with the ” Chouans ” whose chief, Pichegru,
was eventually captured and executed by order of the

After this event, the Philadelphians adopted the
name of The Olympians. Most of them however, includ-
ing Oudet, were shot from ambush the day after the
battle of Wagram, the responsibility for their deaths
being placed on Napoleon I.

In 1812 General Malet formed a conspiracy to over-
throw the Empire. Among those implicated were
Generals Moreau, Talleyrand, Trochot, the Comte de
Noailles, the Comte de Montmorency and Fouche, who
was then under the cloud of Napoleon’s displeasure.
General Massena, Grand Master of the Grand Orient,
who at that time was in disgrace, was to have been
offered the command of the troops. This daring plot




almost succeeded and Fouche says that Malet carried
with him to the grave ” the secret of one of the boldest
conspiracies which the Grand Epoch of the Revolution
has bequeathed to history. ” 1

General Moreau, who had gone to settle in America
returned to France in 1813, the last of the leaders of the
Olympians. He died Sept. 2 from a wound received
some days earlier.

A few moments after the death of Moreau, the Senate
pronounced the deposition of Napoleon and carried out
the programme of the Olympians.

1. Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of the European Revo-
lution, vol. I, p. 175.



(Founded 1799)

Rev. E. Cahill, S. J., in his book Freemasonry and
the Anii-Christian Movement, page 143, names The
Scottish Philosophic Rite as one of the principal divisions
of Freemasonry, and he writes :

” The Scottish Philosophic Rite is practised by the
Masons subject to the Lodge Alpina in Switzerland.
This latter Grand Lodge, which is among those formally
recognized by the Grand Lodges of the British Isles,
is of special importance, as it is not unfrequently utilised
as a kind of liaison body by the different rites and lodges
of the several jurisdictions all over the world in their
negotiations with each other. ”

For root of this movement see Chapter XLVI.





(Founded 1804)

In an address by Col. W. J. B. Macleod Moore, of
the Grand Cross of the Temple Royal Arch, Grand
Prior of the Dominion of Canada, printed in The Rosi-
crucian and Masonic Record (page 165), we obtain the
following salient points of English Templar history :

” In 1791, we find the Templar Rite styled ‘ Grand
Elect Knights Templar Kadosh, of St. John of Jerusa-
lem, Palestine, Rhodes, and Malta’, thus combining the
modern and more ancient titles… In 1848 after the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 33° had been
established in England, the Templar body resigned
control over the Rose Croix and Kadosh, which had
been incorporated into the Ancient and Accepted Rite
as the 18th and 30th degrees. It was therefore necessary
to suppress the old ceremonies and confine themselves
to the Templar alone and to change the name into the
degree of ‘ Masonic Knights Templar ‘. This title was
not used in England before 1851, although the term
Masonic appears in the warrants of Admiral Dunkerley




between 1791 1 and 1796… Until 1853 the Order of the
Temple and Malta remained combined.

” In 1863 the Grand Conclave again formally re-
vived the Maltese Order, with a considerable ritual, but
as a separate degree instead of combined with the Tem-
plars as it had been before 1853. ”

The following, borrowed from The History of Freema-
sonry and Concordant Orders, a work by Stillson and
Hughan, reputed authorities on Masonic matters, gives
us the history of Modern English Templarism.

” In 1867-68 a proposal was promulgated to unite
the branches of the Order in England, Ireland and
Scotland, under one head ; andH.\ R.\ II. – . the Prince
of Wales, who had been initiated into Masonry and the
Templar degree in Sweden, consented, in 1869, to assume

the Grand Mastership of the Templars of the United
Kingdom. On the 7th April, 1X7.’?, II.-. R.\ H.\

was installed Grand Master… This assumption by
II. – . R.\ II. – . the Prince of Wales, to use the words
of the Arch-Chancellor of the Order, Sir Patrick Col-
quhoun, ‘ effected a perfect reformation of the Order,
and procured for it a status it had hitherto not enjoyed,
even under the Duke of Kent, who must be practically
regarded as its founder, with the additional advantage
of H.\ R.\ IT.-, being al once head of the Craft and
Temple ; indeed, it may be said that as the Order was
reformed in 1804-7 by the Duke of Kent, so it was
again refounded under his grandson, the Prince of Wales,
in 1873 ‘. At this date the Order assumed the name of
United Religious and Military Order of the Temple and
of St. John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta. ”

1. The close connection between Grand Lodge and English
Templarism, prior to 1791, is established in an article by T. B.
Whytehead, in The Rosicrucian and Masonic Record, pp. 317
and 325.


Macleod Moore informs us that in 1813 the Craft
degrees, including the. Royal Arch, ‘were alone recognized
as pure and ancient Freemasonry and that the posses-
sion of the Royal Arch degree in modern times has been,
and is now, considered quite sufficient to preserve the
link between the Temple Order and Freemasonry.



(Founded 1804)

Heckethorn in his well-known book Secret Societies
of all Ages and Countries gives the following graphic
description of the foundation of this order.

” We read that several lords of the Court of
Louis XIV, including the Duke de Gramont, the Mar-
quis of Biran, and Count Tallard, formed a secret society,
whose object was pleasure. The society increased.
Louis XIV, having been made acquainted with its
statutes, banished the members of the Order, whose
denomination was, ‘ A slight Resurrection of the Tem-
plars. ‘

” In 1705, Philippe, Duke of Orleans, 1 collected the
remaining members of the society that had renounced
its first scope to cultivate politics. A Jesuit father,
Bonanni, a learned rogue, fabricated the famous list of
supposititious Grand Masters of the Temple since Molay,
beginning with his immediate successor, Larmenius. No
imposture was ever sustained with greater sagacity.
The document offered all the requisite characteristics
of authenticity, and was calculated to deceive the most

1. Later Regent of France during the minority of Louis XV.



experienced paheologist. Its object was to connect the
new institution with the ancient Templars. To render
the deception more perfect, the volume containing the
false list was filled with minutes of deliberations at
fictitious meetings under false dates. Two members
were even sent to Lisbon, to obtain if possible a docu-
ment of legitimacy from the ‘ Knights of Christ ‘, an
Order supposed to have been founded on the ruins of
the Order of the Temple. But the deputies were un-
masked and very badly received : one had to take refuge
in England, the other was transported to Africa, where
he died.

” But the society was not discouraged; it grew, and
was probably the same that concealed itself before the
outbreak of the revolution under the vulgar name
of the Society of the Bull’s Head and whose mem-
bers were dispersed in 1792. At that period the
Duke of Cosse-Brissac was Grand Master. When on his
way to Versailles with other prisoners, there to undergo
their trial, he was massacred, and Ledru, his physician,
obtained possession of the charter of Larmenius and the
MS. statutes of 1705. These documents suggested to
him the idea of reviving the order ; Fabre-Palaprat, a
Freemason, was chosen grand master. Every effort
was made to create a belief in the genuineness of the
Order. The brothers Fabre, Arnal, and Leblond hunted
up relics. The shops of antiquaries supplied the sword,
mitre, and helmet of Molay, and the faithful were shown
his bones, withdrawn from the funeral pyre on which
he has been burned. ” 2

This presumably is the particular Templar sect
that furnished Isaac Long with all the Templar

2. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries,
vol. I, p. 302 et seq.



bric-a-brac that found its way to Charleston in 1804
” As in the Middle Ages, the society exacted that aspi-
rants should be of noble birth ; such as were not were
ennobled by it. Fourteen honest citizens of Troyes
on one occasion received patents of nobility and convin-
cing coats of arms. ”

The order founded its first Lodge on Dec. 23, 1805,
deriving from the Grand Orient of France.

From 1805 to 1815, the brother Francisco Alvaro da
Silva, Knight of the Order of Christ, secret agent in
Paris of John VI of Portugal, was a member of the order.
He knew its secret history from its organizers, and in
1812 became its Chief Secretary.

In 1814, Fabre-Palaprat found a Greek manuscript of
the 15th century, containing a chapter of St. John the
Evangelist which conflicted on many points with the
Gospel inserted in the canons of the Roman Church
and preceded by a sort of introduction and commen-
tary entitled Leviticon. He forthwith determined to
appropriate this doctrine to his order, which was thus
transformed from a perfectly orthodox association into
a schismatic sect. The author of this work was a monk
at Athens called Nicephorus. He was a member of the
Sufi sect, one which professes the doctrines of the Ancient
Lodge of Cairo.

” Those knights that adopted its doctrines made
them the basis of a new liturgy, which they rendered
public in 1833 in a kind of Johannite church. ”

The Order of the Temple of Paris described by
Heckethorn, as stated above, gives a list of the names
of the successors of Jacques de Molay as follows. Other
Templars, who do not admit the legality of the Grand
Mastership of Larmenius, give different lists of Grand
Masters :


John Mark Larmenius 1314
Thomas Theobald Alexandrinus…. 1324

Arnold de Braque 1340

John de Claremont 1349

Bertrand du Guesclin 1357
John Arminiaeus 1381
Bertrand Arminiaeus 1392
John Arminiaeus 1419

John de Croy 1451

Bernard Imbault 1472
Robert Senoncourt 1478
Galeatino de Salazar 1497
Philip Chabot 1516

Gaspard de Jaltiaco Tavanensis 1544

Henry de Montmorency 1574

Charles de Valois 1615

James Ruxellius de Granceio 1651

Due de Duras 1681

Philippe Due d’Orleans 1705

Due de Maine 1724

Louis Henry Bourbon 1737

Louis Francis Bourbon 1741

Due de Cosse Brissac 1776

Claude M. R. Chevillon 1792

Bernard R. Fabre-Palaprat 1804

Admiral Sir Sidney Smith 1838 to 1840

This list is quoted from a manuscript of A. G. Mackey
in the possession of the writer.



Stillson and Hughan, giving no date of foundation,
state that :

” The Swedish Templars assert that Templary was
introduced there by a nephew of De Molay, who was a
member of the new Order of Christ in Portugal, and
they now, with Denmark and other nationalities of
Germany, practised the reformed system of the obsolete
Templar rite of the ‘ Strict Observance ‘. ” 1

1 Strict Observance ‘ was Templarism.

1. Stillson and Hughan, History of Freemasonry and Concor-
dant Orders, p. 790.

For root of this movement see Chapter XLIV.



(Founded 1805)

This rite had 90 degrees. It was founded in 1805
at Milan by Le Changeur, Clavel, Marc Bedarride and
Joly, and was introduced into France in 1816.

Its trials of initiation were long and difficult, and
founded on what is recorded of the Egyptian and
Eleusinian mysteries.

Heckethorn states that this rite is essentially auto-
cratic there being no obligation on the Grand Master
to account for his actions.

In the Rosicrucian for January 1871 we read the
following notice (page 136).

” We have great pleasure in announcing that this
philosophic Masonic Rite (Ancient and Primitive Rite
of Mizraim) has been recently established in England
under authority derived from the Grand Council of
Rites for France, and that the Conservators General
held a meeting at Freemasons Tavern, on Wednesday,
the 28th December. The principal chairs were filled
by 111. Bros. Wentworth Little 90° ; the Rt. Hon.
The Earl of Limerick 90°; and S. Rosenthal 90°;
by whom the ‘ Bective ‘ Sanctuary of Levites — the
33rd of the Rite — was duly opened…




It was then anounced that the following brethren had
accepted office in the Rite : The Rt. Hon. the Earl of
Bective, Sovereign Grand Master, etc., etc. ”

The Rite of Mizraim was amalgamated with that of
Memphis in 1775, when John Yarker, as stated by
Freke Gould 1 ” sanctioned the communication of the
degrees of Mizraim to members of the Rite of Memphis,
the former having no separate governing body in this
country ” (England).

” According to an official statement, repeated in
every number of the Kneph : ” France (having) aban-
doned the Rite, and the 111. Gd. Hierophant, J. E.
Marconis, 33°, 97°, having died in 1868, Egypt took
full possession. The Craft Gd. Lodge, our Antient and
Primitive Rite, and the Antient and Accepted Rite,
executed a tripartite Treaty to render mutual aid, and
restored the Sov. Gd. Mystic Temple — Imp. Council
Cen., 96°, presided over by a Gd. Hierophant, 97°,
in 1775. ”

Essentially Jewish, the historical activities of this
order to date are interesting.

Some years ago, a document to which the reader
must be referred, The Protocols of the Wise Men or
Elders of Zion 2 , was brought to light. Abstracted from
a Jewish Lodge of Mizraim in Paris, in 1884, by Joseph
Schorst, later murdered in Egypt, it embodied the pro-
gramme of esoteric Judaism. Schorst was the son of
a man who, in 1881, had been sentenced in London
to ten years penal servitude for counterfeiting.

Before studying these Protocols however, the reader
should be made acquainted with a few facts.

This document was first published in 1905 at Tsarskoe

1. Robert Freke Gould, The History of Freemasonry, vol. II,
p. 135.

2. L. Fry, Waters Flowing Eastward.



Selo (Russia), embodied in a book called The Great
Within the Small written by Sergius A. Nilus.

In January 1917, a second edition, revised and
documented, was ready, but before it could be put on
the market for distribution and sale, the revolution
had taken place (March 1917), and the Provisional
Government had been replaced by that of Kerensky
who himself gave the order to have the whole edition
of S. A. Nilus’s book destroyed. It was burnt.

A few copies however had been distributed, one of
them found its way to England, one to Germany and
one again to the United States of America in 1919.
In each of these three countries, a few people deter-
mined to make a close study of the document with the
result that it was soon published everywhere.

In England, it was and still is published by an orga-
nization called ” The Britons “.

In Germany, a remarkable work was done by Gott-
fried zum Beck.

In France, it was published by Mgr. Jouin of the
Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes and by the
fearless M. Urbain Gohier of Vieille France.

In the United States, two anonymous editions were
published, one by Small Maynard of Boston, and the
other, later, by the Beckwith Company.

Then editions appeared in Italian, Russian, Arabic
and even Japanese.

No sooner had the document been made public
than loud protests were heard coming from all sections
of dispersed Israel. Writers and lecturers were recruited
to deny the assertion and shatter the growing belief
of a Jewish conspiracy for the political, economic and
legislative dominion of the world.

The method of intimidation used to suppress discus-
sion of The Protocols has always been the same. It



consists in suggesting that the person guilty of interest
in the subject is crazy or becoming so. As the average
mortal prefers to be thought sane by his fellow men,
the trick generally works.

A short review of the affray must be made. First
and foremost came a strong denial made by a Jew,
Lucien Wolf, who wrote the pamphlet : The Jewish
Bogey and the Forged Protocols of the Learned Elders
of Zion, (1920). Israel Zangwill, another Jew, also
wrote against the veracity of the Protocols. Then, in
America, followed articles by William Hard, in the
Metropolitan, ridiculing belief in the document.

More serious was the painstaking campaign under-
taken against the publication of the Protocols by the
chiefs of the U. S. Kahal or Kehillah, who intimidated
the editor, George H. Putnam, and. forced him to stop
the publication of the book by threats to call his loans
and thus ruin him financially. The Beckwith Co. was
eventually induced by the Jewish Anti-Defamation
League to enclose in every copy of the edition they
published a small pamphlet containing the denial of the
contents of the Protocols.

Among the Gentiles found ready to deny the truth
of the Protocols was a certain du Chayla, also a Mrs. Hurl-
but and the notorious Princess Catherine Radziwill
who had previously reached the pinnacle of self-adver-
tisement by having had herself sentenced to a term of
imprisonment in South Africa for forgery in 1902.
It seemed as if all the denials against the Jewish author-
ship of the Protocols had been made, when finally in
1921 the London Times made the sensational discovery
through one of its correspondents in Constantinople,
a Mr. X. — of a French book which they called the
Dialogues of Geneva, published anonymously at Brus-
sels in 1865. It was this book, the Times affirmed, which



had been plagiarized by the author of the Protocols.

The publication of this discovery by the Times
seemed to have closed all further discussion tending to
prove the Jewish authenticity of the Protocols and
very little has been heard since on the subject.

Yet, to use the words of the Zionist, Max Nordau,
during his violent quarrel with another Zionist, Asher
Ginzberg : Audealur et altera pars. It is this other side
of the story which the reader is now asked to hear.

The book The Times called The Geneva Dialogues
bears in reality the following title : Dialogues aux
Enfers entre Machiavelli et Montesquieu. It had been
published anonymously in Brussels in 1864. The intro-
duction ends thus : ” Geneva, October 13, 1865 “.

It was soon discovered by the police of Napoleon III
that the author of the book was a certain lawyer,
Maurice Joly, who was arrested, tried, and sentenced
to two years’ imprisonment (April 1865), as it was
averred that he had written his book as an attack
against the government of Napoleon III to which he
had lent all the Machiavelian plans revealed in the

A short sketch of the author’s life is necessary in
order to understand the spirit of his book.

Maurice Joly (1831-1878), was born at Lons-le-Saul-
nier. His mother, nee Florentine Corbara Courtois, was
a Corsican of Italian origin and a Roman Catholic. Her
father, Laurent Courtois, had been paymaster-general of
Corsica. He had an inveterate hatred of Napoleon I.

Joly’s father was Philipe Lambert Joly, born at
Dieppe, Normandy. He had a comfortable fortune and
had been attorney general for the department of Jura
for a period of 10 years under Louis Philippe. Maurice

was educated at Dijon and began his law studies
there, but in 1849 he left for Paris.



There, thanks to his maternal grandfather’s ma-
sonic associations, he secured, just before the Coup
d’Etat in 1851, a post in the Ministry of the Interior
under M. Chevreau. In 1860 only, he terminated his
law studies, — he wrote several articles, showed a
certain amount of talent and ended by founding a
paper called Le Palais for lawyers and attorneys. The
principal stockholders were Jules Favre, Desmaret,
Leblond, Adolphe Cremieux, Arago, and Berryer.

Joly was a Socialist. He wrote of himself: ” Socialism
seems to me one of the forms of a new life for the peoples
emancipated from the traditions of the Old World.
I accept a great many of the solutions offered by Socia-
lism but I reject Communism either as a social factor
or as a political institution. Communism is but a school
of Socialism. In politics I understand extreme means
to gain one’s ends — in that, at least, I am a Jacobin. ”

Friend of Adolphe Cremieux, he shared in his hatred
of Napoleon III. He hated absolutism as much as he
hated Communism and as, under the influence of his
Prime Minister Rouher, the French Emperor led a
policy of reaction, Maurice Joly qualified it as Machia-
velian and depicted it as such in his pamphlet.

In one of his books he wrote of it :

” Machiavelli represents the policy of Might compa-
red to Montesquieu’s, which represents the policy of
Right — Machiavelli will be Napoleon III who will
himself depict his abominable policy “. (From Maurice
Joly — Son passe, son programme — by himself, 1870).

And here comes the important point which the
Times omitted to put before its readers when it made
the sensational discovery about the Dialogues of Geneva
in 1921!

Maurice Joly, who hated Communism and, in 1864,
ascribed the Machiavelian policy of Might over Right



to the Imperialism of Napoleon III, was evidently
ignorant of the fact that he himself was no innovator,
for, long before he ever entered the journalistic or poli-
tical world, the very theory which he had tried to expose
and refute had been the guiding principle of a group
of ardent revolutionists, promoters of Communism,
and worthy followers of Illuminatis and Babouvists,
the group of Karl Marx, Jacoby, etc. the agitators of
the 1848 revolution.

Long before Maurice Joly’s book Dialogues aux Enfers
entre Machiavelli et Montesquieu had made its appea-
rance, another book bearing much the same title had
been published in Berlin in 1850. It was called

Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Rousseau

by Jacob Venedy and was published by Franz Dun-
nicker, Berlin. 3

Jacob Venedy, the author, was a Jew, born in Cologne,
May 1805, died February 1871. Owing to his revolu-
tionary activities, he was expelled from Germany and
sought refuge in France. “While living in Paris, in 1835,
he edited a paper of subversive character called he Pro-
scrit which caused the police to send him away from
Paris. He then lived at Le Havre. Later, due to the
intercession of Arago and Mignet, friends of Adolphe
Cremieux, he was once more allowed to return to Paris.
Meanwhile, he had published a book, Romanisme,
Christianisme et Germanisme, which had won for
him the praise of the French Academy. Venedy was a
close friend and associate of Karl Marx. He had spent
the years 1843-44 in England which at that time was
the refuge and abode of all the master minds of the 1848
revolution. In 1847 Venedy was in Brussels with Karl

3.L. Fry, Waters Flowing Eastward.



Marx who had founded there the secret organization
called ” The Communist League of Workers “, which
was eventually brought out into the open under the
name of ” The International Society of Democracy ”
(Societe Internationale de la Democratic).

In 1848, after the February Revolution, Venedy
returned to Germany, still in the company of Karl
Marx. He soon afterwards became one of the chiefs
of the revolutionary Committee of Fifty, organized
at Frankfort-on-Main in March 1848. Venedy was sent
as ” Commissar ” into the Oberland to stand against
Ecker. In Hesse-Homburg he was elected a member
of the Left and took his place in the Committee of
Fifty. It was at this time that in Berlin he published his
book Machiavelli, Montesquieu and Rousseau, uphold-
ing the ideas of Machiavelli and Rousseau for the
slavery and demoralization of the people.

When order was once more re-established in Germany,
Venedy was expelled from Berlin and Breslau.

He was an active member of the Masonic Order
Bauhlitte which was affiliated to the Carbonari. (See
Die Bauhlutte for Feb. 25, 1871).

It is to be regretted that the Times, which had started
an investigation to trace the authorship of The Protocols
of the Wise Men of Zion, and lift it off the shoulders of
Jewry upon which it rested, should have missed looking
into the literary and revolutionary activities of Jacob

Following the apparent contradiction between Jacob
Venedy and Maurice Joly, one showing the Machiavelli
and Rousseau policy as that of triumphant Commu-
nism, whilst the other makes it the policy of Reaction
and Imperialism, one is apt to overlook the link between
the two. The student of the 1830-1848 period of history
is here confronted by a remarkable fact.



Fould, the Rothschilds of Paris, London and Vienna,
Montefiore, Disraeli, the Goldsmids, were not less Jews
than Karl Marx, Moses Hess, Jacoby, Lassalle, Venedy,
Riesser. The Liberal Conservatism of Disraeli, the
reactionary Imperialism of Fould and the revolutionary
Communism of Karl Marx all point towards the same
aim, namely, the establishment of Jewish power, whether
under a Constitutional Monarchy, an Empire, or a
Republic. And although their respective activities seem
to stand so far apart, yet they are all linked, all tending
towards the same end. One of the most striking instances
is the case of Adolphe Cremieux who played a prominent
part in the period we are now concerned with, and
who was connected with all parties and actually helped
form the centre which united them all, viz. The ALLIANCE
ISRAELITE uni vers elle, which was, in fact, the central
Kahal for Universal Jewry.

The life of Adolphe Cremieux and the activities of
his Jewish contemporaries, belonging to widely diver-
gent social spheres, illustrate forcibly the concerted
plan of Judaism to reach its secret Messianic hope of
world domination.

Until about 1848, it seemed somewhat difficult to
show conclusively the link between Judaism and
Illuminism, Communism and Capitalism, but a close
study of the life of Adolphe Cremieux, and that of
his confidential agent, Leon Gambetta, throws full
light on the subject.

Whereas in Gentile life, there is an unbridgeable
abyss between Conservatism and Anarchy, Religion
and Atheism, there is no such chasm in the Jewish
mentality. There, all currents, no matter in what
direction they may seem to flow, are finally united and
channelled in one unique direction.

If it has been somewhat difficult for historians of



the French Revolution to see the close link between
Judaism and Illuminism, we repeat that no such diffi-
culty exists for the student of the 1848 revolutionary
period, after he has followed the life of Adolphe Cre-
mieux and the activities of his Jewish contemporaries.
The main difference is that the term ” Illuminism ”
used in the 18th century is replaced by the wide term
Freemasonry which embraces all the existent secret

Adolphe Isaac Cremieux (1796-1880) came from a
Jewish family of the South of France, that had mem-
bers in Aix, Nimes and Marseilles. 4

In his youth, Cremieux was an enthusiastic admirer
of Napoleon I ; yet in 1831, he pronounces the funeral
eulogy of the ill famed revolutionist of 1789, the Abbe
Gregoire. He chose law as his profession and was admit-
ted to the Bar at Nimes in 1817.

Briefly, Cremieux’s life may be viewed from three
sides : 1st, his racial Jewish activities, 2nd, his Masonic
activities, 3rd, his political influence.

Cremieux’s racial Jewish activities are exemplified
by the part he took in the Damascus Affair with Moses
Montefiore, a Jew of England, when Jewry successfully
but unconvincingly silenced the accusation of ritual
murder committed upon the Catholic priest, Father
Thomas, at Damascus, in 1840. He had a prominent
share in the foundation and development of the Alliance
Israelite Universelle. Officially founded in 1860, this
international union of disseminated Jewry had, as we
know, existed for centuries, but after the Damascus

4. Gaston Cremieux, another member of the same family
(1836-1871) was an active Socialist and Revolutionary. He parti-
cipated in the Paris Commune and was court-martialled and
executed in 1871.



affair, the Jewish leaders knew that they had attained
sufficient power to feel enabled to show to the whole
world that although the civil rights they enjoyed had
been granted them by different countries, the real
allegiance of each and every one of them was due to
their Jewish nationality.

The Masonic activities of Adolphe Cremieux were
many and powerful. His connection with Louis Bona-
parte and his brother, who both were affiliated to the
Carbonari, would suggest that he was also connected
with this secret society. But it is a fact that Cremieux
belonged to the Lodge of Mizraim, the Scottish Rite,
and also the Grand Orient. He was in the Supreme
Council of the Order of Mizraim and, at the death of
Viennet, in whose person the Grand Orient and the
Scottish Rite had been united, Cremieux succeeded
him as Grand Master.

The political activities of Cremieux are also manifold
and varied. In his youth, he had been an admirer of
Napoleon I and later became an intimate friend as
well as the legal adviser of the Bonaparte family and
joined their party which was undermining the govern-
ment of Louis Philippe, son of Philippe ” Egalite ”

In 1848, he was one of the most ardent supporters of
Louis Napoleon and took an active part in the overthrow
of Louis Philippe. He had been one of the foremost
speakers in the association known as the Campagne
des Banquets which had done so much to promote the
Revolution of Feb. 1848.

He became a member of the provisional govern-
ment and was appointed Minister of Justice. He strong-
ly advocated the candidature of his friend, Louis Napo-
leon, for the post of President of the French Republic.
Cremieux had had hopes of being made Chief Executive
under Louis Napoleon and thus play in France the



same role which Disraeli played in England, that is
ruling the country from behind the scenes. Both Dis-
raeli and Cremieux had the same financial backing,
namely the wealth of the Rothschilds and Montefiores
who, in London, were friends of Disraeli and, in Paris,
friends of Cremieux. Cremieux was therefore keenly
disappointed when General Cavaignac was appointed
Prime Minister in the Republican Government of Louis
Napoleon, and as a revenge, he directed his activities
against the Prince President, his former friend. He
became so hostile to him, that in 1851, after the Coup
d’Etat of December 2, by which Louis Napoleon re-
created the Empire and assumed the title of Napoleon III,
Cremieux was imprisoned at Vincennes and Mazas.
After his release, he made himself the champion and
defender of the Communist associates of Karl Marx,
the revolutionaries Louis Blanc, Ledru Rollin, Pierre
Leroux and others.

His untiring efforts were directed against the Empire
in general and Napoleon III in particular, and he con-
sorted with all the Emperor’s enemies, among them,
Maurice Joly, the author of the Dialogue between Machia-
velli and Montesquieu. After the overthrow of Napo-
leon III and the defeat of France at the hands of Ger-
many in 1871, and the establishment of the Republic,
Cremieux once more took an open part in the political
affairs of the country.

He pushed to the front his former secretary Gam-
betta and effectively directed him in his shady nego-
tiations with Bismarck, the latter himself being guided
by the Jew Bamberger (1852-1899), a former revolu-
tionist of 1848, but who, having found refuge in France,
had been for many years manager in Paris of the
Jewish Bank Bischoffsheim and Goldschmidt. He was
one of Cremieux’s friends, and the war could not affect



the ties linking the Jews united in the Alliance Israelite

From 1871 until his death, it can be safely asserted
that Cremieux as President of the Alliance Israelite
Universelle and Grand Master of the Scottish Rile.
exercised a tremendous influence upon the anti-reli-
gious campaign which followed the Franco-Prussian
War. In this as in all his lifelong activities, Cremieux
was only obeying the teachings of the Talmud and
trying to destroy every religion but that contained in
Judaism. His favourite theme was that there should
be only one cult — and that cult should be Jewish.
At a general assembly of the Alliance Israelite Univer-
selle, on May 31 1864, Cremieux had said : ” The Alliance
is not limited to our cult, it voices its appeal to all
cults and wants to penetrate in all the religions as it
has penetrated into all countries. Let us endeavour
boldly to bring about the union of all cults under one
flag of Union and Progress. Such is the slogan of human-
ity. ” 5

One cult, one flag ! Are the Protocols of the Wise
Men of Zion or the speeches of Machiavelli in Joly’s
book anything but a lengthy exposition of the ideas
briefly expressed by Cremieux ? His activities are one
of the clearest examples of Jewish internationalism
and Jewish efforts for the realization of the Messianic

The Alliance Israelite Universelle issued from the
Rite of Mizraim plus Universal Freemasonry, subsidized
by International Finance, would spell the doom of
Christian civilization, the destruction of nationalism,
the death of nations upon whose ruin has been erected

5. ” Union and Progress ” was the name given to several
revolutionary associations and also to several Masonic Lodges.



a new Temple of Solomon, containing the treasures and
material wealth of the whole world, and over which is
placed the six pointed star of Zionism. 6

Leon Gambetta (1838-1882) an Italian Jew, obtained
French naturalization on Oct. 29, 1859, and in 1862
became the secretary of Cremieux. He was Depute in
1869, Dictator of National Defence, head of the War
Office and Minister of the Interior after the Commune
of 1870 and Dictator again after the Coup d’Etat of the
President of the Republic Marshal MacMahon in 1877.

The following quotation from a letter which he wrote
to his father on June 22, 1863 is interesting.

” My chief, Maitre Cremieux, treats me as if I were
his adopted son, and if within three years time he is
elected a deputy (which is quite possible) my career
will be settled once and for all. I must devote myself to
law and politics, and then I may hope to triumph over
all obstacles and finally to attain great honours. ” 7

6. The means for the attainment of Cremieux’s ambition are
set forth in a book entitled Paris, Capitate des Religions, by
Jean Izoulet.

7. P. B. Gheusi, Gambetta, Life and Letters, p. 207.




(Founded 1805)

This society appeared about 1805-1807.

We are again indebted to Captain Pollard for a sketch
of its history : ” After the suppression of the United
Irishmen the society, as such, disappeared, but within
a year or two we find a renaissance of the old agrarian
Catholic secret societies which had been absorbed into
the Defenders and thence into the United Irishmen.
The provisions of the Insurrection Act which forbade
the possession of arms and enforced a curfew at night-
fall were in operation until 1805, when with its relaxa-
tion appears the Ribbon Society… In different counties
local organizations of Ribbon men called themselves
by different titles, such as the Threshers, the Carders,
the Molly Maguires, Rockites, Caravats, Shanavests,
Pauddeen Gar’s men and the like. ” 1

The Ribbon Society ” continued the system of
organization used by the United Irishmen. A lodge was
limited to forty members and they met as a rule in
the fields by night, armed sentinels being posted to

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 32.




guard the spot. The lodge was under a Master or Body
Master, who controlled three committee-men, each of
whom was responsible for twelve members of the lodge.
The Masters were represented on divisional commit-
tees allocated on the basis of four or more divisions to
a geographical county. The divisional committees were
controlled by Parish Masters, who in turn were repre-
sented on the County Council, which contributed two
delegates to the National Board. 2

” As Whiteboys they certainly were at political
and practical war with the Orangemen, and throughout
their activities appear to have been criminal and anti-
social ; outrage, terrorism and murder being their only
methods of political conversion. ” 3

2. Pollard, op. cit, p. 35.

3. Ibid., p. 265.

For root of this movement see Chapter LV.



(Founded 1808)

The following article is quoted in part from an article
specifically written by Josiah H. Drummond 33° in
The History Of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders
by Stillson and Hughan : 1

” In 1806 Joseph Cerneau appeared in New York;
he had been a member of Masonic bodies in the West
Indies ; he had a patent from Mathieu Dupotet certi-
fying that he had received the degrees of the Scottish
Rite of Heredom, and authorizing him to confer the
degrees up to the Twenty-fourth and organize bodies
in the northern part of Cuba, and to confer the Twenty-
fifth on one person in each year, the Twenty-fifth
being then the highest degree of the Rite and the
highest Cerneau had received, according to his patent.
Cerneau had his patent from Dupotet, who had his
from Germain Hacquet, who had his from Du Plessis,
who had his from Prevost in 1790, who had his from
Francken. ” 2

1. Page 812 et seq.

2. Yarker traces Cerneau’s patent to Henri Martin given
by the Grand Lodge of France to supersede that of Morin in
1766. See The Arcane Schools, p. 482.




In 1808 he called a grand consistory of the Rite of
Heredom having jurisdiction over 25 degrees.

” But already a controversy had arisen with parties
acting under, or deriving their powers from, the
Supreme Council at Charleston. We may well believe
that Cerneau and his associates soon recognized the
impossibility of maintaining successfully a rite of twenty-
fwe degrees against one of thirty-three degrees… The
Thirty -third degree as now existing originated at
Charleston in 1801 ; and no evidence has been found
that Cerneau ever received it. ”

Cerneau seems however to have overlooked the
obvious expedient of creating a 34th degree !

” The Charleston body did not recognize the Cer-
neau Bodies even by silent acquiescence ; after inves-
tigation by a special Deputy, it declared, early in
1814, Cerneau to be an impostor, and his organizations
illegal and clearly clandestine. ”

” Bitter controversies followed. ” Lodges which soon
died were opened at Charleston. Others at New Orleans
eked out a precarious existence under James Foulhouze.
” Foulhouze had received the Thirty-third degree from
the Grand Orient of France, which expelled him, Feb. 4,
1859, for a scurrilous publication which he issued in
answer to one of its decrees. This Supreme Council
became dormant; but, in 1867, it was revived with
Eugene Chassaignac at its head ; in 1868 it was recog-
nized by the Grand Orient of France, and unless it
has recently gone out of existence, the Grand-Orient
to-day recognizes a so-called Supreme Council in New
Orleans as a lawful body, and its members as possessing
the Thirty-third degree ! ”

In 1826 the Morgan murder occurred and Cerneau
left for France. De Witt Clinton, Governor of New
York, had been Deputy Grand Commander of the Sove-



reign Consistory from 1811 to 1823 when he was elected
Grand Commander.

A number of sporadic revivals of this rite occurred
during the ensuing 40 years.

They were known as —

The Hicks Rite, founded in 1832 by Comte de St.

The First Atwood Body, founded about 1837 by
Henry C. Atwood.

The Cross Body, founded about 1851 by Jeremy
L. Cross.

The Second Atwood Body, founded about 1853.

It was not till 1867 that peace was established
between the three de facto Supreme Councils in the
northern part of the United States. On that date they
united and Josiah H. Drummond was elected Grand

After five years of peace, however, Henry J. Seymour,
who had been expelled by the council of which he was
a member, organized what he called a Supreme Council
of which he was made Grand Commander, ” but, on a
visit to Europe in 1862, in his eagerness to obtain recog-
nition, he unwittingly held Masonic communication
with the Grand Orient of France, which created such
a storm that he resigned his office, and since but little
has been heard of that Supreme Council, although it
probably still exists. ”

” In 1881, Hopkins Thompson, an Emeritus member
of the Supreme Council, assisted by a few Honorary
members and by a Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret,
who is believed by many to have been the mainspring
of the movement, all of whom had taken the oath of
fealty to the Supreme Council, formed an association,
which they are pleased to call the Cerneau Supreme
Council ‘ revived ‘. ”



” This body claims jurisdiction over the South, the
claim to which was abandoned, before 1866, by
unanimous vote, including Thompson’s ! It denies
the legality of the Southern Supreme Council, from
which alone the Thirty-third degree came, and which
Thompson by his vote recognized and whose recog-
nition and fraternal support, he, with his associates,
sought to obtain. ” 3

The visit to Europe of Henry J. Seymour referred
to in the above quotation had serious consequences.
We find that Seymour at that time was in communi-
cation with John Yarker with whom he collaborated
in founding the Ancient and Primitive Rite, the rami-
fications of which reach to all the branches of occult
illuminism such as Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia,
Memphis and Mizraim, Ancient Order of Oriental
Templars, etc.

3. Stillson and Hughan, op. cit, p. 828.




(Alta Vendita [Lodge] Founded 1809)

The Carbonari had existed internationally, it is said,
under different names since the days of Francis I,
King of France, but not till the year 1815 did we begin
to hear of its individual historical achievements.

The following is a translation of one of the secret
official documents published in Italy by the highest
authority of the order, for the guidance of the active
head-centres of Masonry in 1818, under the title of :
Permanent Instructions, or Practical Code of Rules;
Guide for the Heads of the Highest Grades of Masonry
The original Italian document was given to Nubio,
one of the Supreme Vendita (Alta Vendita) in 1824,
when he was sent to Rome to carry it into effect, and
it was to this instruction that he referred when he wrote
from Forli to Signor Volpi : ” As I have written to you
before, I am appointed to demoralise the education of
the youth of the Church”. When these documents

1. Gargano, Irish and English Freemasons and their Foreign
Brothers, p. 62, published 1878.




were lost, the Freemasons offered fabulous sums for
their recovery. These secret Instructions, intended only
for a chosen few Masons of heavy calibre, were written
three years after what was called the ” Restoration ”
of 1815, which was brought about by a number of
veteran Freemasons, all born in the past century, who
had preceded, made, planned, and passed through the
French Revolution of 1789. They were rife with the
republican notions of France and Italy. They had sur-
vived their works, and had been in a great measure
defeated, or at least modified, by Napoleon, in whose
hands they were like a boat in the hands of new pilots,
and, stunned by the many changes, were motionless
for a time. In 1815, brought, as it were, in presence
of a new world, they took breath and courage, and
gathering up the broken threads of the tangled skein,
determined to spend the rest of their lives in restoring,
if possible, the web commenced in 1789 and 1783. The
principal author was supposed to be a man of the name
of Filippo Buonarotti, one of the great correspondents
of Nubio. From his biography, given in the eighth
volume of the Mondo Segreto di Castro, he would appear
to have been an apt pupil and follower of Nubio’s
principle, Ama nesciri et pro nihilo computari. He was
born at Pisa in 1761, was a friend of Robespierre, and
an enemy of Napoleon, against whom he always con-
spired. He was a centre in Paris for both French and
Italian Carbonari. He had been one of the principals
in 1821, 2 and in 1830 founded the sect of the Apofe-
simeni. In a published record, entitled Bologna of the
New Secret Society, 1835, we find the name of a young
man, Giuseppe Petroni, afterwards a celebrated Maz-
zinian, and now (1878) Grand Master Aggunto of

2. Carbonari conspiracy of Belforl and La Rochelle, p. 295.



Roman Masonry of the Via della Valle, who was like-
wise one of this noble band. My readers may now tho-
roughly understand the character of the authors of
this secret and curious document of the Instructions.
It is a resume and summary, expressed in the clearest
terms, of the aim of Freemasonry and the means by
which it is attained ; Freemasonry antecedent to the
French Revolution; Freemasonry during the French
Revolution ; Freemasonry revived after the Restora-
tion. Freemasonry, to-day, is one and the same, using
the same means to work out the same end and object.

” So these old conspirators of the past century
wakened up in 1815 from their long sleep more energetic
than ever, and as a first step towards reviving their
secret society work, wrote the following Permanent
Instructions, as a guide for the Higher initiated who were
chosen to command the whole Masonic movement,
especially in Italy : —

” Now that we are constituted in an active body, and
that our Order begins to reign as well in places most
remote as in those that are nearest ov r centre, one
great thought arises, a thought that has always greatly
pre-occupied the men who aspire to the universal regen-
eration of the world, that thought is, the Liberation
of Italy, for from Italy shall one day issue the freedom
of the entire world — a Republic of Fraternity, Har-
mony, and Humanity. This great idea is not yet com-
prehended by our brothers of France. They believe
that revolutionary Italy can only plot in the shade,
and accomplish the stabbing of a few spies, cr traitors,
meantime bearing patiently the yoke of facts accom-
plished elsewhere, for Italy, but without Italy. This
error has been very fatal to us. It is useless to combat
it with words which would only propagate more. It
is necessary to annihilate it with facts. And in the midst



of anxieties, which agitate the most vigorous spirits
of ‘our society, one there is that can never be forgotten.
The Papacy ever exercises a decisive influence over the
lot of Italy. With the arm, the voice, the pen, of its
innumerable bishops, monks, nuns, and faithful of all
latitudes, the Pope finds everywhere persons enthu-
siastically prepared for sacrifice, and even for martyr-
dom, friends who would die for him, or sacrifice all
for his love. It is a mighty lever, the full power of which
few Popes understood, and which has as yet been used
but partially. The question of to-day is not the recon-
struction of a momentarily weakened power.

” Our final aim is that of Voltaire and of the French
Revolution, — the complete annihilation of Catholicism,
and ultimately of Christianity. Were Christianity to
survive, even upon the ruins of Rome, it would, a little
later on, revive and live. We must now consider how
to reach our end, with certainty, not cheating ourselves
with delusions, which would prolong indefinitely, and
probably compromise, the ultimate success of our cause.

” Hearken not to those boastful and vainglorious
French, and thick headed Germans, and hypochondriac-
al Englishmen, who seem to think it possible to end
Catholicism, at one time by an obscene song, at another
by an absurd sophism, and again by a contemptible
sarcasm. Catholicism has a vitality which survives such
attacks with ease. She has seen adversaries more implac-
able and more terrible far, and sometimes has taken
a malicious pleasure in baptising with holy water
the most rabid amongst them. We may therefore allow
our brethren in those countries to work off their frenzy
of anti-catholic zeal, allow them to ridicule our Madon-
nas and our apparent devotion. Under this cloak, we
may conspire at our convenience, and arrive, little by
little, at our ultimate aim.



” Therefore, the Papacy has been for seventeen hun-
dred years interwoven with the history of Italy. Italy
can neither breathe nor move without the leave of
the Supreme Pontiff. With him, she has the hundred
arms of Briareus ; without him, she is condemned to a
lamentable impotency, and to divisions and hostility,
from the foot of the Alps to the last pass of the Appen-
nines. Such a state of things must not remain. It is
necessary to seek a remedy. Very well. The remedy is
at hand. The Pope, whoever he may be, will never
enter into a secret society. It then becomes the duty
of the Secret Society to make the first advance to the
Church and to the Pope, with the object of conquering
both. The work for which we gird ourselves up, is not
the work of a day, nor of a month, nor of a year.

” It may last for many years, perhaps for a century; in
our ranks the soldier dies, but the war is continued. We
do not at present intend to gain the Pope to our cause,
nor to make him a neophyte to our principles, or a pro-
pagator of our ideas. Such would be an insane dream.
Even should it happen that any Cardinal, or any Pre-
late, of his own will, or by deception, should share in
our secrets, such would not be a reason for desiring
his exaltation to the Chair of Peter. Nay, his very
exaltation would be our ruin; for this reason that, his
apostasy being prompted by his ambition alone, that
very ambition of power would necessarily impel him
to sacrifice us.

” Catholics ! what must we consider Freemasonry,
when Freemasons themselves pronounce it an apostasy
from Catholicity, and foresee that a power fully acquain-
ted with them and their machinations would, as a con-
sequence, seek to crush them.

” That which we should seek, that which we should
await, as the Jews await a Messiah, is a Pope according



to our wants. An Alexander VI would not suit us, for
he never erred in religious doctrine ; a Pope Borgia
would not suit us, for he was excommunicated by all
the thinking philosophers and unbelievers for the
vigour with which he defended the Church. We require
a Pope for ourselves, if such a Pope were possible.
With such a one we should march more securely to
the storming of the Church than with all the little
books of our French and English brothers.

” And why ? Because it were useless to seek with
these alone to split the rock upon which God has built
his Church. We should not want the vinegar of Hanni-
bal, nor gunpowder, nor even our arms, if we had but
the little finger of the successor of Peter engaged in the
plot ; that little finger would avail us more for our
crusade than all the Urbans II and St. Bernards for
the crusade of Christianity. We trust that we may
yet attain this supreme object of our efforts.

” But when ? and how ? The unknown cannot
yet be seen. Nevertheless, as 1 nothing should move
us from our mapped-out plan, we must labour at
our newly-commenced work as if tomorrow were to
crown it with success. We wish, in this Instruction,
which should be kept concealed from those simply
initiated, to give advice to the rulers of the Supreme
Vendita, which they, in turn, should inculcate in the
brethren by means of Insegnamento, or Memorandum.

” Little can be done with old Cardinals and with
prelates of decided character. Such incorrigibles must
be left to the school of Gonsalvi, and in our magazines
of popularity and unpopularity, we must find the
means to utilize, or ridicule, power in their hands.
A well invented report must be spread with tact amongst
good Christian families : such a Cardinal, for instance,
is a miser : such a prelate is licentious ; such an official



is a freethinker, an infidel, a Freemason, and so on in
the same strain. These things will spread quickly to
the cafes, thence to the squares, and one report is
sometimes enough to ruin a man.

” If a prelate, or bishop, arrive in a province from
Rome, to celebrate or officiate at some public function,
it is necessary at once to become acquainted with his
character, his antecedents, his temperament, his defects
— especially his defects. If he should be our enemy —
an Albani, a Pallotta, a Bernetti, a Delia Genga, a Riva-
rola — at once trap him, entangle him in all the nets
and snares you can. Give him a character which must
horrify the young people and the women ; describe
him as cruel, heartless, and bloodthirsty ; relate some
atrocious transaction which will easily cause a sensa-
tion amongst the people. The foreign newspapers will
learn and copy these facts, which they will know how
to embellish and colour according to their usual style.

” For respect due to truth show, or better still, quote
from some respectable fool as having quoted the number
of the journal which has given the names, acts and
doings of these personages. As in England and in France,
so also in Italy there will be no lack of writers who well
know how to tell lies for the good cause, and have no
difficulty in doing so. One newspaper publishing the
name of a Monsignor Delegate, His Excellency, or
Eminence, or Lord Justice, will be quite sufficient proof
for the people ; they will require no other. The people
here around us in Italy are in the infancy of Libera-
lism. At present they believe in the Liberals, after a
little they will believe in anything. ”

Modern Carbonarism was founded in 1815 by
Maghella, a native of Genoa, who, at the time when
Joachim Murat became King of the two Sicilies, was
a subordinate of Saliceti, the Neapolitan Minister of



Police. He was a Freemason, who exempted from initia-
tion and probation all Freemasons who desired to
become Carbonari. Any one who has read the statutes
and ritual of Carbonarism will see that it is one and the
same as that of Masonry. 3

A sequence of events pertaining to Carbonarism can
be traced by the perusal of several works from which
we quote :

At a meeting held on Oct. 13th 1820 by the Grand
Secret Consistory, the Orient of Scotland was recog-
nized. The two Consistories of Masonry in France and
in Italy and that of the Sublime Carbonari were put
into communication and their co-operation assured. 4

The high ruling grades of the Carbonari appear to
have been those of Sublime Maitre Parfait, above which
was still another that of the Sublime Elus. 5

The Alta Vendita constituted the Supreme Direc-
tory of the Carbonari and was led by a group of Italian
noblemen, amongst whom a prince, ” the profoundest
of initiates, was charged as Inspector General of the
Order. ”

Piccolo Tigre, a certain nondescript Jew, rushed
about Europe obeying orders and presumably giving
them, but what he actually did has remained a mys-

Giuseppe Mazzini had been initiated Carbonaro in
1827. 6 Some time after, Carbonarism combined, or
rather coalesced, with the Society known as Young
Italy led by Mazzini whose aims were identical with
those of the Carbonari.

3. Michael di Gargano, op. cit.

4. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Sept. 2nd 1928,
p. 809.

5. Ibid., p. 808.

6. Arrigo Solmi, The Making of Modern Italy,\p. 25.



Young Italy, Young Poland, Young England, Young
Switzerland, Young Ireland — all together Young
Europe — all international movements of the same
character working towards the same end, viz. the
supremacy of the Masters.

The Guelphic Knights, whose object was the inde-
pendence of Italy, to be effected by means of all the
secret societies of the country under their leadership,
found able helpers in the Carbonari.

” The Chiefs of the Carbonari were also chiefs
among the Guelphs ; but only those that had distinct
offices among the Carbonari could be admitted among
the Guelphs. There can be no doubt that the Carbonari
when the sect had become very numerous, partly shel-
tered themselves under the designation of Guelphs
and Adelphi or Independents, by affiliating themselves
to these societies. ” 7

At one time the support of the Carbonari was offered
by Maghella to Murat with the advice to declare against
Napoleon and to proclaim the independence of Italy
but Murat’s subsequent proscription of the sect induc-
ed it to seek the support of England. The Bourbons
and Lord William Bentinck favoured it while Murat
ordered its extermination. Some of its leaders indeed
perished but shortly afterwards the society was reor-
ganized and a schismatic sect calling itself Calderari
(Braziers) came into being. 8

7. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries,
vol. II, p. 145.

8. Ibid., pp. 110-111.

For the root of this movement see Chapter LIII.
For the development of this movement see Chapters LXX,



(Founded 1810)

We find the following in the article on Oddfellows,
in Hastings’ Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics.

” R. W. Moffrey (Century p. 18) fixes the year 1810
as that in which the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows
started, though it was not till 1814 that the minutes
of its Grand Committees began to be printed… however
Spry (Hist, of Oddfellowship p. 16) gives minutes of a
meeting of a ‘ lodge ‘ No. 9, of the Order of Oddfel-
lows, dated 12th March 1748, from which it would
seem that eight previous lodges had been established
before that date. ”

For the connection of this order with Freemasonry
see Chapter XXVIII.

We also note the following : —

” The position of Friendly Societies generally
before the introduction of National Insurance is shown
in the report of the Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies
for the year ending 31st December 1906 (Parliamentary
Papers of Session 1907, n° 49, xi pp. 16-18). ”

According to this report, we find that the order



had 1,035,785 members and the income of the benefit
funds was £1,703,674.

The Oddfellows resisted any proposal of State control
or State interference with the working of Friendly

The English Order has four degrees.




(Founded 1814)

Hetairia was the Greek name for societies, organiza-
tions or associations. In ancient Greece the name
hetairia applied to companies in the army. In more
modern times, it was used for societies of learning, or
commercial purposes and also for political secret

It is in connection with the latter that we are con-
cerned. While Greece was under Turkish dominion,
the national aspirations of its people could be vented
in secret only. The breath of revolution which swept
Europe during the latter part of the 18th century
stirred some of the Greek patriots whose aims was the
overthrow of the Turkish power. The main leader at
that time was Constantin Rhygas (1754-1798).

He formed the first secret societies of Hetairias which
were mainly composed of Klephtes or bandits. Bound by
oath, each member of the society was to use all means,
assassination included, to free Greece. The execution
of Rhygas drove the hetairias to seek cover but in
1814, a chief lodge was re-formed in Odessa under
the name of Hetairia phileke. Its avowed aim was




the liberation of Greece, and its main seat was in
Russia. Every candidate took an oath, as in all secret
societies, and knew no one beyond his initiator and
sponsor. Funds, collected and administered by a supe-
rior council directing all the lodges, were kept in Russia.

When a sufficient number of Hetairias were orga-
nized and a chief needed to direct the movement
against Turkey, Count Capo d’Istria, (John, 1776-
1831) a Greek, minister in Russia under the Tzar
Alexander I, and author of the text of the Holy Alliance
was asked to take the lead but refused, and Alexander
Ypsilanti was nominated. The insurrection broke out
in 1821.

Among the most prominent members of the Hetairia
we find Alexander Mavrocordato (1791-1865) who
was under the influence of England and was also the
friend of Byron whom he had met in Missolonghi in
1822. From him he received funds for the purchase of
arms to the extent of one hundred thousand francs.
It is related that Lord Byron died in his arms at Misso-
longhi in 1824. Among the supporters of the London
Branch of the Philhellenic Committee were Jeremy
Bentham, Sir Francis Burdett, Lord Erskine, Lord
Ebrington, Sir John Cam Hobhouse, (afterwards Lord
Brougham) Joseph Hume, Sir James Mackintosh and
Lord John Russell. These foreign committees provided
arms, money and volunteers.

The following details concerning the organization
of the Hetairia of Greece are set forth in The Secret
Societies of the European Revolution, by Thomas Frost
(Vol. II, page 47 et seq.).

” Less simple than that of the Carbonari, the system
rather resembled that of the Illuminati in the number
of grades and relation of the branch societies to each
other. ”



There were five grades namely : —

The Adelphoi (Brothers, who took an oath of secrecy
but ignored the aims of the society),

The Systemenoi (Bachelors, who knew that Greece
was to be freed by revolution),

The Priests of Eleusis,

The Prelates (knowing all the secrets),

The Grand Arch (The supreme directing control
of 12 members).

” Early in 1827 a motion was unanimously adopted by
the Senate favouring the placing of Greece under the
protection of Great Britain. ” This followed a secret
interview of Mavrocordato with Sir Stratford Canning,
but Mavrocordato retired from public life ” on the
failure of his project for the establishment of a con-
stitutional kingdom under British protection.”

” Hostilities in Greece were finally terminated, in
the summer of 1828, by a convention concluded at
Alexandria between Admiral Codrington and Mehemet
Ali, by which the latter agreed to withdraw the Egyp-
tian troops from the Morea. ”

The arbitrary government of Capo d’Istria ended on
October 24, 1831, when he was assassinated.



(Founded about 1815)

This society has also been known as The Triad Society,
The Ghee Hon, The Society of Heaven and Earth
(T’in Tei Hui), Ts’ing-lin-Kiu, The San-ho-hoei and the

After the Emperor Kang Hsi issued a Sacred Edict
in 1662, ordering the suppression of Buddhism and
Taoism in China, the Hung and the White Lotus, the
latter a Taoist mystical society also known by the name
” White Lily “, are said to have united to fight the
Manchu Dynasty as their common enemy.

They are supposed to have finally merged towards
1815 as a secret political occult organization.

In 1851 the Hung broke into open revolt against
the Manchus. This is known as the Taiping Revolt and
is often alluded to as ” The Triad War “. It was led
by a village schoolmaster called Hung who, after his
defeat by Gordon in 1864, committed suicide.

Since the Taiping revolt the Society has been less
conspicuous but it is supposed nevertheless to have
inspired the successful revolution which in 1911 over-
threw the Manchu Dynasty and established the Repub-




lie of which Dr. Sun Yat-Sen assumed the presidency
on January 1, 1912.

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, nominally a Christian, was a
member of the Hung Society, and his first official action
as the first President of the Chinese Republic was to
enable Yuan Shi-Kai to unite all parties under his
presidency. He then accepted for himself the Presi-
dency of Nanking. The people received his proclamation
announcing these changes in front of the Ming tombs,
and listened while he told the spirits of the Mings that
the Manchu despotism, having faller, China was now
a Republic.

The Hung 1 having been outlawed since 1890 in
China as a terrorist organization, now, as a secret
society, holds its meetings in the woods at night with
the approaches well guarded.

The English branch of this society is at Liverpool
where it operates as a mutual benefit and charitable

I, A history of the Hung is given in The Hung Society by
J. S. Ward and W. G. Sterling.

As the rights of citation from this book are withheld from
the public we are unable to give quotations from it here, but
we recommend the first twenty-two pages as of interest to
historical students.



(Founded 1815)

This rite was founded in 1815 by Sam Honis (from
Cairo), Gabriel Mathieu, Baron Dumas, Marquis de
Laroque and Hippolite Labrunie.

The Grand Lodge Osiris in Paris was founded in
1839. Jacques Etienne Marconis was Grand Master.

In his History of Freemasonry, Freke-Gould states
that ” J. E. Marconis, Grand Hierophant, inaugurated
the Rite in person at New York in 1857, and after-
wards in 1862 chartered it as a Sovereign Sanctuary
— by which body a charter was granted on Jan. 3rd,
1872, for another Sovereign Sanctuary in and for the
British Islands whose officers were duly installed Oct.
8th in the same year. ”

The order is now known in England as ” The Ancient
and Primitive Rite. ”

On December 30, 1862, the rite of Memphis merged
finally into the Grand Orient of France and in England,
in 1875 under the name of Ancient and Primitive Rite,
it amalgamated with that oi Mizraim which Gould
informs us had no separate governing body in chat

In 1865, the Grand Orient reduced the original 97
degrees to 33.




A. E. Waite in Devil Worship in France outlines the
later history of the rite in the following sentence :

” Garibaldi succeeded Jacques Etienne Marconis of
Paris, becoming president of a confederation of the Rites
which was brought about by Mr. John Yarker in the
year 1881.1

1. A. E. Waite, Devil Worship in France, p. 254.



(Founded 1816)

The Calderari del Contrapeso, an offshoot of the Car-
bonari, came into prominence about 1816.

Their first organizer, The Prince of Canosa, became
Minister of Police under Ferdinand, King of Naples,
in December, 1819.

The Calderari were the sworn enemies of the Free-
masons and Carbonari.

They took the following oath : —

” I, N. N., promise and swear upon the Trinity, as
supreme director of the universe, upon this cross, and
upon this steel, the avenging instrument of the per-
jured — to live and die in the Roman Catholic and Apos-
tolic faith, and to defend with my blood this religion,
and the society of True Friendship, the Calderari, to
which I am about to belong. I swear never to offend,
in honour, life, or property, the children of True Friend-
ship ; I promise and swear to all the Knights, true
friends, all possible succour that shall depend on me.
I swear to initiate no person into the Society before
I arrive at the 4th rank. I swear eternal hatred to all
Masonry, and to its atrocious protectors ; as well as
to all Jansenists, Materialists, Economists, and Illu-




minati. I swear, as I value my life, never to admit any
of them into the Society of Friendship. Lastly, I swear,
that if, through wickedness or levity, I suffer myself
to commit perjury, I submit to the loss of life as the
punishment of my error, and then to be burnt: and may
my ashes, scattered to the wind, serve as an example
to the children of Friendship throughout the whole
world. And so help me God, for the happiness of my
soul, and the repose of my conscience. ”

1. Secret Societies of Italy, London, p. 71.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXV.

For development of this movement see Chapter CXXVI.



(Founded 1820)

The Masonic Lodge Les Amis de la Verite was
founded in 1820 by Buchez, Flotard, Bazard and Jou-
bert, all Freemasons, for political purposes. On a riot
incited by members of this lodge a young man was
killed. As a consequence of his death this lodge went
out of existence.

One of its former members, Dugied, a Freemason,
was initiated into the mysteries of Carbonarism while
at Naples. 1 Having conceived the project of introducing
this association into France he discussed the matter
with another ex-member of the Ami’s de la Verite,
Flotard, and together they decided to put the idea
into practice by taking as a nucleus of the new organ-
ization the remains of Les Amis de la Verite.

The society was organized as follows : —

The one ” Haute Vente “, central ” Ventes ” and
individual ” Ventes ” (lodges).

The “Haute Vente” was the committee of direction
and action. Two members of the committee having
found an adept, the adept would agree with them to

1. Thomas Frost, The Secret Societies of the European Revo-
lution, vol. II, p. 6.




form a ” Vente “. The adept would become President
one of the others censor, the other deputy, the role
of the last being to keep in touch with the committee
while allowing the president to believe that this com-
mittee was only a superior degree of the association;
The censor’s business was to inspect the work of the
” Ventes “. These three chiefs were then required to
annex 17 recruits, thus bringing the number of a lodge
up to twenty. Thus constituted, this group was called
a central ” Vente “. Two of its m?mbers made below
what had been made above them, forming an indivi-
dual ” Vente ” of the first order, which, repeating the
same process formed an ordinary individual ” Vente ”
thus extending indefinitely the ramifications of the

A similar organization, but under different names,
was adapted to the army. There the Haute Vente was
called the Legion, the central Ventes, the Cohortes,
the individual Ventes of the first order the Centuries ;
and the ordinary individual Ventes the Manipules.

This double system was intended to puzzle the police,
by making it believe that there was a separate asso-
ciation in the army. A further measure of precaution
forbade a Carbonaro, under penalty of death, being
affiliated to another Vente. This precaution was intend-
ed to prevent anyone entering different groups and
thus possibly discovering and denouncing the seerets
of the society.

The direction of the Ventes was indeed centralized
but this unity of control was to be ignored by most
of the members.

The Carbonari had no settled principles. It accepted
all opinions provided these favoured the elimination
of royal families. The imperialists and liberals formed
important nuclei. The latter, the sons of middle-class



parents, stirred against the government by patriotism,
youth and class jealousy, dreamed only of grabbing
the influence of the old families. As for what is called
the people, it did not count in Carbonarism ; the illus-
trious role attributed to it later had not yet been inven-
ted !

To begin with, the Haute Yente counted only seven
members : Dugied, Flotard, Bazard, Buchez, Joubert,
Carriol, Limperani. Among them we find again the four
heads of the Amis de la Verite.

The Carbonari having prospered, the Haute Vente
found it advisable to annex some notable characters.
Among others, the Freemason General Lafayette, who,
even in old age, had a childish weakness for popularity,
accepted the offer to join the conspiracy.

Towards the end of 1820 the society had many
branches, notably those of Bordeaux, Nantes, Toulouse,
La Bochelle, Poitiers, Colmar, Belfort, etc.

The subversive efforts of this society culminated in
an abortive attempt at Bevolution at La Bochelle,
and the subsequent arrest of many of its principal
members completed its nominal dissolution.

After the debacle at La Rochelle the Amis de la
Verite merged into the Amis du Peuple which in turn,
in 1832, became the Droits de I’Homme. After its
unsuccessful attempt to assassinate the king, (Louis
Philippe) in 1835 the remains of the Droits de I’Homme
reorganized as the Societe des Families with Blanqui
and Barbes as leaders. According to Lucien de la
Hodde, 2 Carbonarism in France had ceased to exist
by 1822, except for a few obstinates like Charles Teste,
(a friend of Babeuf) and Buonarotti who remained

2. Lucien de la Hodde, Histoire des Societes Secretes.



faithful to the old organization. Lucien de la Hodde
however, while following Carbonarism, lost sight of
the Haute Vente which, working through Mazzini
and the International Committee of London, directed
its work of destruction in France through Ledru Rollin
and Felix Pyat. After its collapse in 1836 the Societe
des Families became that of the Saisons (seasons)
and it was a branch of this society, the Societe dissi-
dents, that served the purpose of the Haute Vente
in 1848 by aiding in the terrorisation of Paris and the
fall of the Monarchy.

The self-appointed members of the provisional govern-
ment of France after the abdication of the king
were : — Dupont (de l’Eure) Member of the original
Carbonari founded in 1820, Arago, Lamartine, Ledru
Rollin, Garnier-Pages, Marie, Cremieux.

Lucien de la Hodde was the agent of the French
Secret Police, and for 8 years before the revolution of
1848 occupied an exalted position in the ranks of the

His conclusions are strangely at variance with the
facts which he relates. On page 381, he tells how an
indiscretion on the part of Caussidiere, one of his asso-
ciates, placed the blame of a conspiracy upon Ledru
Rollin and, because Ledru Rollin calmly denied know-
ledge of the affair, de la Hodde accepts his statement
without question.

Though a bona-fide student of the subject, it is
quite evident that de la Hodde had failed to grasp
the principle upon which Revolutionary organizations
operate, viz : that of a body of dupes whose particular
job is genuinely to believe that their organization is
the executive one. Into this one all persons of
doubtful revolutionary integrity are steered, and, in



this branch of the machine, conscientiously attend to
their business, while the real agents do their savage

For root of movement see Chapter LXV.
For development of movement see Chapters LXXXV,



(Founded 1822)

Heckethorn 1 tells us of a sect which arose in Poland
in 1818 which he refers to as that of ” National Free-
masonry “, which borrowed the rites, degrees, and
language of Freemasonry, but aimed at national inde-
pendence. The society was open to persons of all classes,
but sought chiefly to enlist soldiers and officials, so
as to turn their technical knowledge to account in
the day of the struggle. But though numerous, the
society lasted only a few years : for disunion arose
among the members, and it escaped total dissolution
only by transformation. It altered its rites and cere-
monies, and henceforth called itself the ” Scythers “,
in remembrance of the revolution of 1794, in which
whole regiments, armed with scythes, had gone into

They met in 1821 at Warsaw, and drew up a new
revolutionary scheme, adopting at the same time the
new denomination of ” Patriotic Society”. In the

1. Heckethorn. Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries,
vol. II, p. 175.




meanwhile, the students of the university of Wilna
had formed themselves into a secret society which,
however, was discovered by the Russian government
and dissolved. In 1822, the Patriotic Society combined
with the masonic rite of “Modern Templars”, founded
in Poland by Captain Maiewski; to the three rites
of symbolical masonry was added a fourth, in which
the initiated swore to do all in his power towards
the liberation of his country. These combined societies
brought about the insurrection of 1830. In 1834 was
established the society of ” Young Poland ” by Simon

Simon Konarski (1808-1839) was a young Polish
patriot and poet, one of the most active members of
the Young Poland movement founded by Joseph
Mazzini in 1834. He travelled to France, England and
Belgium and, in the latter country, namely in Brus-
sels, was in constant touch with Lelewel who had been
chosen by Mazzini to become the link between him-
self and the Polish revolutionists. In Paris, the Young
Poland movement was directed by Zwierkowsky.

Simon Konarski was seized by the Russian autho-
rities and executed in 1839 at Wilna.



(Founded 1825)

As regards this organization, Pollard writes ” In
1825 the name of the Ribbon men was changed officially
to the St. Patrick’s Fraternal Organization, otherwise
known as ihe St. Patrick’s Boys. This change was
essential as, like their predecessors the White Boys, 1
the eminently Catholic Association of Ribbon men had
now been excommunicated by the Catholic Church. ” 2

1. Also known as Levellers.

2. Pollard, Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 37.



(Founded 1830)

The Brahmo Soma) movement, also called Brah-
moism or Brahmaism, was founded by Rajah Ram
Mohun Roy (1774-1833), in 1830.

Its main object was to fight idolatrous rites and
practices, and, by many, it has been described as a
” Hindu Unitarian Church. ”

The chief achievement of Ram Mohun Roy was the
abolition by Lord William Bentinck of the practice
of ” suttee ” (sacrifice of the widow on the funeral
pyre of her husband).

Ram Mohun Roy’s principles were Theistic. He had
also for several years studied Lamaism in the Hima-
layas. Having come to England in 1830, he was receiv-
ed with much honour by many sections of society
and entertained by Louis Philippe. He was considered
a great authority by all those who at that time were
conducting spiritualist and psychic researches. He died
at Bristol.

A great impulse was given to the Brahmo Somaj
by Debendra Nath Tagore (also written Devendranath
Takur) who had joined it in 1842 and is considered
as its second founder.




Owing to his efforts, the institution became purely
Theistic, giving up the authority of the Yedas and
eliminating the Vedantic element from the Brahmic
covenant. In 1856, Debendra Nath Tagore had also
gone to the Himalayas where he spent three years
as a disciple of the Tibetan Lamas. Later, he was
joined in his work by his friend Keshub Chunder
Sen who, however, in 1863, devoured by the ambition
of becoming sole leader, attacked the Somaj, heading
what one might call the revolt of the ” Young Brah-
maists ” and with his followers seceded from the Mother

The schism gave rise to the formation of another
Somaj which was directed by Keshub Chunder Sen
under the name Somaj of India, whereas the former
organization, remaining under the leadership of Deben-
dra Nath Tagore, was called Adi Samaj or Original
Church. It was also named ” Conservative “, in oppo-
sition to the new institution termed ” Progressive “.

Keshub Chunder Sen retained power in his organ-
ization ; the foundation stone of the Somaj of India
Church was laid at Jhamapukur in Calcutta, in 1868.
In 1870 he journeyed to England where he was enthu-
siastically received by the spiritualist centres of the
day, and succeeded in exciting much interest in the
political, social and religious affairs of India. In 1878,
his disregard for the rules of the Somaj regarding
Hindu marriages which he infringed in the matter of
the wedding of his own daughter to the young Maha-
rajah of Kuch Behar, caused another split in the ranks
of the Somaj of India. The dissidents then formed the
Sadharan Brahmo Somaj.

The career of Keshub Chunder Sen must be followed
with interest by students of Theosophy. Therein will
they find many of the odd principles and injunctions



laid down by H. P. Blavatsky and Annie Besant. For
instance, the theocratic system was that promoted
by Keshub Chunder Sen in his efforts to found a univer-
sal religion which would unite all creeds and symbols ;
the Christian Cross, the Crescent, the Vedic Om, the
Saiva’s trident and the Vaishnava’s Khunti. By means
of imaginary pilgrimages, he led his adherents suc-
cessively to the shrines of Moses, Buddha, to the Hima-
layan heights and Lama teachers, to Jesus and to

Similarly to Annie Besant’s Khrishnamurti, he
allowed himself to be worshipped as the Saviour of
Sinners ; his theory was the reincarnation of Great
Men of which he was one. Further, he complacently
allowed his followers to raise him to the dignity of a
deity. As the Kheshub Chunder Sen’s worship increas-
ed, there grew also the dogma of Divine Injunction.
A salient feature of Keshub’s teaching was the belief
or blind faith in the revelations claimed to have been
made to invisible teachers and spiritual guides and
exaction of blind obedience to their commands. We
are forcibly reminded of the claim made by H. P. Bla-
vatsky to her followers to sign their blind acceptance
of all orders presumably received from invisible mas-
ters like her Koot Hoomi.

Another feature which, later, distinguished Keshub
Chunder Sen’s devotees was the ” Bhakti ” side of their
religion. Unlike ” Yoga “, the old Hindu type of reli-
gious meditation or contemplation, ” Bhakti “, which
has been chiefly developed by the followers of Chay-
tania in India, is a manifestation of religious frenzy.
It spurns the aspiration to approach God by concen-
tration of thought and desire as well as silent commu-
nion, which they deem unprofitable and vain. The
philosophy of ” Bhakti ” is that the love of God must



be strong to the point of being maddening. It therefore
induces dancing, sobbing, swooning. The more frenzied
the manifestations, the greater the religious per-
fection. A great Bhakta is one who, like the founder of
the school, shows the greatest religious madness.

Women devotees of Keshub Chunder Sen’s following
were formed into a sisterhood in 1881 and one hears
of ” ladies’ journies to the Spirit land “. The readers
of ” Inquire Within ” 1 will remember the description
of ” journeys in the Astral ” claimed to have been
accomplished by women adepts of the Stella Matutina
Order. Soon after, also in 1881, young men were like-
wise formed into a brotherhood and were initiated into
different holy orders. In both cases, the number of
initiates was 11. The ceremony of initiation was called
New Horn, Sacred Fire or Blazing Agni. Most of the
rites are found in the different branches of Theosophy
and Anthroposophy, all centred around this sacred
fire also named Kundalini.

In 1880, Keshub Chunder Sen had given his organiza-
tion another name, that of ” The New Dispensation “.

It is in the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia that one
must seek the amalgamation of Jewish Cabala magic
and Hindu magic. The latter swept over Europe with
the spread of Theosophy and flourished particularly
in England. There it had found a ground in 1830 with
the teachings given by Ram Mohun Roy to the spiri-
tualists of that day with whom he had formed a Brahmo
Somaj circle.

1. ” Inquire ‘within “, Light bearers of Darkness.
For root of this movement see Chapter XIV.
For development of this movement see Chapters CX and



(Founded 1830)

Soon after the establishment of Mormonism its
founder, Joseph Smith, conceived the idea of establish-
ing a Masonic super rite.

In M. R. Werner’s book Brigham Young (page 62)
the following remark makes this evident.

” Masonry was always popular with the Mormons
until Joseph Smith claimed that an angel of the Lord
had brought him the lost key-words of several degrees,
enabling him to progress further than the highest
Masons. The charter of the Mormon lodge was then
taken away by the Grand Lodge “.

Joseph Smith, applying his powers of mediumship
towards the realization of the ambitious project nur-
tured by General Pepe, Mazzini and others for the
establishment of a super rite, was not necessarily
acceptable to the Masonic leaders of his time.

Thus as a Mason he failed but as the founder of a
Masonic sect he succeeded.

So much has already been written about the sect of
the Mormons that we confine ourselves here to a short
sketch of opinion and descriptions given by various
authors. The following is extracted from The Encyclo-
paedia Britannica, 9th Edition.




” This is a religious non-Christian sect, founded by
Joseph Smith at Manchester, New York, in 1830, now
settled in Salt Lake City, Territory of Utah, United
States… Smith was born Dec. 23rd, 1805, at Sharon,
Windsor County, Vermont, from which place ten years
later his parents, a poor, ignorant, thriftless, and not
too honest couple, removed to New York, where they
settled on a small farm near Palmyra, Wayne County
(then Ontario). Four years later, in 1809, they removed
to Manchester, some six miles off; and it was at the
latter place when fifteen years old that Joseph began
to have his alleged visions, in one of which on the night
of 21st Sept., 1823, the angel Moroni appeared to him
three times, and told him that the Bible of the Western
Continent, the supplement to the New Testament, was
buried in a certain spot near Manchester. Thither, four
years later and after due disciplinary probation, Smith
went, and had delivered into his charge by an angel of
the Lord a stone box, in which was a volume,
6 inches thick, made of thin gold plates 8 inches by 7,
and fastened together by three gold rings. The plates
were covered with small writing in the ‘ reformed
Egyptian ‘ tongue, and were accompanied by a pair
of supernatural spectacles, consisting of two crystals
set in a silver bow, and called ‘ Urim and Thummim ‘;
by aid of these, the mystic characters could be read.
Being himself unable to read or write fluently, Smith
employed as amanuensis one Oliver Cowdery, to whom
from behind a curtain, he dictated a translation, which,
with the aid of a farmer, Martin Harris, 1 who had
more money than wit, was printed and published in
1830 under the title of The Book of Mormon and accom-

1. Harris married as one of his many wives the widow of
the murdered Mason, William Morgan.



panied by the sworn statement of Oliver Cowdery,
David Whitmer, and Martin Harris, that an angel of
God had shown them the plates of which the bock was a
translation. This testimony all three, on renouncing
Mormonism some years later, denounced as false ; but
meanwhile it helped Smith to impose on the credulous,
particularly in the absence of the gold plates themselves
which suddenly and mysteriously disappeared. ”

Blanchard draws a parallel between this story of
the gold plates and that of the legend of the 14th degree
of Scottish Rites Masonry, that of Grand Elect Perfect
and Sublime Mason, according to which ” the real name
oi God was lost, till it was found by Masons, engraved
on a three-cornered gold plate, in ” the ruins of Enoch. ” 2

In reality, this book ” was written in 1812 as an
historical romance by one Solomon Spalding, a crack-
brained preacher; and the MS. falling into the hands
of an unscrupulous compositor, Sidney Rigdon, was
copied by him, and subsequently given to Joseph
Smith. Armed with this book and with self-assumed
divine authority, the latter soon began to attract
followers. ” 3

Joseph Smith was a Mason.

The Gold Plate trick, having worked so successfully
once, was tried again in 1843 when six plates were
found by Robert Wiley, a merchant of Kinderhook,
Illinois. ” The true story of the plates was disclosed ”
so Stuart Martin writes in The Mystery of Mormonism
(page 69), in an affidavit made by W. Fulgate, of Mount
Station, Brown County, 111. on June 30th, 1879, when
he swore before J. Brown, Justice of the Peace, that the
” plates were humbug, gotten up by Robert Wiley,

2. Blanchard, Scottish Rite Masonry, vol. I, p. 380.

3. Enc. Brit., Art. Mormons.



Bridge Whitton, and myself. Whitton, who was a
blacksmith, cut the plates out of pieces of copper.
Wiley and I made the hieroglyphics by making impres-
sions of beeswax and filling them with acid. ” He
describes the burial and the finding of the plates, and
states that among the spectators at the ” discovery ”
were two Mormon Elders, Marsh and Sharp.

Smith and his followers founded the city of Nauvoo
and ” such were the powers granted them by this
charter as to render the city practically independent of
the State Government, and to give Smith all but un-
limited civil power. He organized a military body called
the Nauvoo legion, of which he constituted himself
commander with the title of lieutenant-general, while
he was also president of the church and mayor of the
city. On April 6th, 1841, the foundations of the new
temple were laid, and the city continued to grow rapidly
in prosperity and size. ”

Smith’s career of treason, profligacy, dishonesty,
polygamy, spiritism and humbug, came to an abrupt
end when the gaol in which he was imprisoned by order
of the Governor of the State was broken into by a mob
who shot him and his fellow prisoner, his brother

As head of the Mormons he was succeeded by
Brigham Young (1801-1877).

In 1846, the repeal by the legislature of the charter
of Nauvoo resulted in the Mormons being driven from
the city.

In March 1849, they held a convention at Salt Lake
City, and a State was organized under the name of
” Deseret “. “A legislature was elected and a consti-
tution framed, which was sent on to Washington. This,
Congress refused to recognize, and by way of compro-
mise for declining to admit the proposed new State



into the Union, President Fillmore in 1850 organized
the country occupied by the Mormons into the Terri-
tory of Utah, with Brigham Young as governor. ”
Adopting Smith’s policy of aggressive military action,
Brigham Young, like his predecessor, defied the Fede-
ral Government. He died on August 29, 1877, leaving
17 wives and 56 children. 4

The following description of a Mormon ceremony
was printed in the Rosicrucian in an article entitled
” Ancient and Modern Mysteries ” by M. W. Frater
Robert Wentworth Little (page 169).

” The converts are then required to purchase
white linen garments, which are furnished by the
‘ high deacon ‘. They are then conducted to the temple,
ushered into a private room, and commanded to undress
for the inspection of the presiding elder ‘. This official,
after a minute examination, clothes the neophytes in
the linen robes or garments of endowment and conducts
them into a large room which is divided by white
screens into many small compartments. Each neophyte
enters one of the compartments, and is ordered to take
off the ‘ endowment robe ‘ and to step into a long coffin-
shaped tin bath. The elder then pours water upon the
naked victim — blessing each member of the body as
the water touches it — ‘ the brain to be clear and
strong — the eyes to be bright and sharp — the ears
to be quick to hear ‘, and so on down to the feet — this
ceremony being performed upon all, without distinc-
tion of sex. A new name is then given to each convert
by the elder, who commands them to ‘ arise and follow
me ‘. A magnificent garden, full of exquisite fruit-
trees, is the scene of the next ceremony. The candidates
are still in a state of nudity, which represents primeval

4. Erie. Brit., 9th Ed. Art. Mormonism.



innocence, and the Temptation of our First Parents
is the subject of the next drama. The women are direc-
ted by an elder personating Satan to pluck an apple
from a certain tree, and after they have tasted, to hand
it to the men. Brigham Young then appears, and drives
them out of the garden with a flaming sword. They
return to the temple, implore forgiveness on their knees
for all trespasses and transgressions and the ceremony
concludes with a benediction upon the new Saints,
pronounced by the lips of this polygamous president.

” Such is a brief outline of the ‘ Rite of Endowment’
the details of the scene being, as may readily be conceiv-
ed, of too obscene a character to be explained at greater
length. ”

Brigham Young was succeeded by John Taylor, an
Englishman and a Freemason. His apostolic successors
were Wilford Woodruff, Lorenzo Snow, Joseph Fielding
Smith (eldest son of the founder of the order) who died
Nov. 19th, 1918, and Heber J. Grant. 5

About Mormonism and Masonry, Blanchard makes
the following remark : ” The two institutions are morally
and legally the same. ” 6

The Mormon dogma is universality, materialism and
pantheism. It blends Judaism and Christianity, aiming
at a progressive universal religion while seeking to unite
in itself all faiths and the cults of every people on

The Mormon state is a theocratic community at the
head of which is a grand priest-president assisted by
two others and a travelling council of twelve. Its
mysteries are those of spiritism and the seance room.

5. Stuart Martin, The Mystery of Mormonism.

6. Blanchard 33°, op. cit, vol. II, p. 373.

For root of this movement see Chapter XLVII.


I. O. B. B.

(Founded 1843)

B’nai B’rith means ” Sons of the Covenant “, the
Covenant being that of circumcision practised according
to the Mosaic law. Hence the Independent Order of the
B’nai B’rith admits only Jews as members.

This rite “was founded in New York in 1843 by a
number of German Jews, headed by Henry Jones. ” 1

Its constitution, District Lodges, Grand Lodges,
stamp it as a Jewish Masonic Society.

Like most societies, it covers its political activities
under the cloak of ” benevolence and philanthropy. ”

From its inception until the present time, its main
contact has been with Germany and its chief aim the
establishment of the supremacy of the German Jews in all
world affairs through the channel of ” Internationalism”.

In 1882, the strength of the I. 0. B. B. in the United
States warranted the opening of Lodges in Germany
by Moritz Ettinger, and the growth of the order was
s6 rapid there that in 1885, Julius Bien, President
of the Order in New York, went over and inaugu-

1. Jewish Encyclopaedia, Art. B’nai B’rith.




rated the first German Grand Lodge of the I. O. B. B.

The political activities of the leaders of the order in
Bumania, Austria and Hungary are a matter of record,
although the chief centre of their power is in the United
States where they have lately attained supremacy in
the Jewish World by absorbing ” national ” Zionism
and submitting it wholly to their own ” international ”
policy when the Jewish World Agency was created
in October, 1928.

It will be well for the reader to bear in mind that,
however united a front the Jews may present to the
Gentiles, yet among themselves they are divided, and
the fight for supremacy and the attainment of world
power is not less bitter between their various camps
than it is among the different sects of Freemasonry.

Babbi Dr. Leo Bach was the president of the B’nai
B’rith of Germany in 1928.

The Grand Master for Bussia of the International
Order of the B’nai B’rith at the time of the Bussian
revolution of 1917 was Sliozberg. He was one of the
inspirers of Kerensky, the leader of the first revolution
of 1917. 2 Alexander Kerensky, real name Aron Kirbiz,
Kerensky having been the name of his stepfather, was
a member of the Socialist revolutionary party and a
32nd degree Scottish Bites Mason.

There is but little doubt now that the B’nai B’rith
seems to be the supreme body, shaping and directing,
for the attainment of its own ends, the policies, what-
ever they may be, of all Freemasonry beginning with the
Grand Lodge of England, The Grand Orient and Scottish
Bites, and ending in the O. T. O., which is Illuminism
under another name.

2. Les Cahiers de I’Ordre, November 1927.

For root of this movement see Chapter “VII.

r’or development of this movement see Chapter CXXVII.



(Founded 1843)

Captain H. B. C. Pollard, in writing of the Young
Ireland movement says ” The leaders of the Young
Ireland Party of 1848 were John Mitchell, an advanced
Radical, deeply tinged with Jacobin ideas, and William
Smith O’Brien, whose brother later became Lord
Inchiquin. They obtained popular support by reason of
the widespread misery caused by the Potato famine
of ‘ Black Forty-seven. ‘ Gavan Duffy, Dillon, Doheny,
O’Gorman and Stephens were all minor conspirators.
Mitchell and O’Brien were transported to Van Diemens
Land, but the younger men mostly made good their
escape and lived in exile in Paris and America. ” 1

” The old traditional combination of an open
movement within the law reinforced by a secret orga-
nization of criminal habits was revived in 1850, when the
Tenant Defence Society was founded with the object
of enforcing, by agitation, legislation which was to
accomplish by legal means that expropriation of
property that the combined genius of Whitefeet,
Rockites, Tenvalts, Molly Maguires and all other Irish

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 10.




terrorist societies had failed to achieve by violence. 2
” The Archbishop of Dublin at that time was
Archbishop Cullen, who was familiar with the evils
resulting from the effective use of Secret Societies. He
had been in Rome when the successful Carbonarists
under Mazzini and Garibaldi drove out the Pope ; 3 and
the lesson had not been wasted. Cullen readily ascer-
tained that the Tenants’ Rights Party was merely a
new disguise for the late ‘ Young Ireland ‘ movement,
whose ideals were both Republican and, within limits,

” There was no formal excommunication, but a quiet
though firm ban was placed on the party. ” 4

The Young Ireland Movement was but a branch of
the Young Europe Movement led by Mazzini, the main
history of which will be found in Part I.

2. Pollard, op. cit, p. 44.

3. Pope Pius IX, on Nov. 15, 1848.

4. Pollard, op. cit, p. 46.

For root of this movement see Chapters LXIII, LXV.
For development of this movement see Chapter LXXXII.



(Founded 1844)

” Inquire Within”, in her book Light-bearers of
Darkness, gives an excellent summary of the crigin and
scope of this sect. From her work we quote the following :

” This movement was founded in 1844 by a Persian,
Mirza Ali Muhammad, who took the title of ‘ Bab ‘
(the Gate); he revolted against the Hierarchy, who,
fearing his growing influence, had him shot at Tabriz,

” It claims to be the fulfilment ‘ of that which was
but partially revealed in previous dispensations ‘, and
they look upon Buddha, Zoroaster, Jesus, Mohammed,
and Confucius as merely preparing the world for the
advent of the ‘ Most Great Peace ‘ and the ‘ Mighty
World Educator ‘ Baha’u’llah (Glory of God), 1863-92,
and later Abdul-Baha, 1892-1921. It further claims to
be the unity of all religions, also older and modern
movements, such as Theosophy, Freemasonry, Spiri-
tualism, Socialism, etc. ; it aims at conferring illumina-
tion upon humanity, and like all illuminated groups, it
works for universal peace, religion, education, language
(Esperanto), and universal everything leading to unity
of humanity; therefore all prejudices must be abandoned,




traditional, racial, patriotic, religious and political ;
all religions must be in accordance with science and
reason. ”

The Bahais have a temple in Chicago, the building
of which was begun in 1903 which ” Inquire Within ”
describes as being a perfect nonagon in form, all its
dimensions being based on the number nine, ” the
cabalistic number of generation, which initiates and
leads to unity with the universal astral light. ” 1

The same author further explains the organization
of the sect most concisely in the following lines :

” There is a Guardian of the Cause — Shogi-Effendi —
with nine co-workers, and in each town there is a Spiritual
Assembly of nine members, who must be consulted, abso-
lutely obeyed, and submitted to. There are also National
Spiritual Assemblies in all countries to which the cause has
spread, and, finally, they are making elaborate plans to
form an International Spiritual Assembly to be elected by
all believers — to enact ordinances and regulations not
found in the explicit Holy Text. ”

We leave it to anyone interested to follow the sub-
versive activities of this sect in either the political or
religious realm.

1. ” Inquire Within “, Light bearers of Darkness, p. 194 el seq.
For root of this movement see Chapter IV.



I. O. O. F.


(Founded 1844)

The following information is gathered from The
Complete Manual of Oddfellows.

” In 1819, Thomas Wildey established in Baltimore
the first lodge of Oddfellows in the United States, and
from 1825 till 1833, he was Grand Sire of the Grand

” In 1843 Grand Sire Howell Hopkins of Pennsyl-
vania was installed, and the United States Grand Lodge
issued a dispensation for opening the Prince of Wales
Lodge No. 1 at Montreal, Canada.

” In 1844 The Grand Lodge (Oddfellows U. S. A.)
appointed a Ritual Revision Committee and entirely
changed all the working, rejecting the whole of the
English work, and in point of fact creating an entirely
new Order ” 1 based on the plans of Thomas Wildey.
(See part I of this book).

The woman’s degree of ” Rebeckah “, which was

1. The Complete Manual of Oddfellows, published 1879,
p. 66.




formulated by Schuyler Colfax in 1851, was adopted
by the Grand Lodge in September of that year. 2

The American Oddfellows have five degrees.

For the important and interesting connection of this
order with Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites we
would refer the reader to page 211 of this book.

2. Op. cit., p. 153.



(Founded 1848)

Modern Spiritism, sometimes called Spiritualism,
traces its descent from the mystifications of Catherine and
Margaret Fox, the daughters of John Fox, who, in 1848,
during the course of experiments conducted in a haunted
house at Hydesville, New York, U. S. A. elaborated
a system of communication by raps, with invisible enti-
ties. Both sisters eventually confessed to having abused
the credulity of the public in their spiritist seances but
the universal interest aroused by the phenomena at
Hydesville did not abate.

Since then, there has been a regular epidemic of
table turning, ouija boards, planchettes, automatic
writings and similar modes, more or less effective, for
achieving mediumship.

The acquisition of this type of mediumship exposes
the aspirant to the danger of an induced state of mental
passivity during which the mind may register vibrations
broadcast from some terrestrial centre such as that
provided by the recently constituted ” Polaire Society ”
and recognized by the H. B. of L. (See page 531).

The cultivation of spiritism under all its different
aspects either for amusement or pseudo-scientific inves-




tigation leads to serious consequences when occult
adepts rely upon such manifestations for spiritual and
material guidance. One is appalled at the thought that
even the destinies of nations may become subject to
occult direction emanating from spiritistic seances. In
connection herewith, the following clipping shows the
opeiation of these methods on persons prominent in
political life. As everyone knows, Mrs. Snowden, now
Viscountess Snowden, is the wife of the then (1930)
Chancellor oi the Exchequer, and a woman oi great
personal influence.




Space ” pulsating with life and
mind ” was a picture of the uni-
verse drawn by Sir Oliver Lodge
in a lecture which he delivered last
night at 11, Downing-street, Mr.
Snowden’s official residence as
Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Sir Oliver was speaking on the
reality of the spiritual world, his
lecture being delivered in connec-
tion with the Industrial Law Bureau
of the Young Women’s Christian
Association. It was held in two


reception rooms on the first floor
of No. 11. Sir Oliver stood in the
doorway between, so that he could
be heard in either room.

Mrs. Philip Snowden, who pre-
sided, recalled an experience of her
own when in 1906 she and Mr.
Snowden first came to London.

” We got tired of hotel life, ” said Mrs.
Snowden, ” and obtained rooms in
Lambeth Palace-road. The following
morning a letter came to me at this
address which nobody in the world could
have known. I opened this letter and
it looked like nonsense.

” Scrutinising it carefully, I divided
the letters and they made sentences
the substance of which was that, I must
put myself into friendly relationship
with someone who had passed over —
into the ether — because that persons
work would not be effective if I did
not do it, and my work here would not
be so good as it might be if I failed to do
it. There was an accompanying note
which said that this message was deli-
vered to me at a spiritualist meeting,
in Lancaster and the writer sent the
message on. ”

Daily Telegraph, October 29th 1930.

The physical force of ” Kundalini ” expended by
people in these ” communications with the unseen



drain their vital energy to such an extent that, when
such practices are indulged in for an appreciable length
of time, their nervous systems may be seriously impaired.
A ” Ouija ” medium, after a week’s consecutive sittings
will feel a sense of heaviness and oppression about the
solar plexus at certain hours. This sensation is shortly
followed by serious physical weakness, manifest in sports-
and athletics. Presently, the medium — now a potential
medical patient — will be unable to sleep at night.

Cracks, bangs, knocks, etc., will mark an approach-
ing state of obsession. People whose psychic experi-
ments have brought them to this degree of develop-
ment, generally cut short further adventures in this
field of science and theology. These have learned that
there is indeed something beyond the obvious, and that
after this stage of induced experimental mediumship
has been achieved the way is open for such states of
mind variously known to psychopathic doctors and
priests as lunacy, possession, obsession, alternating
personality and sadism.

Mediumship does not imply power. A medium is a
receiver and, as such, furthers the will of another. The
fakirs of India are mediums.

That these phenomena are real has been proved by
such prominent scientists as Crooks, Richet and Flam-
marion and the mediumistic exploits of such persons
as D. I). Home are so well known and attested that we
will give but one short extract here from page 171 of
The Rosicrucian, quoting a speech by Lord Lindsay,
Senior Grand Warden of England, for the benefit of
persons who may happen to have no acquaintance
with the subject.

” I may mention that on another occasion I was
sitting with Mr. Home and Lord Adare and a cousin
of his. During the sitting Mr. Home went into a trance,.



and in that state was carried out of the window in the
room next to where we were, and was brought in at
our window. The distance between the windows was
about seven feet six inches and there was not the
slightest foothold between them, nor was there more
than a twelve inch projection to each window, which
served as a ledge to put flowers on. ”

What are we to think when we read in John Drink-
water’s remarkable book on Charles James Fox that
Sir Francis Dashwood was Chancellor of the Ex-
chequer under G?orge III ?

Regarding the career of Sir Francis, we here read
the following. The comment concerns John Wilkes
whose ” ambition to be admitted into the childish
and blasphemous fraternity notorious as the Monks
of Medmenham was frustrated by the claims of superior
profligacy advanced by the fourth Lord Sandwich, with
whom he competed for election. His resentment against
that nobleman and Sir Francis Dashwood, the founder
of the Society, was not appeased by the success of an
exploit that diverted the town. Wilkes contrived to
let a baboon loose upon one of the orgiastic rites at
Medmenham that was being conducted in darkness,
and had the satisfaction of throwing his victims into
hysterics at the apparition of what their befuddled wits
took to be the devil. ” 1

What indeed can be deduced from such an historical
fact as that Lord Sandwich, ” notable even in that age
as a corrupter of morals “, was Secretary of State ?

The obvious conclusion we can draw is that men either
corrupt or easily bought are men easily blackmailed
just as those who, being victims of their own greed, are
amenable to bribery.

1. John Drinkwater, Charles James Fox, p. 48.



Spiritism is the fundamental mystery of most secret
societies and the drug traffic is its chief commercial

A clipping from the London Daily Telegraph of
Nov. 29, 1930, which we reproduce, will give the reader
an excellent idea of the problem of Modern Spiritism.





The text was issued yesterday of the
Spiritualism and Psychical Research
(Exemption) Bill, a measure promoted by
Mr. Kelly, M. P. for Rochdale, and ten
other members of the Socialist party.

It is designed to relieve spiritualists
and mediums from prosecution under the
enactments relating to witchcraft and
vagrancy whilst they are ” genuinely
exercising their psychic powers, whether
in religious practice or scientific investi-
gation. ”

Although the bill appears to
meditate only a change in the cri-
minal law, it is obvious that if
placed on the Statute Book it must
to some extent affect the attitude
towards spiritualism of judges who
administer the common law and
the principles of equity.

If, for example, spiritualism, seances,
and mediums are to be recognised as no
longer inimical to the public well-being, it

difficult to see how the civil courts
could hold, as they have done on several
occasions, that a bequest to an institu-

tion for the training of mediums and the
furtherance of spiritualism generally is
void, as being against public policy. By
his will Sir Arthur Conan Doyle left
bequests to three spiritualistic insti-

On this aspect of the matter it is
interesting to recall how, heretofore, the
cult of spiritualism has been received in
the High Court. It has figured, though
not as a vital issue, in actions for libel
and slander. The typical cases of Arch-
deacon T. Colley v. J. N. Maskelyne,
in 1907, and Radcliffe Hall v. Lane Fox-
Pitt, in 1920, will be remembered.


It has also been a more intimate issue
in a copyright case, Cummins v. Bond,
which came before Mr. Justice Eve three
or four years ago. The question for solu-
tion in that case was whether the copy-
right in a communication said to have
been made at a seance by the spirit of a
Glastonbury monk was vested in the
woman medium who received it, or in
the enthusiastic sitter to whom she dic-
tated it and who wished to publish it.

The sitter claimed that he owned the
copyright, as the author was a spirit
and had only used the medium as an
instrument of transmission. On the other
hand, the medium claimed the copy-
right on the ground that she was not a
mere amanuensis, but was in communion
with the spirit of the deceased monk,
and was therefore joint author of the

With customary directness the judge
disregarded the pretension of both par-
ties that the communication had an
ultra-terrestrial origin. He dealt with
it as coming from a terrestrial author,
and held the medium to be the author
and therefore the holder of the copy-

Long memories may also revive the



ase of Lyon and Home, one of the most
otable cases ever brought into a Chan-
ery Court.

A wealthy widow made a gift of
:30,()00 to Daniel Douglas Home, the
lost celebrated of the mediums of his
time (the ‘Sixties), and gave him also a
reversionary interest in another sum of
similar amount. She did this believing
that she was fulfilling the wish of
er husband, whose spirit Home had
invoked. Subsequently she rued her
enerosity, and brought an action to
ave the gifts set aside.

Vice-Chancellor Giffard heard the case,
and for nine days the court listened to
talk about table rapping, knotted hand-
erchiefs, and other phenomena. In
setting aside the gifts Giffard charac-
terised the manifestations which had
influenced the lady as :

” Mischievous nonsense, well calcu-
lated on the one hand to delude the
vain, the weak, the foolish, and the
superstitious, and on the other hand
to assist the projects of the needy
and the adventurer. ”


There is no need to strain the memory
severely for an instance of judicial
iticism of the claims of spiritualists
ade by Mr. Justice Darling.
A theatrical agent sued theatrical
oducers for damages for alleged
failure to carry out an agreement to
ace the Criterion Theatre at his dis-
posal for a public seance. Merely men-
tioning that the plaintiff won his case,
and was awarded £200 damages, the
comments of the judge may be quoted
full, because reference was made
the statute which it is now sought to
fiend :

” It is an open question whether the
manifestations given by mediums are
genuine or mere tricks by which people
are able to represent that there is com-
unication with the next world. I should
myself come to the conclusion that there
is no certain desire to deceive or impose,
but that it is desired that people should
be puzzled as to whether there is a
genuine manifestation of spirits or
w h e t h e r it is trickery.
” There are those who believe that
the spirits can communicate in this
world with those they have known,

through some medium. Their time is so
unoccupied in the next world, and it is
such a dreary place, that thev are per-
fectly ready to come to the” Criterion
and attend matinees, and not to look
on from the stage, but be on the stage
“Before even they get on the stage
they are counting the pennies in Mr. — ‘s
overcoat or the buttons on it, and
reading a jumble of German and English

” On the other hand, there are those
who are capable of supposing that this
really is a kind of existence imposed
for eternity upon those who have ceased
to exist in life. If that is so, ‘ well may
we weep for friends who die ‘.

” All they (the plaintiffs) desired to do
was to give an exhibition which would
leave some people in doubt as to whether
it was real divination by means of the
dead or some trickery. No magistrate
ought to convict them on this account
under the statute of George IV. ”


In the bill now before Parliament
it is proposed that spiritualists
shall be given immunity from pro-
secution, provided that there is
no intention to defraud. The fol-
lowing are specifically mentioned
as coming within the scope of
the bill :

Promoter, chairman, or other official,

Lecturer or speaker,



For the purposes of the bill,
” medium ” and ” clairvoyant ”
are defined as meaning a person
” holding a certificate or licence
of fitness to practise either as a
medium or clairvoyant, or in both
capacities, such certificate or
licence to be issued by registered
or properly constituted spiritua-
listic or psychical societies, or a
joint committee representing such
societies, or such other certifying
or licensing body as may be appro-
ved by one of his Majesty’s Prin-
cipal Secretaries of State. ”



The Societies of Psychical Research, both in England
and America, exist today as scientific centres for infor-
mation and investigation of spirit phenomena. Persons
interested in these ” mysteries ” would do well to avail
themselves of their protection and the facilities they
afford for serious work. The English Society was founded
in 1882 by Henry Sidgwick, Edmund Gurney, Frede-
rick Meyers, W. T. Barrett and others.

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII.

For development of this movement see Chapters CVIII,

CIX, cx, cxv.



(Founded 1850)

This order has five degrees and was founded lor the
wives and daughters of Masons in America by Robert
Morris in 1850. It has also been worked in Scotland.

Jephthah’s Daughter Daughter’s Degree

Ruth Widow’s Degree

Esther Wife’s Degree

Martha Sister’s Degree

Electa Benevolent Degree

For root of this movement see Chapter XLVII.



(I. R. B.)


(Founded 1857-1858)

Concerning this famous Secret Society, Captain
Pollard writes :

” From its earliest days to the present time the
I. R. B. has existed as a militant revolutionary secret
society, with the avowed object of separating Ireland
from all connection with the British Empire and estab-
lishing an independent Republican Government. 1

” The founders of this movement were Colonel
John O’Mahoney and a barrister, Michael Doheney,
both of whom had fled from Ireland for their share in
the rising of 1848. Both these men took refuge in France,
at that time a hot-bed of secret Carbonarist societies,
such as the Communistes Revolulionnaires, the Con-
stitutional Society with its ‘ Acting Company ‘, the
Seasons and many others, and it was in Paris that these
two fugitives lived with James Stephens, the real head
and organizer of the Fenian movement, who was also a
refugee. ”

” In 1857 a messenger was sent from New York
to James Stephens, then in Dublin, asking him to get

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 47.




up an organization in Ireland on resources provided
from the States (U. S. A.) ; and it is clear that Stephens
had already cut-and-dried plans in his mind as to how this
was to be done. He stated his terms, which were agreed
to, and on St. Patrick’s Day 1858, the I. R. B. movement
was initiated by Stephens and Luby in Dublin. ”

In 1859 the I. R. B. exacted the following oath ;
” I, A. B., in the presence of Almighty God, do solemnly
swear allegiance to the Irish Republic now virtually
established ; and that I will do my utmost, at every
risk, while life lasts, to defend its independence and
integrity ; and finally that I will yield implicit obedience
in all things, not contrary to the laws of God, to the
commands of my superior officers. So help me God.
Amen. ”

” The organization made rapid headway, but the
weight of the Roman Catholic Hierarchy was surging
against the movement, and in due course the Brother-
hood was excommunicated ; in 1861 no Fenian could get
absolution. ”

In reference to the founding of the Fenian society
in America, Heckethorn fifty years ago had written the
following :

” In Nov. 1863, the Fenian organization assumed
a new character. A grand national convention of
delegates met at Chicago and avowed the object of
the Brotherhood, namely, the separation of Ireland
from England, and the establishment of an Irish repub-
lic, the same changes being first to be effected in
Canada. Another grand convention was held in 1864
at Cincinnati, the delegates at which represented some
250,000 members, each of which members was called
upon for a contribution of five dollars, and this call,
it is said, was promptly responded to…. About the same
time a Fenian Sisterhood was established, and the


ladies were not inactive ; for in two months from their
associating they returned upwards of £200,000 sterling
to the Fenian Exchequer for the purpose of purchasing
arms and other war material. ” 2

To raise money the Fenians issued bonds redeemable
90 days after the establishment of the future Irish

Availing ourselves of the remarkable documentation
furnished by Captain Pollard we gather the following
facts :

” The American Fenian Brotherhood was a separate
organization, distinct from the Irish Fenian Brother-
hood or I. R. B. having its own leaders ; but both
organizations were on the same lines and had their
officers, both civil and military oaths, emblems, and
passwords, funds and stores of arms. ” 3

All was well till Sept. 14, 1865 when “the Dublin
authorities, who were thoroughly well informed, raided
the offices of The Irish People and arrested the staff.

James Stephens was arrested with the rest but
” escaped through the nominal complicity of a warder,
John Breslin, who was also a member of the I. R. B. ”

” Stephens had received some twenty-five thousand
pounds, little of which was spent in Ireland, and in later
years it was a matter of common knowledge that
Stephens, besides being Head Centre, had also an agree-
ment with the British Government, which threw a
peculiar light on his immunity from arrest and his later
escape from prison and leisurely retreat to France. 1,4

On March 5, 1867, ” Colonel ” Kelly, heading a
dissident group of Fenians, established a Directory

2. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries,
vol. II, p. 203.

3. Pollard, op. cit., p. 58 et seq.

4. Ibid., p. 60 et seq.



separate from the original I. R. B. in London.

” Kelly, it should be noted, was the inventor of
the Committee of Safety, later known as the Assassina-
tion Committee, whose function was to shoot people
suspected of ‘ treason ‘ to the Brotherhood. ”

” In 1869 new influences in America and Paris suc-
ceeded in reforming the I. R. B. Directorate in London,
a nd the organization became not only a mainspring of
revolutionary endeavour in Ireland, but a definite
element in the complex machinery of world-revolution. ”

In March 1865, the Fenians joined the amalgamation
of subversive Secret Societies under Karl Marx, known
as the International Association of Working Men, foun-
ded in London on September 28th.

” It is, at all events, clear that Marx and the
leaders of the I. R. B. were in close touch, and that
Marx knew, even if the mass of Irish dupes did not,
that the Irish revolutionary dream of the I. R. B. and
Fenian leaders was no merely nationalist rebellion, but
was to be a social revolution. 5

” The function of the Fenian ‘ General ‘ Cluseret
and his relation to the International are not precisely
clear, but he appears to have acted as a chief of the
military rather than the civil side of the secret Lodges.
During his stay in England on his Fenian mission he
paid particular attention to the problem of how London
might be captured, held and burnt…. After the sup-
pression of the Paris branch of the Internationale it was
Cluseret who organized the workers as a secret commu-
nist revolutionary society. ”

The more recent activities of the I. R. B. should
be followed in connection with The Clan-na-Gael.

5. Pollard, op. cit, p. 67 et seq.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXVII.

For development of this movement see Chapter LXXXVIII.



(Founded 1858)

In our enumeration of subversive societies we must
include the Phoenix Society of Skibbereen of which
Captain Pollard writes the following in The Secret
Societies of Ireland (page 46).

” In 1858 a premature organization, contrived
to revive the tenets of the Young Irishmen of ten years
earlier, was founded at Skibbereen by Jeremiah O’Dono-
van Rossa and James Stephens. Both these men were
later to attain notoriety in criminal annals, but the
Phoenix Society was abortive. Attacked by the priests
it was suppressed. ”

This society is interesting to us on account of the
subsequent career of James Stephens, one of its founders,
who had previously been identified with the Fenian

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXII.





(Founded 1860)

If, as it has been appropriately defined, Judaism
is a sect, the creation of the Alliance Israelite Univer-
selle which took place in 1860 can be regarded as that
of its exoteric centre.

It was founded in 1860 by Aristide Astruc, Isidor
Cahen, Jules Carvalho, Narcisse Leven, Eugene Manuel
and Charles Netter. Its first president was Konigs-
warter. Adolphe Cremieux was president from 1863-
1867 and again from 1868-1880.

In 1840, the world had been startled by the news
of the fearful murder of Pere Thomas at Damascus.
Serious investigations had resulted in the conviction
of three Jews who had confessed to the commission of
the abominable crime for Jewish ritual purposes of
procuring human blood.

The indignation of the whole world rising against
Jewry made its prominent members realise the danger
threatening their newly acquired emancipation in most
countries, and they made a concerted effort to disprove
Jewish guilt in the Damascus affair. Foremost among
them had been Moses Monte fiore, Adolphe Cremieux



and Solomon Munk. Yet, the real inspirer of the Alliance
Israelite Universelle was Hirsch Kalisher, Rabbi of
Thorn (Russia) and its enthusiastic exponent, Moses

The chief aim of the Alliance Israelite Universelle
was political, and was clearly expressed in the report
circulated after its foundation in which was stated :
All important faiths are represented in the world by
nations, that is to say, they are incarnated in governments
especially interested in them and officially authorized
to represent them and speak for them only. Our faith
alone is without this important advantage; it is represented
neither by a state nor by a society, nor does it occupy a
clearly defined territory.

The Alliance Israelite Universelle therefore was
destined to be the governmental representative of all
Jews from whatever country they lived in under
the authority of their secret Kahal or community

The first political manifestation of the Alliance Israe-
lite Universelle took place at the Berlin Congress in 1878
where it was represented by three of its delegates :
Kann, Netter and Veneziani.

The link between the Alliance Israelite Universelle
and Freemasonry was for many years Adolphe Cre-
mieux and Masonic writers have asserted that the
18th degree, conferreo by the Grand Orient, makes the
initiate, if not a member, at any rate a supporter of the

The Alliance Israelite Universelle saw its dream of
international Jewish Government shattered when Zio-
nism emerged and came tc the fore in 1897. It is note-
worthy that the ” Prophet ” of Zionism : Ahad Ha’am
(Asher Ginsberg) was a member of the Alliance Israelite
Universelle and a disciple of Charles Netter. The avowed



aims of the A. I. U., namely a super-government of the
world and a universal religion, both to be Judaic, are
being steadily pursued by the ” Jewish World Agency ”
functioning to-day.




(Founded 1860)

In his early days, Karl Marx, later to be the moving
spirit of the First International, edited a paper in Paris,
Annales Franco-Allemandes, the organ of a secret society.
This paper had been founded by Arnold Riige, a dis-
ciple of Mazzini. Marx met Riige through Henri Heine,
the celebrated poet. 1

Heckethorn, in his Secret Societies of All Ages and
Countries gives an interesting synopsis of the early
phases of this movement destined ultimately to form
the keystone of subversion throughout the world. 2

” The first attempt at an international society was
made by a small number of German workmen in London,
who had been expelled from France in 1839 for taking
part in the riots in Paris. Its members consisted of
Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Danes and Swedes. Of
the few English members Ernest Jones was one. The
society was on friendly terms with the English Socia-
lists, the Chartists, and the London French Democratic

1. Revue Internationale des Societes Secrites, June 28, 1931.

2. Heckethorn, op. cit. vol. II, p. 224 et seq.




Society. Out of that friendship sprang the Society of the
Fraternal Democrats, who were in correspondence with
a number of democratic societies in Belgium. In Novem-
ber, 1847, a German Communist Conference was held
in London, at which Dr. Karl Marx (real name Morde-
chai) was present. In the manifesto then put forth it
was declared that the aim of the Communists was the
overthrow of the rule of the capitalists by the acquisi-
tion of political power. The practical measures by
which this was to be effected were the abolition of
private property in land ; the centralization of credit
in the hands of the State — the leading agitators of
course to be the chiefs of the State — by means of a
national bank ; the centralization of the means of trans-
port in the hands of the State ; national workshops ;
the reclamation and improvement of land ; and the
gratuitous education of all the children.

” In 1860, a Trade Unionist, Manhood Suffrage,
and Vote by Ballot Association was established, of
which G. Odger, a shoemaker, was chairman. As if it
had not enough of what might be called legitimate
work to do, the association also undertook to agitate
in favour of Poland, for which purpose it co-operated
with the National League for the Independence of
Poland. The London International Exhibition of 1862
induced the French government to assist many French
workmen with means to visit that exhibition… ” and
“… on the 5th August, all the delegates met at a
dinner given to them by their English colleagues at
Freemason’s Hall, where an address was read which
formed, as it were, the foundation-stone of the Inter-
national. The Imperial Commission that had enabled
the French workmen to visit the London Exhibition
had no doubt furnished them with return tickets. But
several of the artisans made no use of their second



halves, since profitable employment in London was
found for them by their English brethren, so that they
might form connecting links between the workmen of
the two countries. ”

The next year, another meeting was arranged and
this was followed by others. At last one was held in
London on Sept. 24, 1864, presided over by Professor
Beesly, at which it was finally determined to establish
a permanent organization of the working people of the
civilized world. The International Working Men’s
Association was thus founded. In The Jewish Encyclo-
paedia, Article on Karl Marx, we read that Mazzini
and Marx were entrusted with the task of preparing
the address and the constitution. Then came the
big public meeting held on September 28, 1864 at
St. Martin’s Hall, which ” declared the International
Working Men’s Association to be established and con-
gresses were appointed to be held at different times and
places to decide on the measures to be taken to found
the working men’s Eldorado. Many societies at first
were affiliated, but dissensions soon broke out among
them, and many, such as the Italian Working Men’s
Society, withdrew again. ” 3

This withdrawal of the Italian section was doubtless
influenced by its recognition of the subversion of the
original scheme for the amelioration of industrial con-
ditions by the Mazzinian revolutionary agents.

” At a meeting held in London, in 1865, the
‘ re-establishment of Poland entire and independent 1
was again one of the questions discussed. The Paris
delegates were for avoiding political questions; but
Mr. Odger reminded them that Poland had furnished
the occasion for the establishment of the association,

3. Hecke thorn, op. cit.



and that the Conference must stand by the Polish
cause. ”

In 1866, a meeting or congress was held at Geneva,
where the abolition of standing armies, the destruction
of the monopolies of great companies, and the transfer
of railways and other means of locomotion to the people,
were decided on. Another resolution favouring Polish
Independence was passed and the report of Marx made
in 1864 was adopted.

To anyone unversed in the intricacies of International
Politics at that date, the introduction and predominance
of the meesures concerning Poland seem senseless.
All the Internationa



expropriation of all existing proprietors, by the aboli-
tion of the political and legal state, which is the
sanction and only guarantee of all property as now
existing, and of all that is called legal right; and the
expropriation, in fact, everywhere, and as much and as
quickly as possible by the force of events and
circumstances. ‘ ” 4

After such remarks, the International was evidently
considered by its masters to have shown its mettle and
to be deserving of better quarters. ” A temple worthy
of their cult was sought and found… near Geneva,
where… a fine building, the Masonic Temple — Temple
Unique… was procured. … They put the name of
Temple on their cards and bills. Their cult had gained
a worthy shrine… ” 5

The further aims of the movement are thus described
by Heckethorn:

“… At the time when the International was founded,
the French Empire was as yet in all its strength and….
its ministers looked upon themselves as small Machia-
vellis when they permitted the International (which
claimed to be a social, non-political organization), to
grow in order, some day, to use it against a mutinous
bourgeoisie. The Emperor had an opportunity on
September 2, at Sedan, and the Empress on Septem-
ber 4, at Paris, to judge of the value of such policy.
However, the scheme of the association having been
settled in London in 1864, the organizers opened at
Paris a bureau de correspondance, which was neither
formally interdicted nor regularly authorized by the
Prefect and the Minister. But the constantly growing
power of the International shown by the strikes of

4. Heckethorn, op. cit. p. 231.

5. Onslow Yorke, Secret History of the International, p. 66.



Roubaix, Amiens, Paris, Geneva, etc. after a time com-
pelled the government either to direct or to destroy it.
The Parisian manifesto read at Geneva was stopped at
the French frontier ; but M. Rouher agreed to admit
it into France, if the association would insert some
passages thanking the Emperor for what he had done
for the working classes — a suggestion which was receiv-
ed with derision by the members. In the meantime the
old revolutionary party, of which Mazzini, Garibaldi,
Blanqui, and Ledru-Rollin were the oracles, looked
with suspicion on the foundation of the International;
for, as this last declared that it would not meddle with
politics, the others called out, Treason ! and thus the
two parties were soon in a condition of violent opposi-
tion. In 1867, the Congress of Lausanne voted against
war, but at the same moment the other fraction of the
demagogues, assembled at Geneva, under pretence of
forming a congress of peace, declared war on all tyrants
and oppressors of the people. However, the two parties,
the bourgeois demagogues and the workmen dema-
gogues, eventually united ; and thus it came to pass
that by virtue of this pact the International took part
in two revolutionary manifestations which occurred
about six weeks after — the one at the tomb of Manin
in the cemetery of Montmartre, and the other on the
following day on the Boulevard Montmartre, to protest
against the French occupation of Rome. The Inter-
national having thus been carried away to declare war
against the government, the latter determined to pro-
secute it. The association was declared to be dissolved,
and fifteen of the leaders were each fined a hundred
francs. The International taking no notice of the decree
of dissolution, a second prosecution was instituted, and
nine of the accused were condemned to imprisonment
for three months. The International now hid itself



amidst the multitude of working men’s societies of all
descriptions that were either authorized or at least
tolerated, and made enormous progress so that its
chiefs at last declared themselves able to do without
any extraneous support. ‘ The International’, said one
of the speakers at the Bale Congress (1869), ‘ is and
must be a state within states ; let these go on as suits
them, until our state is the strongest. Then, on the
ruins of these, we shall erect our own fully prepared, such
as it exists in every section. ‘

” On September 3rd 1870, the disaster of Sedan
became known at Paris. On the next day, Lyons,
Marseilles, Toulouse, and Paris proclaimed the Repub-
lic. This simultaneous movement was the result of an
understanding existing between the leading members
of the International in the various parts of France ;
but that the ‘Jules Favres and Gambettas, ‘ that
vermine bourgeoise, as the International called them,
should obtain any share of power, was very galling to
the demagogues. At Lyons and Marseilles, however,
the supreme power fell into the hands of the lowest
wretches. The Commune installed at Lyons began its
work by raising the red flag — that of the International.
At Paris the association pretended at first to be
most anxious to fight the Prussians. When the bat-
talions were sent to the front, however, it was found
that those comprising most Internationals were the
most ready ‘ to fall back in good order, ‘ or even to
fly in great disorder at the first alarm ; and General
Clement Thomas pointed out this instructive fact to
the readers of the Journal Officiel. But when a few
Prussian regiments entered Paris, the Internationa 1 ,
through its central committee, announced that the
moment for action was come ; and so the members
seized the cannons scattered in various parts of the city,



and then began that series of excesses, for which the
Commune will always enjoy an infamous notoriety.
Its first sanguinary act was the assassination of Generals
Lecomte and Clement Thomas. 6

” One would have supposed that the International
would disavow the Communists : but, on the contrary,
it approved of their proceedings. Flames were still
ascending from the Hotel de Ville when already nume-
rous sections of the International throughout Europe
expressed their admiration of the conduct of the Pari-
sian outcasts.

” At Zurich, at a meeting of the members of the
International, it was declared that ‘ the struggle main-
tained by the Commune of Paris was just and worthy,
and that all thinking men ought to join in the con-

Thus they agreed with Armand Levi and Jewish
Masonry !

In 1872, another Jew, Karl Marx, transferred ” the
seat of the General Council to New York, in care of his
faithful follower F. A. Sorge “, his co-religionist. 7
There the organization degenerated into a gang of
Anarchist-revolutionaries. In 1876 it was dissolved.

Numerous efforts to re-create the First International
were made by Marx assisted by Jules Guesde and
in 1889 they founded the Second International,
the development of which was retarded by internal
dissensions. In 1905 however a programme of unifica-
tion, elaborated at Amsterdam, was accepted by the
contending factions. 8

6. Heckethorn, op. cit, vol. II, p. 251 et seq.

7. Jewish Encyclopaedia, Article on Karl Marx.

8. Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, June 28, 1931.
For root of this movement see Chapter LIII.

For development of this movement see Chapter CXXV.


(Founded 1865)

The Ku-Klux Klan was the name of an American
secret association formed by the Whites of the Southern
States for self protection after the Civil war.

It was started at 1865 at Pulaski, Tennessee, as a
club for young men. The period of organization of the
K. K. K. lasted from 1865 to 1868. It absorbed other
societies of similar aims such as the Knights of the
White Camelia, the White Brotherhood, the White
League, the Pale Faces, Black Cavalry, White Rose, etc.

Apart from the protection of whites, one of its chief
aims was opposition to a government based on negro
suffrage such as the North wanted to impose on the

The Klan denominated the entire South as the Invi-
sible Empire under the rule of a Grand Wizard : General
N. B. Forrest. Each state was a Realm under a Grand
Dragon; each county a Province under a Grand Giant,

The avowed principles were the maintenance of
peace and order, of the laws of God, of the political
and social supremacy of the white race and also the
prevention of the intermingling of the races.




It showed strenuous opposition to the ” scallawags ”
and ” carpet-baggers ” as they called the Northern
Whites who incited the negroes to commit all kinds
of depredations against the Whites of the South.

In 1871 and 1872, the United States Congress enacted
a series of ” Force Laws ” to break the K. K. K. By
that time however the negro was once more subdued
and the K. K. K.’s central organization was disbanded.

Its spirit however survived and reasserted itself in
1915 when it was revived.

For development of this organization see Chapter CXXIII.



(Founded 1866)

For an historical sketch of the Societas Rosicruciana
in Anglia, the cover name for modern Illuminism, we
can do no better than turn to such an authority as its
historian William Wynn Westcott, erstwhile Supreme
Magus of the Society.

The following items of information are gleaned
from his History of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia,
published in 1910. 1 The official statement of the aims
of the Society reads as follows : — ” The aim of the
Society is to afford mutual aid and encouragement in
working out the great problems of Life and in search-
ing out the secrets of Nature ; to facilitate the study
of the system of philosophy founded upon the Cabala
and the doctrines of Hermes Trismegistus, which was
inculcated by the original Fratres Rosae-Crucis of
Germany, A. D. 1450 ; and to investigate the meaning
and symbolism of all that now remains of the wisdom,
art and literature of the ancient world. ”

1. Dr. Wynn Westcott, M. W. Supreme Magus, History of
The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, IX, privately printed,
Dec. 30, 1900. Copyright. British Museum Press Mark
0475 h54.




” The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia was founded
in 1866 by Frater Robert Wentworth Little, an emi-
nent Freemason with much literary talent, and of
great personal popularity. He was Secretary of the
Province of Middlesex, and Secretary of the Royal
Masonic Institution for Girls. He became the first
Supreme Magus and Master General of the College
in 1867. His knowledge and authority emanated from
two sources, and were supplemented by the learning
and researches of several other prominent students of
occult philosophy. Brother William Henry White, the
Grand Secretary of England, preserved certain Rosi-
crucian papers 2 which had ccme into his possession
on attaining office in 1810, at Freemason’s Hall, and
ot these he made no use ; Brother Little fouud these
papers and used them. At the same time, and with the
object of re-constituting a Rosicrucian College in Lon-
don, he availed himself of certain knowledge and autho-
rity which belonged to Brother Kenneth R. H. Mac-
kenzie, who had, during a stay in Germany in earlier
life, been in communication with German Adepts who
claimed a descent from previous generations of Rosi-
crucians. German Adepts had admitted him to some
grades of their system, and had permitted him to
attempt the formation of a group of Masonic students
in England, who under the Rosicrucian name might
form a partly esoteric society. With this license and
with the manuscripts of ritual information, which
Brother White had discovered in the vaults of Free-
mason’s Hall, Fratres R. W. Hughan, Woodman,
O’Neal Haye, Irwin and some others, the present
English rituals were adopted, and have been in use

2. Part of these papers are presumed to be some of Nick
Stone’s rituals.


with some modifications made by Dr. Woodman and
his successor, ever since the first regular meeting of
the Society.

” The basic rule of the new Society stated that only
Master Masons of good standing and repute should
be admitted to membership, thus drawing a new dis-
tinction, of which we have no previous record ; for
earlier English Rosicrucian Colleges had no Masonic
basis, and some fraternities abroad certainly admitted
women on equal terms, of which fact there is extant
literary proof.

” See the curious document called ‘ The admission
of Sigismund Bacstrom, dated September 12th 1794 ‘.
This will be found reprinted in The Rosicrucian of
October, 1876. The only literary extant evidence of
the source of our Rosicrucian ritual from Brother
W. H. White is contained in a letter in possession of
the Society. The share of Kenneth Mackenzie in the
origin of the Society depends at the present time on
his letters to Dr. Woodman and Dr. Westcott, and on
his personal conversations during the years 1876-1886
with Dr. Westcott.

” Fratres Hughan, Irwin, Hockley, Woodforde and
Benjamin Cox have also contributed their personal
knowledge on the subject.

” The original MSS. which Little possessed never
came into the possession of the S. M., the late Dr. Wood-
man, and so were never received by the present Magus
who has thus few proofs in writing of the historic basis,
which he lays down in this sketch of the Society. The
most natural conclusion is that Little returned these
papers to some obscure portion of the records at Free-
mason’s Hall, and that they are there still, although the
present officials have not traced them. This explanation
is very probable, because in September 1871, a Brother



Mathew Cooke raised a complaint in Grand Lodge
against Masonic officials for discovering, using and
removing old manuscripts from the record rooms of
Freemason’s Hall. These papers supplied the basis
for the reconstitution of the Order of the Red Cross
of Constantine, as well as of the Rosicrucian Society.
They were both Christian bodies, and their records
had been hidden away since the time of the Grand
Mastership of the Duke of Sussex, in 1813, who, favour-
ing the Unitarian doctrine, did all in his power to
remove Christian grades from notice.

” Our records include a letter from the Rev. T. F.
Ravenshaw, Grand Chaplain of England, one of the
earliest fratres of the Society, confirming much of the
historic information which the author received from
Dr. Woodman, Woodforde, Mackenzie and Irwin.
This letter recites as follows : — (I) that the first
S. M. Frater R. M. Little explained to him that the
German Fraternity had an established regulation which
permitted distinguished members to confer Rosicru-
cian grades in due order on suitable persons. (II) That
a certain Venetian Ambassador to England in the last
century had conferred Rosicrucian grades and know-
ledge on Students in England; these in their turn had
handed on the rule and tradition to others, oi whom
one of the last survivors was Frater William Henry
White, Grand Secretary of English Freemasonry from
1810 to 1857 ; he retired and lived until 1866. (Ill)
From the papers he possessed Frater White admitted
Frater Robert Wentworth Little. (IV) These papers
came into Little’s possession at Freemason’s Hall on
Frater White’s retirement from office. (V)The rituals are
mentioned as being imperfect for ceremonial open use. ”

The above contains much useful information for
any reader who might later undertake research work


not only on the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia but
also in its offshoots : Golden Dawn, Stella Matutina
and Ordo Templi Orientis, etc. As to the organization
of the Society, in order to enable the reader to under-
stand the system on which it functions, we reprint here-
with from The Rosicrucian, the Quarterly Record of
the Society’s transactions, 3 edited by Frater Robert
Wentworth Little (S. M.) Master General and Frater
William Robert Woodman, M. D., Secretary General,
some of the articles governing its organization.

I. — That the meetings of the Society shall be held in
London at such house as the majority of the members
shall select, on the 2nd Thursdays in January, April,
July and October in each year, at such time and
place as the majority shall select. The first meeting in
the year shall be considered as the obligatory meeting
and any member unable to attend on that occasion or
at the banquet meeting shall be required to send a
written excuse to the Secretary-General. Each brother
present at the banquet shall pay his quota towards the
expenses thereof.

III. — The Master-general and the Officers shall
be elected annually at the obligatory meeting and shall
be induced into their several offices on the same eve-
ning. The Master-general shall then appoint the Assis-
tant officers for the year.

IV. — No brother shall be eligible for election to
the office of Master-general or Deputy Master-general
unless he shall have served one year as an Ancient,
and have attained the third Order; and no brother
shall be eligible for the offices of Treasurer-general,
Secretary-general, or Ancient, unless he be a member
of the second Order.

3. No. 1, July 1868, British Museum Press Mark 4782-h22.



V. — The Society shall, in conformity with ancient
usage, be composed of nine classes or grades, and the
number of brethren in each class shall be restricted

as follows : —

1 — or grade Zelator 33

2 — or grade Theoricus 27

3 — or grade Practicus 21

4 — or grade Philosophus 18


The above shall form the First Order

5 — or grade of Adeptus Junior 15

6 — or grade of Adeptus Major 12

7 — or grade of Adeptus Exemptus 9


These brethren shall form the Second Order

8 — or grade of Magister Templi 6

9 — or Magus 3


These shall be considered as the Third (or highest)
Order, and shall be entitled to seats in the Council
of the Society. The senior member of the 9th grade
shall be designated ” Supreme Magus ” and the two
other members Senior and Junior Substitutes respec-
tively. The grand total of membership shall thus be
limited to 144, or the square of 12. The number of
registered Novices or Aspirants shall not be restricted,
but members only shall be permitted to be present at
the ceremonial meetings of the Society.

VI. — The distinction of Honorary Member may
be conferred upon eminent brethren, provided that
their election to such membership shall be unanimous
and that their number be strictly limited to 16, or the


square of 4. An Honorary President, who must be a
nobleman, and three Vice-Presidents, shall be selected
from the honorary members. A Grand-Patron may also
be elected in like manner.

VII. — No aspirant shall be admitted into the
Society unless he be a Master Mason, and of good
moral character, truthful, faithful and intelligent…

VIII. — Every Novice on admission to the grade
of Zelator shall adopt a Latin motto, to be appended
to his signature in all communications relating to the
Society. This motto cannot under any pretence be
afterwards changed, and no two brethren shall be at
liberty to adopt the same motto….

The other articles, 20 in all, can be read in The

In 1877, the order of membership was rearranged
to provide that in future, every College under the juris-
diction of England would be restricted to 36 subscrib-
ing members exclusive of members of the 9th grade :
the only exception being the Metropolitan College
which was to be permitted to enrol 72 members.

In The Rosicrucian the Society defines its aims in
the following terms : —

” The object of the society being purely literary and
antiquarian it is almost unnecessary to state that no
interference with, or opposition to, any rite of Free-
masonry is intended, or even tolerated : and it matters
not to the members whether the aspirant be a disciple
of pure and ancient Masonry, as interpreted by the
Grand Lodge of England, or be enthusiastic follower
of those rites which embrace the Hauts Grades, pro-
vided he be of good standing and possess sufficient
ability to take part in the peculiar objects of research
to which the society restricts itself — mystic and
Rosicrucian lore.



” Thus the roll of the society displays names side by
side, on the one hand ardent supporters of the high
grades, and on the other their bitter opponents. ”

Those who have occupied the position of Supreme
Magus in the order of their succession were : —

Towards the close of the XIX Century, the mem-
bership of Rosicruciana in Anglia included the follow-
ing personages : —

Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers (Junior Sub Magus)

Thomas Bowman Whytehead IX

John Yarker IX

George Kenning

A. E. Waite

Eliphas Levi

Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie IX

Major Irwin IX

William James Hughan IX

The Annual Convocations were held in the Rosi-
crucian Temple at the Frascati restaurant, Oxford
Street, London, W.

The foreign branches of this order were founded
in —

Canada — in 1877 by M. W. Frater Col. W. B. Macleod
Moore with Fratres Thomas Douglas Harrington
as S. S. M. and George Longley as J. S. M. Four meet-
ings a year at Masonic Hall, Maitland, Ontario.

The United States of America — in 1880 by M. W. Fra-
ter Charles E. Mayer IX, Supreme Magus of United

R. Wentworth Little

Dr. Robert Woodman

Dr. William Wynn Westcott


etc. etc.


Germany — in 1902 by Theodore Reuss VIII

(Initiated in the Pilgrim’s Lodge 238, London).
Scotland — in 1877.

In connection with the statement made at the open-
ing of this chapter that The Societas Rosicruciana
in Anglia was modern Illuminism, the reader’s atten-
tion must be drawn to the similarity of the grades of
the modern Rosicrucian Society with those of Weis-
haupt’s Bavarian Uluminism.

Much has been said and written by various and
numerous English authorities on the subject of English
Grand Lodge being in no wise connected with any
outside societies, whether exoteric or esoteric or with
foreign or, as they call it, ” Continental ” masonry.

We however submit the following suggestions as a
logical deduction from a close study of the organiza-
tion, activities and connections of the Societas Rosi-
cruciana in Anglia.

English Grand. Lodge is today what it was intended
to be at the time of its creation, by disciples of avowed
Rosicrucianism, namely a dragnet or nursery. Under
the guise of philanthropy, humanitarianism, demo-
cratic ideals, and the promise of material advancement,
it attracts untold numbers of unsuspecting men. The
sifting takes place from the time of their initiation. For
those who are deemed useless to the further secret
aims of Masonry and therefore unworthy of climbing
from the Master’s chair in Grand Lodge to The Royal
Arch degree, English Masonry will always remain
what it was represented to be when they became can-
didates for initiation. They will be useful carriers of
the legend that English Masonry believes in God and
philanthropy. But, like Charity, English Grand Lodge
covers a multitude of sins…. Above all, it covers Gnos-
ticism under all its aspects ; it is in fact its screen.



It is a common error to believe that the Enghsn
Grand Lodge is an independent body which was formed
in 1717. Logical deduction will show that, owing to
its formation being the result of Rosicrucian effort, it
always has been, and still must be, subject to the
direction of its esoteric parent body, i. e. ROSICRUCIA-
NISM or Manichean and Socinian Gnosticism.

Childish as may be the claim of English Grand Lodge
as to its autonomy and independence, yet it has been
most successfully defended by scores of English writers
who attacked Masonic Societies and their subversive
activities against state and religion. According to them
English Grand Lodge was always exempted from such

It is time to put an end to this legend. English Grand
Lodge, the body which claims to represent English
Freemasonry, is as much the child of Rosicrucianism
today as it was in 1717 and has no more power or wish
today to rebel against, or deny its parent, than it had
then. As to Esoteric Rosicrucianism, this Esoteric body,
mainly Cabalistic in its direction, always has been
and is in truth international. It has penetrated every
association, society or organization just as did the
Illuminati of Bavaria at the Wilhelmsbad convent of

In the particular Gnostic Rosicruciana in Anglia,
briefly sketched here, we see internationalism clearly
depicted. At one time it was personified in Kenneth
Mackenzie who, initiated and illuminized by the Ger-
man Rosicrucian adepts, was later the connecting link
between German, English and French Gnosticism, the
latter represented at the time by Eliphas Levi (A. L.

Nearer to our own time, William Wynn Westcott
is the connecting link of this international Rosicru-


cian-gnosticism. Prominent Grand Lodge and Royal
Arch Mason, he was also Supreme Magus of Rosicru-
ciana in Anglia and Knight Kadosch etc.

His connections with John Yarker, as also with
the French hermetist Papus and with the theosophist
Blavatsky, were of an esoteric kind, but most
important of all were his close relations with his
brother Rosicrucian MacGregor Mathers and the
German Theodore Reuss. For it is, we know, William
Wynn Westcott, the respected English Grand Lodge
and Royal Arch Mason, Supreme Magus of Rosicru-
ciana in Anglia who, together with the Cabalist
MacGregor Mathers, created the Rosicrucian branch
known as the Order of the Golden Dawn. With Theo-
dore Reuss he was closely associated with the founda-
tion of the Ordo Templi Orientis which from Reuss
and Karl Kellner’s manuscripts is known to be

How far the reciprocal conferring of degrees in their
respective orders between John Yarker, W. W. West-
cott, Theodore Reuss, Engel and Papus is a case of
interpenetration remains to be determined. John Yarker
was the head of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of the
Rite of Swedenborg, etc., Wm. Wynn Westcott, the
Supreme Magus of Rosicruciana in Anglia, Theodore
Reuss and Engel, heads of the German Illuminati
and Ordo Templi Orientis, and Papus, head of the
Martinists. We are fully aware of the Gnostic practices
of these different rites but the student bent on a cer-
tain type of research will find interesting and instruc-
tive the study of the political activities of the different
bodies mentioned. The author of Light Bearers of
Darkness 4 has attempted to show part of the nefa-

4. ” Inquire Within



rious political game played by adepts of the Stella
Matutina and Golden Dawn Orders, two of the occult
branches of Rosicruciana in Anglia.

We reprint below two letters exchanged between
William Wynn Westcott and the German Theodore
Reuss which show the interlocking and international
gnostic direction of those two late honoured members
of English Grand Lodge Freemasonry.

It remains for the student to follow every line of
enquiry to the point of ccncentration where all threads
are gathered and systematically manipulated for the
eventual destruction of Christian civilization.

It may lead to the B’nai B’rith, the Universal
Israelite Alliance, India or Thibet, but in any case, a
thorough and complete study of Rosicrucianism embrac-
ing a minute one of Rosicruciana in Anglia and its
various branches will be a great step taken in the direc-
tion of uncovering much of the political and moral
chaos of present day history of humanity.

Feb 14, 1902

Dear Bro. Reuss ;

I have to acknowledge receipt of Illuminati papers and
safely received and they shall be translated and considered
and I will report upon what I can do — Best thanks.

As to the Swed. Riie the Lodge Holy Grail No. 15 is all
right and Bro. Yarker is entirely within his right to give
you, a known Master Mason of England, a Warrant for a
Lodge, but he hesitates to issue written authority for 6 Lod-
ges which your Latomia 5 says are not regular. I had got
his permission to make a Pro v. Gd. Lodge of Germania for
you but now he hesitates, because he does not want to
have half the German Masonic World condemning him —

1. Latomia : One of the official periodicals of German Free-


as well as half the English, who condemn him for the A. &
P. Rite.

Please write to him

John Yarker, Esq.
West Didsbury,

near Manchester

and get his authority to go on, at present my hands are tied.
With best wishes,
Believe me,

Yours sincerely,

W. W. Westcott.

To Theodor Reuss

Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia
Dr. Wm. Wynn Westcott S. M. J. X.

Memorandum from the High Council
396, Camden Road, N.

Aug 26, 1902

Care Frater,

I have duly reed, your card & letter & Report, for
all which best thanks. I hope you are well again. I am sorry
you missed seeing my Bro. Gardner. I note what you say
about the Illuminati and hereby accept the position of
Regent, and must find a good man to work it up. Do I under-
stand that Engel is now out of the order ? I have not heard
any more from him.

Re Rosics.

Your fratres must each choose a Latin motto ; Mine is
” Quod scis, nescis. ” — even what you know — you don’t
really know — is a free translation — I will read your Report
on Second Thursday in October to the High Council and
Met. Coll.

There must be a lot of Rosic M. S. S. lying hid in your
country, make every effort to find some. We have copies



of two here. I will ask the H. C. about the use of Library.
I propose to keep German contributions for buying further
Books for it, and for that alone. You might look out to buy
any German Rosic books for us.
Yours sincerely,

Wynn Westcott.

Photographic reproductions of the above letters and
of other documents interesting to the student of Occult
Theocrasy will be found in Appendix IV.

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII.
For development of this movement see Chapters CIX, CX,



(Founded 1869)

In his oft quoted book, The Secret Societies of Ireland,
Captain H. B. C. Pollard, late of the Staff of the Chief
of Police, Ireland, gives much valuable information
concerning the Clan-na-Gael (See page 69 et seq.).

” In 1869 a new secret Irish- American organization
was formed, known as the Clan-na-Gael. It traces its
origin back through a permanent secret society known
as the Knights of the Inner Circle, which, in turn, des-
cended from the Knights of St. Patrick, known as the
Ancient Order of Hibernians to-day. It was originally
a seceding circle (The Brian Boru) of the United Irish-
men, an American society tracing back to 1789. ”

By 1873, the Clan had absorbed all independent
Irish secret societies save that of ” The Irish Confe-
deration ” of Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa with which
it had reached an arrangement for mutual toleration.

” The original organizer of the Clan had called it
the United Brotherhood, and in all its work a simple
letter cipher composed of the next letter in the alphabet
after the one really meant, was utilised. The secret
name of the Clan being the United Brotherhood, it
was therefore designated and spoken of as the V. C.




Ireland was known as ‘ Jsfmboe, ‘ and so on. To this
day the Clan speaks and writes of the I. R. B. as the S. C.

” Up to 1881 the Clan-na-Gael was governed by
an executive body, the F. C, and had an annually elect-
ed chairman. A Revolutionary Directory, the ‘ R. D. ‘
consisted of seven members … Great secrecy shrouded
the R. D. and the names of members were only known
to the delegates and three ‘ Senior Guardians ‘ of
each ‘ Camp ‘ of the Clan.

” These Lodges or ‘ Camps ‘ were known in cipher
as ‘ D’s ‘; each had a number and an outward innocent
name, such as the Emmett Literary Association. The
essential precaution for the maintenance of secrecy
was the rule that all documents, when read, had to be
burnt before the Brotherhood, a rule also common to
the I. R. B. of today. ”

” An open Irish movement had been evolving
in the States 2 and a great Irish Convention was held
at Chicago in November, 1881, where all kinds of Irish
associations were to be represented by delegates who
would be addressed on the subject of the Land League.
By a clever political manoeuvre the Clan secured the
office of Chairman to one of its members, the Rev.
George Betts, and as he had the right of appointment of
all members of committees, they were enabled to
nominate a Clan-na-Gael majority and force the Clan
views on the whole body of the Convention.

” In 1882 the Clan, which had for long controlled
the secret organization in America, now also controlled
all the various open Irish societies and associations
which had been represented at the Convention. The
mechanism of control was simple — the whole influence

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 71 et seq.

2. United States of America.



of the Clan was exerted to secure to their members
a preponderant representation as office-holders in
these associations, and it soon became recognised that
membership of the Clan was an indispensable pre-
liminary to advancement in local Irish affairs. 3

” The American Clan-na-Gael had concentrated
all Irish organizations, however innocuous, in the body
of the National League, 4 and had, by controlling the
Committee of the League by its own members, thereby
possessed itself not only of a vast field from which to
draw funds and recruits, but of the whole co-ordinated
political power of the Irish organizations in America.
The process developed by the I. R. B. in Ireland was
analogous ; through its members they were represent-
ed on the Committees and Councils of practically every
organization which, in the opinion of its leaders, could
be of use to it. The identity of the I. R. B. men was
always a secret.

” The secret power of the Brotherhood was brought
to bear on all questions of appointment to positions
and offices in various open associations, and it was
its influence and corruption which achieved those
mysterious appointments to position of persons sin-
gularly devoid of merit, which were, and are, a marked
feature of Irish life…

” In so far as the activist military policy of the
I. R. B. was concerned, the period from 1895 to 1912
was practically negative.

” The I. R. B. had always held that member-
ship of any sectarian secret society, such as the A. 0. H.,
or the Orange Society was incompatible with mem-
bership of the I. R. B. 5

3. Pollard, op. cit., p. 90 et seq.

4. Formed from The National Land League of America.

5. Pollard, op. cit., p. 98 et seq.



Howevei, the A. O. H. in America has for many
years been under the direct control of the Clan-na-
Gael which also influences through the A. 0. H. such
American Catholic Associations as are not distinctly
Irish, such as the Knights of Columbus, a Catholic
Fraternal Society. ”

In the year 1912 “the action of the North in arming
had its immediate repercussion in the South… On
November 25th 1913 The Irish Volunteers, as distinct
from the Ulster Volunteers, had been formally insti-
tuted. ”

” The outbreak of war introduced a new element
in the shape of an alliance between the I. R. B., the
Clan-na-Gael, and Germany. ”

Casement, whose political activities were ruled by
the two Germans, Albert Ballin of the Hamburg-Ame-
rican line and Professor Kuno Meyer, ” had been active
in the councils of the Irish Volunteers and at the date
of the outbreak of war was in the United States on
business connected with the relationship between the
I. R. B. and the Clan-na-Gael… On the 3rd Nov. 1914,
he reached Berlin and laid before the German Foreign
Office the suggestion of alliance between the Irish
Republicans and Germany, and established a line of
communication via the American Clan-na-Gael with
revolutionary Ireland. From Berlin, he communicated
with Judge Cohalan and John Devoy, the Clan Leaders
in the States, who, in turn, maintained communication
with the I. R. B. in Ireland through emissaries and an
established letter-carrying service on craft crossing
between Ireland and America. 6

” The arrangements between the Clan-na-Gael as
representing the I. R. B. and the German Government

6. Pollard, op. cit., p. 134 el seq.



are amply set forth in such documents as the British
Government has yet disclosed, e. g. in the White Paper,
Documents relative to the Sinn Fein movement, published
by H. M. Stationery office in 1921. ”

The Wolf von Igel papers, taken by the United
States Government at 60 Wall Street, New York, in
April 1916, further prove the complicity of the Clan-
na-Gael. Casement was captured when he landed
from a German submarine on the coast of Kerry,
April 21, 1916.

The rebellion broke out in Dublin on Easter Monday,
April 24, 1916 and on April 29 P. H. Pearse, the rebel
leader, President of the Provisional government, sur-
rendered to General Sir John Maxwell, and on the
first of May the rebels surrendered.

After the entry of the United States into the war
in 1917, the Irish-German headquarters were trans-
ferred to Spain, operating from there via South Ame-
rica back to the Clan-na-Gael.

” In 1921, on the 6th of December, the Irish repre-
sentatives and the Cabinet signed a Peace Treaty
which gave Ireland the status of a Dominion. ”

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXII.

For development of this movement see Chapter CXVI.


(Founded 1869)

The Nihilists were founded in the spring of 1869
by Netchaief who had adopted the views of social
organization which have found expression in the works
of Proudhon and Abbe Constant.

As anarchists, they embraced the usual anarchist
ideals some of which, such as ” property is theft “,
and ” death to Tyrants “, could be useful to other




(Founded in England 1871)

Introduced into England in 1871 from America
under the authority of the Grand Council of New York,
the Grand Mastership was awarded by the Grand
Council to the Rev. G. R. Portal, M. A., in 1873.




(Founded 1872)

According to John Yarker, who was president of
the order, ” this is a Hindu Society organized by the
Pundit of an Anglo-Indian regiment, and brought
into this country, about the year 1872 by Major
J. H. Lawrence Archer. The name alludes to the bird
Malacocercis grisis which always fly by sevens. It has
seven descending degrees, each of seven disciples who
constitute their seven and seven ascending degrees
of Perfection Ekata or Unity. Its object is the study
and development of Indian philosophy. Somehow, its
raison d’etre ceased to be necessary when the Theoso-
phical Society was established by the late H. P. Bla-
vatsky, which at one time at least had its secret signs
of Reception. ” 1

References are said tc have been made to its esoteric
object in Rudyard Kipling’s Kim which, according
to Rene Guenon, can be accepted as a regular autobio-
graphy. According to Guenon ” that which is told
therein concerning the rivalry of the Russians and
the English in southern India is strictly historical.

1. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 492.




Among other things one finds curious details on the
organization by the English, for this purpose, of a
secret society called Sat Bhai “. 2

2. Rene Guenon, Le Theosophisme, p. 293.

For development of this movement see Chapters XCV, CI.




(Founded 1872)

John Yarker, in a pamphlet The Grand Mystic
Temple, states that in 1872 ” we (the English) took from
them (the Americans) a Charter for its (The Ancient
and Primitive Rite) degrees 33-95 in and for Great
Britain and Ireland and in the Scottish Rite allied
ourselves with the Supreme Grand Council 33, (Cerneau)
for the United States of America, of which the writer
(John Yarker) was made honorary 33°, Representative
of Amity. We had thus for long the Scottish Rite
allied with Mizraim, and now with Memphis. In the
case of the former, we established Representatives
with various Supreme Grand Councils and revised the
Statutes of 1762, in preference to the forged Consti-
tution of 1786 in the year 1884; in Mizraim with
the old bodies of Naples and Paris ; and in Memphis
with America, Egypt, Roumania and various other
bodies working that Rite. We also, in these three
Rites, accepted foreign Charters to confirm our origi-
nal powers. ”

Yarker then makes the following apologia —




” Whatever may be the value assigned to Craft
Masonry in this country (England), a Master Mason

is held in small esteem abroad Our object in giving

our time at our own cost to these degrees is to break
with the unmasonic exclusiveness bred of sycophancy
and to give every reputable Master Mason a chance of
acquiring the high Masonic initiation at a reasonable
cost. 1

Neophytes upon entering a Chapter received the
18th degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rites (Rose
Croix) and Ancient and Primitive Rites and 46th of
Mizraim. Advanced in a Senate, these receive the 30th
of the two Rites and the 66th of Mizraim. In the series
of the Council they receive the higher and more import-
ant occult grades of Mizraim and Memphis or Ancient
and Primitive Masonry.

” The governing body or ‘ Sovereign-Sanctuary
Supreme Grand Council of Rites 33-95 has already
issued Charters for Grand Mystic Temples, Council
General (of Rites) 32-94, for England, Scotland, Ire-
land, New Zealand and West Africa and each Charter
covers a Grand Consistory 32-93, Ancient and Accept-
ed Rite and Supreme Grand Council, 33rd. It has also
established a Sovereign body with like powers for the
German Empire.

” The Constitution of the A. and P. Rite declares
‘ that Great Britain and Ireland derives from the Sove-
reign Sanctuary for the American Continent, which
again derives its authority from the Sovereign Sanc-
tuary of France, the College of Rites and the Grand
Orient of France ‘. In America authority was vested
in Harry J. Seymour by Letters Patent granted to

1. John Yarker, The Grand Mystic Temple.

2. Ibid.



him by the Executive Chiefs of the Rite in Paris
in 1862. Ten years later a Patent and Dispensation
was granted by the 111. Sov. Gr. M. Gn., Harry J. Sey-
mour, on February 23rd, 1872, to M. I. Bro. John
Yarker, as Sov. Gr. M. Gn. to establish the Sovereign
Sanctuary in and for Great Britain and Ireland; ‘
and he came over to England to inaugurate personally
at Manchester and London the foundation of the Rite. ” 3

” Further on, The Constitution intimates that Egypt
was the source of the knowledge deposited in this
system. But it apparently arose in France and went
to Egypt returning in 1815 with a wealth of esoteric
lore, under the name of… Disciples of Memphis. ”

” None but Master Masons in good standing were
and are admitted to the Rite which consequently begins
after the three Craft Degrees. ”

On Nov. 11, 1912, John Yarker was elected Grand
Imperial Hierophant 97. After his death on March
20, 1913, a meeting was held at a Special Convocation
of the Supreme Sanctuary of the Ancient and Primi-
tive Rite of Masonry at 33 Avenue Studios, 76 Fulham
Road, South Kensington, London S. W., on Monday
June 30, 1913, at five o’clock, and Bro. Henry Meyer
of 25 Longton Grove, Sydenham, Kent, was elected
Sov. Grand Master General for Great Britain and
Ireland. The minutes of the meeting were signed by. —

Henry Meyer 33° 90° 96°

Sovereign Grand Master General
Edward Aleister Crowley 33° 90° 96°

Patriarch Grand Administrator General
Wm. Hy. Quilliam 33° 90° 96°

Patriarch Grand Keeper General of the Golden


3 Speculative Mason, July 1927, vol. 19.


Leon Engers-Kennedy 33° 90° 95°

Patriarch Grand Secretary General.

Theodor Reuss 33° 90° 95°

Sovereign Grand Master General ad Vitam for

the German Empire and Grand Inspector General

The women’s branch of this rite and its interlocking
possibilities is best shown by the reproduction of
Madame Blavatsky’s diploma, which was published in
The Theosophist of March 1913 (M91) and is reproduced
again on page 66 of Freemasonry Universal Vol. V,
Part 2, Autumn Equinox, 1929.

There it is stated that ” we have declared and pro-
claimed and by these presents do declare and proclaim
our illustrious and enlightened Brother, H. P. Blavatsky,
to be an Apprentice, Companion, Perfect Mistress,
Sublime Elect Scotch Lady, Grand Elect Chevaliere
de Rose Croix, Adonaite Mistress, Perfect Venerable
Mistress, and a Crowned Princess of Rite of Adop-
tion. ”

The diploma is signed

John Yarker 33, Sovereign Grand Master

M. Caspari 33, Grand Chancellor.

A. D. Loewenstark 33, Grand Secretary.

The organ of the order is Kneph.

For root of this movement see Chapters XLVII, LXIV.
For development of this movement see Chapter CX.



(Founded 1872)

Anarchists claim direct descent from Diderot and
those factions which during the French Revolution
of 1789 had formed the clubs of the Enrages and
Hebertistes. Prudhon was their prototype.

Chronologically speaking, however, the Anarchist
party was formed on Sept. 29, 1872, when a split
occurred in the ranks of the participants in the Hague
Congress of the International Association of Workers,
numbers siding with Bakunin whilst others rallied
round Karl Marx.

Bakunin’s adherents formed the Anarchist party
and organized in Switzerland the ” Federation Juras-
sienne ” which soon extended its ramifications to Nor-
thern Italy, Eastern France and Spain. The Federa-
tion’s tenets were plainly anarchistic, urging terrorism
as the means of overthrowing all forms of existing
governments. The attempt of Haedel on the life of
the German Emperor Wilhelm in 1878, as well as the
murder of the Tzar Alexander II of Russia, 1882, were
engineered by anarchists. From Europe, their activities
spread to the United States of America when Most,
the German anarchist, founder of the Freiheit, went




to New York and, with Julius Schwab, organized the
Anarchist movement in America, founding the Socia-
list and Revolutionary Club of New York in 1880 and
such press organs as The Anarchists of Boston, later
followed by Liberty. The methods of these societies
are identical with those of the I. W. W., the ” Industrial
Workers of the World “.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXV.

For development of this movement see Chapter CXXV.



(Founded 1874)

Founded by Bros. R. Wentworth Little, W. Hyde
Pullen and Thomas Massa, in 1874, this order is res-
tricted to members of the Masonic body only.

Among its members have been W. R. Woodman,
M. D., George Kenning, K. R. H. Mackenzie, E. H.
Thiellay and S. Rosenthal.

It claims to be a study society for Ancient and
Modern Druidism.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXVII.




(Founded 1875)

The Theosophical Society, with nine degrees, was
founded in 1875 by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-
1891) daughter of Colonel Peter Hahn and grand-
daughter of General Alexis Hahn von Rottenstern
Hahn, of Mecklenburg, Germany, settled in Russia.
When very young, she married Niciphore Blavatsky,
Councillor of State, from whom she separated after
three months.

As regards the founder of this order, Rene Guenon,
who has made a close study of Theosophy, thus briefly
sketches her career.

” Mme. Blavatsky’s extraordinary life of adventure
started in 1848. During her travels in. Asia Minor with
her friend Countess Kiseleff, she met a Copt (some say
a Chaldean) called Paulos Metamon, who claimed to
be a magician, and who seems to have been a fairly
accomplished conjurer. She continued her travels with
this personage with whom she went to Greece and
Egypt till her funds gave out, when she returned to
Europe. ” 1

1. Rene Guenon, Le Theosophisme, p. 12.




Having quarrelled with her family, she was unable
to go to Russia so she went to London where she fre-
quented spiritistic and revolutionary circles. She was
initiated into the Carbonari by Mazzini in 1856 and was
also an initiate of the Order of the Druses, according
to John Yarker.

About this period, (1856) her Mahatma Morya
is supposed first to have manifested. The Mahat-
mas Morya and Koot Hoomi are said to be members
of the highest degree of “The Great White Lodge “,
that is to say of the occult Hierarchy which, according
to the theosophists, secretly governs the world.

Guenon thus continues : 2

” Towards 1858, Madame Blavatsky decided to
return to Russia; she became reconciled with her father,
staying with him till 1863 when she went to the Cau-
casus and met her husband. A little later she was in Italy
whither she seemed to have been summoned by a Car-
bonarist order; in 1866, she was with Garibaldi, whom
she accompanied during his expeditions, she fought
at Viterbo, then at Mentana, where she was seriously
wounded and left on the field as dead ; she recovered
however and went to Paris for her convalescence. There
she remained some time under the influence of a cer-
tain Victor Michal, a spiritist-magnetizer. This Michal,
a journalist, was a Freemason as was also his friend
Rivail (alias Allan Kardec) once founder, later direc-
tor of the Folies-Marigny and the pioneer of French
spiritism. It was Michal who developed the medium-
istic faculties of Madame Blavatsky… Madame Bla-
vatsky was, at that time, herself a believer in
spiritism and claimed to belong to the school
of Allan Kardec, from whom she preserved certain

2. Rene Guenon, op. cit., p. 14.



ideas, notably those concerning reincarnation. ”

In 1867, she succeeded after three previous attempts
in entering Tibet.

” Inquire Within “, who acknowledges Guenon as her
source of information and who has also closely follow-
ed the activities of Madame Blavatsky during this
period of her life, refers to her visit to America in the
following terms :

” In 1875 Madame Blavatsky was sent from Paris
to America where she met Henry Steel Olcott and where
on October 20, 1875, a society, said to be for ‘ spiri-
tualist investigations ‘, was founded in New York.

” Olcott was President, Felt and Dr. Seth Pancoast
vice-presidents, and Madame Blavatsky Secretary.
Among other members were William Q. Judge, Charles
Sothern, one of the high dignitaries of American
Masonry, also for a short time General Albert Pike,
Grand Master of the Scottish Rite for the Southern
Jurisdiction U. S. A., who was said to be the author
of the thirty-three degrees received from the Arabian
member of the ‘ Great School. ‘ “. 3

To anyone who has read Part 1 of this book the
significance of this connection with Pike and Luci-
ferianism at this period requires no further comment!

Guenon, detailing this American visit of Madame
Blavatsky, further explains how ” George H. Felt,
self-styled Professor of Mathematics and Egyptologist,
had been introduced to Madame Blavatsky by a jour-
nalist called Stevens. Felt was a member of a secret
society generally called by the initials ‘ H. B. of L. ‘
(Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor). This society, which
played a prominent part in the first stages of spiri-
tistic phenomena in America, is definitely opposed

3. ” Inquire Within “, Light-bearers of Darkness, p. 26.



to spiritistic theories, for it teaches that these pheno-
mena are due, not to the spirits of the dead, but to
certain forces directed by living men. ” 4

Madame Blavatsky and Olcott had both joined this
society from which they were expelled before they left

A letter from John Yarker quoted in Freemasonry
Universal (Vol V, part 2 Autumn Equinox, 1929) is
here relevant. It states that Madame Blavatsky’s
masonic certificate in the Ancient and Primitive Rite
of Masonry was issued in the year 1877.

Yarker writes ” Both the Rites of Memphis and
Mizraim, as well as the Grand Orient of France, pos-
sessed a Branch of Adoptive Masonry, popular in
France in the 18th century and of which, in later
years, the Duchess of Bourbon held the Rank of
Grand Mistress.

” We accordingly sent H. P. B., on the 24/11/77, a
Certificate of the highest rank, that of a Crowned
Princess 12, said to have been instituted at Saxe in
the last quarter of the 18th century. ”

” In November, 1878 “, according to ‘ Inquire
Within’, ” Madame Blavatsky and Olcott left for
India, and in 1882 founded the Theosophical centre in
Adyar, near Madras ; there she initiated her ‘ esoteric
section ‘, and contacted the so-called ‘ Mahatmas ‘,
and her phantastic phenomena, precipitated letters,
astral bells, materialisations, etc., were in time sus-
pected and exposed. The matter was taken up by the
1 Society for Psychical Research ‘, which in December,
1885, reported her as ‘ one of the most accomplished,
most ingenious, and most interesting impostors. ‘ 5

4. Rene Guenon, op. cit., p. 21.

5. Inquire Within, op. cit., p. 26 et seq.



” Mrs. Besant was presented to Madame B!a-
vatsky in 1889 by the socialist Herbert Burrows, also
member of the Stella Matutina, and she immediately
succumbed to Madame Blavatsky’s irresistible magnet-
ism and formidable power of suggestion. Madame Bla-
vatsky died in London May 8, 1891. Mrs. Besant was
elected President in 1907. From 1910 to its consum-
mation one of her chief works, assisted by Leadbeater,
was to train Krishnamurti as Messiah, or as he preferred
to be called, ‘ World Teacher ‘. On February 19, 1922,
an alliance between Mrs. Besant’s Co-masonry and the
Grand Orient of France was celebrated at the Grand
Temple of the Droit Humain in Paris. ”

The Society has over seven hundred affiliated sects
at present. ” Its objects are, The World Religion, The
World University, and the World Government (by
the Restoration of the Mysteries, i. e. by the recognition
of their place as the World Government as they were
recognized in ancient days, the place they have ever
continued to occupy…). ” 6

The political status of this organization as a centra-
lizing point for numerous secret and theocratic orders
is evidenced by a letter dated July 1, 1926, from 171
Palace Chambers, Westminster, London, according
to which the Editors and Correspondents of the English
Information Service, to which was given the name of
” The Theosophical News Bureau “, were officially autho-
rized to issue statements on behalf of : —

The Theosophical Society

The Theosophical Educational Trust

The Theosophical World University 7

6. The Theosophist.

7. Papus (Docteur Encausse), Traite elementaire de Science
Occulte, p. 147.

The following is a translation :



The Order of the Star in the East (closed)

The Liberal Catholic Church

The Order of Universal Co-Freemasonry.

In 1887, when Madame Blavatsky settled in Lon-
don, she had started a Theosophical magazine called
Lucifer the light-bringer and published her Secret Doc-
trine. She is the authoress of another well known work
Isis unveiled.

In the year 1889, Mr. MacGregor Mathers, 8th degree
Rosicruciana in Anglia, wrote a letter to the editor of
Lucifer in which he stated that the Theosophical and
Rosicrucian Societies entertained very friendly rela-
tions 8 and this idea of ” friendly foreign relations ”
is further confirmed by Rene Guenon who writes :
” There are persons who believe that the ‘ Esoteric
Section ‘ exists no longer in the Theosophical Society,
but that is not so ; the truth is that, to defeat curiosity,
it has been made into a nominally separate organization
but one nevertheless, under the same direction “.

The religious principles of The Theosophical Society
are gnostic and anti-christian and are the same as those
of ” The Hermetic Society “.

Numerous were the dissensions and many were the

” Each one of these adaptations being applicable to
the physical or spiritual world, one understands how real
‘ Illumines ‘ can draw towards the light of truth, towards
this ‘ light which illuminates all men coming into this world ‘,
towards the divine living voice, the profanes called to initia-

But for that it was necessary that the fundamental and
hermetic key of the degrees and their adaptation should be
conserved by an occult university. Such was the role that the
Rose-Croix and the judeo-christians had reserved to them-
selves. ”

8. Sedir, Histoire des Rose-Croix, p. 124.



offshoots of this association among which the best
known are The Anthroposophical Society and The
Theosophical Society of America.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXIV.

For development of this movement see Chapters C, CXXI.




(Founded 1876)

Known as the Rite of Primitive and Original Phre-
masons, The Supreme Grand Lodge and Temple of the
Swedenborgian Rite received its charter on 1/10/1876
from the Supreme Council of the Phremasons in Canada
(founded by the Golden Square Body of London) which
was composed of the following well-known Brethren :

M. N. Brother Colonel W. J. B. McLeod Moore S. G. M.,

Grand Master of Templars and 33°
R. W. Brother T D. Harrington, S. G S. W., Pt. G M. of

the Grand Lodge of Canada and 33°
R. W. Brother George Canning Longley. 33°

The officers of the Supreme Council for England then
appointed were : —
M. W. Brother John Yarker. S. G M.
R W. Brother Captain R G Irwin. S. G S. W.
R W. Brother Captain Chas. Scott J. P., S. G J. W.
Supreme Grand Secretary Dr. K. R. H. Mackenzie.

Upon the death of Scott and the retirement of Irwin,
Dr. Wynn Westcott and Major G. Turner were appoint-
ed respectively.

All members of the rite of Swedenborg must be Master


The rite has six degrees, the craft degrees and three
others, namely, Enlightened Prince or Green Brother,
Sublime Prince or Blue Brother, and Perfect Prince or
Red Brother.

The Rosicrucian and Grail grades form the apotheosis
of the entire system.

Bro. John Yarker tells us (see page 416 in The Equinox,
March 1912) that Samuel Beswick informed him that
in his book, the matter added by Chastanier had been
rejected and ” that what was left was the work of
Swedenborg. Hence”, continues Bro. Yarker, “Bro.
Waite’s description of two secret and unnamed degrees,
are of interest at this point “.

In 1902, Brother Yarker, Grand Master of the Rite,
authorized Theodore Reuss to found six Holy Grail
Lodges in Germany. The officers of this Provincial
Grand Lodge of Germania were :

R. W. Theodore Reuss Prov. Grand Master

Leopold Engd Prov. Grand Senior Warden

Erich Walter Prov. Grand Junior Warden

August Weinholtz Prov. Deputy Grand Master

Max Heilbronner Prov. Grand Treasurer

Siegmund Miller Prov. Grand Secretary

Eranz Held Prov. Grand Marshall

j Prov. Grand S,e»a rds

George Gierloff, Guardian

The Secretary of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of Sweden-
borg in. England at this date was Wm. Wynn Westcott.

For root of this movement see Chapter XL.

For development of this movement see Chapter CX.


(Founded 1879)

On Oct. 21,’ 1879, this organization was established
at Dublin, Ireland, with Charles Stewart Parnell as its
President. It cooperated closely with the Clan-na-Gael.
Among its members were Egan, the treasurer, Biggar,
Dillon, J. J. O’Kelly, London and Harris. The league
was responsible for many agrarian outrages and in
October, Parnell, Sexton, Kelly, Wm. O’Brien and
Michael Davitt were arrested and imprisoned. From
jail they issued a manifesto advising all tenants to pay
no rent. On Oct. 18, 1881 the Government suppressed
the Land League.

The American branch of the National Land League
was founded in 1880.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXVIII.





(Founded 1879)

The International Bible Student Movement was
founded by Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) with the
object chiefly of attracting the lower middle class intel-
ligentsia of Christian communities such as certain clerical
workers, teachers, servants and persons not accessible
to direct forms of propaganda. In America the move-
ment has had great influence among the negro element.

In 1879 Russell founded The Watch Tower of which
he was the sole editor.

The Russellite teaching, drawing its own arbitrary
conclusions and proclaiming them as final, professes to
prove from Biblical sources that all Christian churches are
evil and corrupt, that the time of the Gentiles ended
in 1914, and that the Jews must henceforth reign supreme
over the world. It also elaborates an occult dogma
alleged to be based on biblical precedents.

It condemns the Roman Catholic Church, referring
to Rome in true esoteric Masonic style as Babylon and
disposes of the Pope and his entire hierarchy as agents
of the Antichrist who are doomed to extinction accor-
ding to the familiar Masonic formulas of Albert Pike,
Mazzini and Co. We are further told on biblical autho-




rity, interpreting the following words in Rev. II. 24 ” As
they speak ” that this means that ” Satan is a name
applicable to Rome as describing its characteristics. 1

The Protestant Episcopal and other Christian churches
which in Russell’s graphic language are ” the Harlot
daughters of the Romish Church ” and ” have commit-
ted fornication ” which term he interprets as meaning
the union of Church and State, so bitterly opposed by
the Jews in all countries, fare no better at the pen of
this prolific writer, who predicts that, under the visible
rulership of the Ancient Worthies (The Jewish Sanhe-
drin), those Gentiles who still believe in Christ will
acknowledge his reign as an invisible one while sub-
mitting as Christians to all the hardships these Jewish
lords might choose to put upon them.

Brother Russell gives us little hope for the time of
tribulation which is upon us, for on page 122 of The
Finished Mystery he wrecks any hopes we might still
cherish with regard to benevolent brotherhoods in the
following sentence — ” As the trouble increases, men
will seek, but in vain, for protection in the great rocks
and fortresses of society (Freemasonry, Oddfellowship,
and Trades Unions, Guilds, Trusts and all societies
secular and ecclesiastical) and in the mountains (govern-
ments) of the earth “.

The publications of The International Bible Students
Association are interesting samples of political propa-
ganda and seem well calculated to suppress possible
instincts of revolt among such members of the Christian
community as might object to the role allotted to them
under the Jewish Super State.

The present head of this movement is John Rutherford.

1. The International Bible Students Association, The
Finished Mystery, p. 43, pub. 1918.

For the root of this movement see Chapter LXXVI.



(Founded 1881)

In his historical sketch of ” The Invincibles “, Captain
Pollard thus records their foundation and activities :
“The Executive of the Irish Invincibles was joined
by members of the I. R. B. but the two organizations
were kept distinct. ”

” The Invincibles conceived the idea of assassinating
all British officials in Ireland, and held themselves to be
guerilla soldiers. ” Their chief was P. J. Tynan always
alluded to as Number 1. 1

The assassination of Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief
Secretary, and Mr. Burke, known as the ” Phoenix
Park murders ” were perpetrated by this association.

1. Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 82.
For root of this movement see Chapter XCIV.




(Founded 1882)

The secret society called La Societe Theosophique
d’Orient et d’Occident was a spiritist organization founded
by the Duchesse de Pomar (Lady Caithness) in 1882.

The Duchess was personally in close touch with
Eliphas Levi, Mme. Blavatsky, Colonel Olcott, Mrs.
Besant, Dr. Encausse, and other well known occultists
of the period.

For the root of this movement see Chapter XCV.





(Founded 1882)

This order, Fratres Lucis, was founded in 1882.
by an English Jew called Maurice Vidal Portman, an
orientalist and a politician who in 1876 was in close
contact with Lord Lytton, then Viceroy of India, the
author of the well known occult novel Zanoni. 1

As regards this order, John Yarker, recipient of The
Crown of Kether, gives us the following information :

” The Altar is that of Maha Deva and had a ritual
of three degrees — Novice, Aspirant, Viator. The writer
(John Yarker) arranged with Bro. Portman to amalga-
mate it with the Sat Bhai, Rite of Perfection, but it
seems to be continued separately at Bradford, Yorkshire,
as the ‘ Oriental Order of Light ‘. Its early certificate
adopted the forms of the Cabala, with which the Theo-
sophy of India has some affinity. In the East, ceremonial
degrees are not valued, the object being the develop-
ment of practical occultism, which was the purpose
of the establishment of the Order of Light, governed
by a Grand Master of the Sacred Crown or Kether of

1. Rene Guenon, he Theosophisme, p. 297.




the Cabala. The writer (John Yarker) has a letter from
Bro. Portman in which he says ; ‘ the Sat Bhai rituals
are without exception the finest and best suited to an
occult order of anything I have ever read ‘ and he
leaves all arrangements in the writer’s hands. ” 2

If, as John Yarker says, the Altar is indeed that of
Maha Deva, we refer the reader to that part of this
book where the Indian cult of Siva (The Destroyer,
Maha Deva) is outlined.

The present headquarters of the order are still at
Bradford, Yorkshire.

2. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 429.



(Founded 1882)

The ahmadiyyah sect is described in an article by Fr.
Lawrence as having been founded in 1882 at Quadiam,
Punjab, by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who died in 1908.
It resembles in many ways Bahaism and attempts to
conciliate the oriental and occidental religions while
its dogma, based on the shi’a (unorthodox Mahometan)
foundation of free thought, embraces the buddhist belief,
rites and metempsychosis as well as the idea of the
occult Messiah.

In accordance with the Ismali theory of the advent
of the reincarnated mahdi at the opening of each
century, this sect proclaims their founder to have been
the reincarnation of Christ for the XIV Century (XX of
our era) and the harbinger of the future Messiah.

An Indian branch of the sect endorses a legend accord-
ing to which Christ, having escaped the Pharisees,
died at Srinagar, Kashmir. At this place is the tomb of
an obscure buddhist saint Yus-asaf.

The propaganda of the sect is worked from two centres,
one at Lahore, India, and the other at Woking, England,
the latter being chiefly political in character adhering
to the kemalist and panturanic programme.




At Lahore resides the esoteric Indian chief of the sect,
Muham-mab-Ali. In London is the other head, Kemal-

The chief publications of the order are

The Islamic Review London

The Sun of Islam Lahore

The Light Lahore

Moslem Sunrise Chicago

Moslemische Review Berlin

Revue Islamique Island of Mauritius

The Durang mosque is attended by English converts
as well as Indians.

For root of this movement see Chapter XVII”.




(Founded 1892)

We quote the following from a pamphlet issued
under the sanction of the Deputy of the Supreme
Council of Universal Co-Masonry for Great Britain
and its Dependencies by the Grand Secretary of the
said Jurisdiction.

” In the system of the Grand Orient of France the
Craft lodges are under the control of the Supreme Coun-
cil of the highest degree of the rite. The first attempt
to found mixed lodges in France was made in 1774.
These adoptive lodges spread to other countries, but
the modern Co-Masonic Order or, L’Ordre Magonnique
Mixte International Was founded in 1882. It consisted
of a group of Lodges which united under the name of
La Grande Loge Symbolique Ecossaise de France,
received immediate recognition from the Grand Orient
of France.

” In 1872 the Lodge he Droit Humain was founded
by Mademoiselle Maria Deraismes in the presence of
Dr. Georges Martin, a prominent mason.




” In 1900 the new Grande Loge Symbolique amended
its policy so as to enable it to extend its ramifications
to other countries and to work the higher degrees.
Aided by Brethren in possession of the 33rd degree,
the body was then raised from a Craft Grand Lodge
to a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rites. Madame Marie Martin, the close friend
and collaborator of Mademoiselle Deraismes, suc-
ceeded upon the death of the latter to the leadership
of the movement, (Dr. Georges Martin holding the
Office of Grand Orateur) and held it till her death in

” There are Co-Masonic lodges in France, Belgium,
England, Scotland, India, Australia, South Africa,
America, Holland, Java, Switzerland and Norway.

” The first English Co-Masonic Lodge was conse-
crated in London on Sept. 26th 1902 by the Grand
Officers of the Supreme Council under the title of
Human Duty, No. 6, and Mrs. Annie Besant was created
Vice-President Grand Master of the Supreme Council
and Deputy for Great Britain and its Dependencies.

” The Grand Lodge of England does not recognize
this particular body of Masonry (1927) but Universal
Co-Masonry recognises and admits to its lodges Masons
of all regularly constituted Masonic orders. Its laws
and regulations are based on the principles adopted by
the Universal Assembly of Supreme Councils gathered
together at Lausanne on Sept. 22nd, 1875. ”

Much of the real information bearing upon the posi-
tion of woman in Masonry has been omitted by Maso-
nic writers and the reader would be well advised to
refer for it to Vol I.

In The Hidden Life in Freemasonry (p. 191) C. W.
Leadbeater 33° gives us the following cryptic descrip-
tion of the preparation of the Candidate for Initiation



into the degree of Apprentice in the Co-masonic order :
“Before his admission he is divested of all m…s and
v.-.s, is h…d, and has his r… a…, ]… b… and 1… k…
b…, and his r… h… s…d. ”

” In plain English the foregoing would read : Before
his admission he is divested of all metals and valuables,
is hoodwinked and has his right arm, left breast and
left knee bared and his right heel slip shod. ”

The candidate thus prepared is saturated with mag-
netic energy during the ensuing ceremony from which
consequently he or she issues already under hypnotic

These hypnotic bonds are further strengthened during
the ensuing ceremonies of Apprentice and Master
Mason which however, in this order, according to
Mr. Leadbeater’s description of elementals, undines
and other sprites, seem to emulate very closely the
phenomena of the Spiritualist’s seance room.

After attainment by the Candidate to the third
degree the Kundalini is supposed to be fully developed.



(Founded 1882)

The Knights of Columbus is the name of a Roman
Catholic organization founded in 1882, in the United
States of America, by a Roman Catholic priest, Father
P. McGivney of New Haven, Connecticut.

From the Roman Catholic paper, La Croix, of Paris,
in the number dated December 20, 1913, we gather
that, at that date, the Knights of Columbus wielded an
immense power with which public authorities had to
reckon. Their number then was acknowledged to be
more than three hundred thousand. The Order had four
degrees and was headed by a Grand Master, six pro-
Grand Masters and a General Secretary. The territory
of the United States was divided into six provinces,
each province administered by one of the six pro-Grand
Masters. Each province was in turn subdivided in dis-
tricts administered by a Master of the 4th degree and
appointed by the Grand Masters for a period of two
years. Districts were subdivided in councils or chapters.

The Verite of Quebec, a Canadian paper, in August
1913, put the number of the councils at 1630. At that
time, the Supreme Council of the Knights of Columbus
was composed of James O’Flaherty, Martin H. Carmody,




William J. McGinley, Daniel J. Callahan and Joseph C.

The order of the Knights of Columbus was the cause
of much perturbation in the Roman Catholic Church.

Under cover of being an association for mutual help,
it had recruited a considerable number of members whc
believed that the Order was fully approved by the
Church authorities. When however its activities took
on the appearance of a Masonic society with initiation
rituals, symbolism and secret oaths, many among the
Catholic Clergy became alarmed. Their fears were not
allayed when it was known that the leaders of the
Knights of Columbus were having fraternal exchanges
of all kinds with the Oddfellows, Templars and other
Masonic bodies. The climax was reached when it was
rumoured that in Rome, the Knights of Columbus had
petitioned the Pope to allow their members to become,
at least in the United States, regular Masons.

The Knights of Columbus, like the Oddfellows, formed
lodges of adoption in 1913, women being enrolled under
the caption of ” Daughters of Isabella “. Women lodges
were called ” courts “. In 1913, the number of ” courts ”
was over 200 and the membership of ” Daughters of
Isabella ” over two hundred thousand.

Like the society of Oddfellows and similarly to the
O. T. O. of the Rosicrucians the Knights of Columbus
hold much power over the property and various inte-
rests of their members.

Due to their efforts in the direction of establishing
a universal religion and inter-confessionalism, the
Knights of Columbus have been considered by a large
section of the Roman Catholic clergy as an element
having departed from the teachings of the Church of
Rome and whose secret aim is to bore from within and
disintegrate the Roman Catholic power.



Although the Knights of Columbus and the Daughters
of Isabella have extended their ramifications into the
United Kingdom, it is in the United States that their
strength mainly resides. This is easily understood when
one studies the activities of Roman Catholics in America
and realises that, there, they are far more a political
entity with subversive tendencies than a religious body.



(Founded 1883)

Christian Science was founded in 1883.

Mary Baker Eddy, the founder, was born in 1821
at Bow, New Hampshire, U. S. A. and died in 1910.

Having suffered greatly all her life from neurasthenia
and hysteria she developed mediumship at an early
age. Spiritistic sessions further revealed her psychic
gifts but it is more than likely that her early years of
experimental psychic research exposed her, in after
years, to the horrors of what she later described as
” Malicious Animal Magnetism “, familiarly referred
to by her students as M. A. M.

At the age of 22, she married George Washington
Glover, a Freemason and Oddfellow, who took her to
live at Charleston, South Carolina, six months later.
However he contracted yellow fever while at Wilming-
ton where he died in June 1844.

In 1853, she married Daniel Patterson, a medical
practitioner, from whom she was later separated.

In October 1862 she applied for medical assistance to
Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (d. 1866) a healer, who had
many marvellous cures to his credit. His medical system
was based on an understanding of the scientific laws




governing the use of hypnotism, mesmerism and sugges-
tion. It is claimed that she derived her system from him.

Her book Science and Health was first published in

In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy who left her
a widow in 1882.

In 1881, she founded the Massachusetts Metaphysical
College in Boston and two years later, when the move-
ment was well established, started publishing the Chris-
tian Science Journal.

On June 13, 1888, the National Christian Science
Association held its second annual meeting at Central
Music Hall, Chicago. This had been organized as well
as advertised by George B. Day, Pastor of the First
Church of Christ Scientists, Chicago, and the speech
delivered by Mrs. Eddy on the second day of this
session was acclaimed by her 4,000 listeners as an in-
spired oration. In view of the extraordinary pitch of
enthusiasm attained by her audience and knowing the
practice of ” charging” public rooms or halls one
is led to ask oneself the question as to whether the
assembly hall had been specially “charged” for that
particular meeting. Whether Mrs. Eddy herself, like
the Sybils of ancient times, was also ” inspired”
by outside hypnotic influence is another hypothesis to
conjure with.

From then on, Mrs. Eddy’s religious future was
assured. Under her leadership suggestion became indeed
the foundation of a religion, a religion in which psychic
force, operating under suggestion, accomplishes definite
physical results.

Mrs. Eddy’s acquaintance with Mrs. Augusta Stetson,
another Christian Science leader, had already taken
place for, according to E. F. Dakin, author of Mrs. Eddy
{page 178) “it was at a meeting in a fashionable home on



Monument Hill in Charleston that she first met Augusta
Stetson, in 1884… She (Mrs. Stetson) had been born
of old Puritan stock in Waldoboro, Maine, about 1842.
In after life she shrouded her past in mystery, refused
-to tell her age, and the town records were eventually
burned. She grew up as one of five children in a house
which her father, Peabody Simmons, carpenter, built
with his own hands. When the family moved to another
Maine town, Damariscotta, Augusta was organist there
in the Methodist church and a singer in the choir.
At 24 she married a ship-builder, Frederick Stetson,
who was partially an invalid as a result of imprison-
ment in Libby Prison during the Civil War. As his wife,
she went to England where he secured employment
with a British shipbuilding firm. Later, he was sent to
Bombay, and here she had an opportunity to delve into
a subject in which she had an instinctive interest —
the oriental philosophies. In these philosophies affirma-
tion and denial play an important role, and a pantheistic
God is postulated — a God who is the Universe, whose
mind is All, and of whose mind matter, like force, is but
one manifestation or expression in the midst of many. ”

Mrs. Stetson started healing and teaching Mrs. Eddy’s
system in New York in 1886, later resigning her
connection with the Christian Science church in 1909.

One can almost describe this system as emerging
clearly out of the realm of occultism, a kind of sugges-
tion or auto-suggestion, whereby practical beneficial
results may be induced in a patient by the application of
certain occult laws to their personal medical require-

Mrs. Eddy’s dogma is summed up by Hudson in the
following words :

” Matter has no existence. Our bodies are composed
of matter, therefore our bodies have no existence.


” It follows of course that disease cannot exist in a
non-existent body. ” 1

However, regardless of this paradox and the various
opinions hitherto expressed about Christian Science, we
recognize, while admitting the efficacy of Mrs. Eddy’s
use of the force of beneficent animal magnetism, that
her personal fear of the action of Malicious Animal
Magnetism, so derided by her theological adversaries,
is logical and founded.

These forces operate on sound scientific lines and
those who can use the power of suggestion to gain ascen-
dency over a sick person may use it again later for other
motives. The danger of such misapplication is not one
to be disregarded in calling in a healer, whatever
Mrs. Eddy’s detractors may say ! That danger is real
and every student of the occult knows it.

The movement has become popular and has a follow-
ing among people of wealth who seem to become the
easy prey of occultists and charlatans.

The following extract from the Daily Telegraph of
Deer. 18, 1930, illustrates this ;


A warning against the dangers of
hypnotism in public has been issued
by the Academy of Medicine as the
result of an investigation by a
special committee. This was set
up at the request of the Council of
the Meuse Department, which sug-
gested that public experiments in
hypnotism should be stopped.

The academy declares that such
demonstrations are bound to have
a harmful influence. They are
likely to excite undesirable curio-

sity, and, in the case of many sen-
sitive people, to give rise to ner-
vous and psychological trouble.
Another grave criticism is that they
may lead young people to believe
that the exercise of hypnotism
may enable them to influence the
will and actions of those with
whom they come into contact —
” which, ” asserts the report, ” is
contrary to the truth. ”

A resolution passed by the acade-
my recommends the forbidding of
such displays throughout the

1. Hudson, The Law of Psychic Phenomena, p. 157.



(Founded 1883)

The nominal founder of The Fabian Society was
Thomas Davidson, an idealist who, in the hope of better-
ing the lot of humanity, organized a debating club the
original aim of which was, according to Mr. Pease,
author of The History of the Fabian Society, ” the recon-
struction of society on a non-competitive basis with the
object of remedying the evils of poverty. ” 1

This non-competitive basis meant maintenance for
all by the community as a right, regardless of merit.

The club met fortnightly in the drawing rooms of
its various members and in 1884 adopted the name
“The Fabian Society”.

Among those prominent in the movement in its early
days were : Frank Podmore, a spiritualist, Percival
Chubb, a clerk on the Local Government Board, Edward
Pease, Hubert Bland, J. Ramsay Macdonald, later
Prime Minister of England, R. B. Haldane, afterwards
Lord Haldane, George Bernard Shaw, Sidney Webb,
afterwards Lord Passfield, Graham Wallas, William
Clarke, a former disciple of Mazzini, Mrs. Annie Besant,
then a radical with an office at 63, Fleet Street, who

1. See page 37 et seq.




controlled The Freethought Publishing Co., Dr. Pank-
hurst, husband of the later leader of the Women’s
Social and Political Union and Mrs. Charlotte M. Wilson
who, while retaining her membership in the Fabian
Society ” devoted herself “, so we are told by Mr. Pease,
to the Anarchist movement led by Prince Kropotkin
and for some years edited the anarchist paper Freedom.

On page 68 of The History of the Fabian Society by
Edward R. Pease we read :

” In order to avoid a breach with Mrs. Wilson and her
Fabian sympathisers, it was resolved to form a Fabian Par-
liamentary League, which Fabians could join or not as they
pleased ; its constitution, dated February, 1887, is given in
full in Tract No. 41 ; here it is only necessary to quote one
passage which describes the policy of the League and of the
Society, a policy of deliberate possibilism : —

” The League will take active part in all general and local
elections. Until a fitting opportunity arises for putting for-
ward Socialist candidates to form the nucleus of a Socialist
party in Parliament, it will confine itself to supporting those
candidates who will go furthest in the direction of Socia-
lism. It will not ally itself absolutely with any political
party; it Will jealously avoid being made use of for party
purposes ; and it will be guided in its action by the charac-
ter, record and pledges of the candidates before the consti-
tuencies. In Municipal, School Board, Vestry, and other
local elections, the League will, as it finds itself strong enough,
run candidates of its own, and by placing trustworthy Socia-
lists on local representative bodies it will endeavour to-
secure the recognition of the Socialist principle in all the
details of local government. “…

” The League first faded into a Political Committee of the
Society, and then merged silently and painlessly into the
general body. ”

The foregoing is interesting : first, — as showing the
original Anarchist connection with Fabian Socialism



as we now know it, secondly, — as an example of one
of the most usual methods of subverting an existing

An offshoot of the existing organization was here
formed, pledged to a policy or policies which might
have been repudiated by the parent body. This offshoot
being destined to eventual reabsorption into the parent
body could thus assure the successful ” boring from
within ” of the old organization.

We are further told by Mr. Pease that in 1888, ” a
Universities Committee, with Frank Podmore as Secre-
tary for Oxford and G. W. Johnson for Cambridge, had
begun the ‘ permeation ‘ of the Universities, which has
always been an important part of the propaganda of the
Society “.

By 1890, the support of a splendidly organized intel-
ligentsia was assured to the socialist cause with the
Fabian Society as its propaganda centre and a number
of local Fabian societies were formed. They were succeed-
ed by and merged into branches of the Independent
Labour Party.

On page 209 of Mr. Pease’s book, we glean some more
enlightening information which definitely connects the
Fabians with the Jew-captured organization of the old

” The International Socialist and Trade Union Congresses,
held at intervals of three or four years since 1889, were at
first no more than isolated Congresses, arranged by local
organizations constituted for the purpose in the preceding
year. Each nation voted as one, or at most, as two units,
and therefore no limit was placed on the number of dele-
gates ; the one delegate from Argentina or Japan conse-
quently held equal voting power to the scores or even hun-
dreds from France or Germany. But gradually the organi-
zation was tightened up, and in 1907 a scheme was adopted



which gave twenty votes each to the leading nations, and
proportionately fewer to the others. Moreover a permanent
Bureau was established at Brussels, with Emile Vandervelde,
the distinguished leader of the Belgian Socialists, later well
known in England as the Ministerial representative of the
Belgian Government during the war, as Chairman. In England,
where the Socialist and Trade Union forces were divided,
it was necessary to constitute a special joint committee in
order to raise the British quota of the cost of the Bureau,
and to elect and instruct the British delegates. It was deci-
ded by the Brussels Bureau that the 20 British votes should
be allotted ; 10 to the Labour Party, 4 to the I. L. P. (Inde-
pendent Labour Party) 4 to the British Socialist Party,
into which the old S. D. F. (Socialist Democratic Federa-
tion) had merged, and 2 to the Fabian Society, and the
British Section of the International Socialist Bureau was,
and still remains, constituted financially and electorally
on that basis. ”

In the same chapter of his history, Mr. Pease explains
that ” half of two-thirds of the Fabians belonged also to
the I. L. P. and nearly all the I. L. P. leaders were or
had been members of the Fabian Society “. The I. L. P.
was founded in January 1893 by Keir Hardie and Fried-
rich Engels, the disciple of Karl Marx.

This Independent Labour Party virtually took over
the active political work of the Fabian Society, leaving
to the parent body its literary and propaganda status.

At a conference at Leeds in 1899 it was resolved to
form a Local Government Information Bureau, to be
jointly managed by the I. L. P. and the Fabian

In 1904, Sidney Webb became chairman of the Tech-
nical Education Board which up to that date directed
all higher education for England. This event, and the
concerted working of a group of Fabians within the
London County Council, considerably enhanced the



opportunities for further socialistic expansion of the

It should be borne in mind that Anarchists and Socia-
lists, while seeming to differ in their social Utopian
policies, agree on the first step necessary to provoke an
economic condition which would enable them to reor-
ganize the world to their liking.

This first step is the destruction of present day civili-
sation, the good with the bad.

Their aim of Destruction is the same, only the method
whereby it is to be effected differs. This effort at destruc-
tion accounts for the community of action of Socialists
and Anarchists throughout history.

According to the Anarchists : All must be destroyed
in order that all may be rebuilt, but, according to the
Socialists, the present system will fall of itself by the
passage of certain measures into law. These laws, while
framed to appeal to popular fancy, once introduced,
can be administered in such a way as to operate the
International Destruction which is the primary aim
of both parties.

Writing of Babeuf and Buonarotti and their abor-
tive conspiracy of 1796, Professor H. J. Laski in The
Socialist Tradition in the French Revolution states that
” the strategy they (the Babouvists) invented has pro-
vided ever since the methodology of revolutionary
socialism at least in its large outline “.

The Fabians form numerous detached societies,
committees, study clubs, associations, leagues, schools
and what not, in order to gain the support of non-
socialists for such sections of the Socialist programme
which might fail to receive public approbation if the
connection with the World Socialist-Communist
scheme was revealed. Thus the ” sucker lists ” of
capitalistic supporters of socialism are made available



for England. The system is the same in America.

Among the societies which owe their origin to Fabian
initiative may be mentioned :

The London School of Economics, founded 1895.

The Fabian Research, founded 1912, later known
as the Labour Research Bureau.

The Pan-Fabian Organization, founded 1907.

The University Socialist Federation, founded 1912,
later known as University Labour Clubs.

The Labour Representation Committee, founded 1900,
known after 1906 as The Labour Party.

Among the members of the Fabian Association during
the last 30 years we find the following names : Bertrand
Russell (now Earl Russell), Professor H. J. Laski,
Mrs. Sidney Webb (now Lady Passfield), H. G. Wells
(resigned), F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, George Lansbury,
Philip Snowden (ex-Chancellor of the Exchequer and
Lord Privy Seal) and Mrs Snowden (now Viscount and
Viscountess Snowden), Will Crooks, Sir Sidney Olivier
(ex-Secretary of State for India, now Lord Olivier),
the late Brig. -Gen. C. B. Thomson (subsequently Lord
Thomson, late Secretary of State for Air), Arthur
Henderson (ex-Home Secretary) and Noel Buxton.

It is rather interesting to note how many Fabians
have found their way to the House of Lords.

Mr. Pease remarks further that after the Labour
Party came into office in 1923, “about half the remain-
ing Fabians in Parliament became either Under-
Secretaries or Parliamentary Private Secretaries to
Ministers, all positions of greater or less influence with
the Government”.

The following extract from the Evening Standard,
London, May 28, 1931, shows the accuracy of Mr.
Pease’s statement and will serve to further enlighten
our readers as to the full significance of present events.








From Our Political Correspondent.

The Government is to be presen-
ted with a brand new policy. Cer-
tain ministers are to take part in
its preparation.

It is called a ” long run ” policy,
and is planned ” for ten years
ahead. ”

To-morrow evening a group of
Socialists and Trade Unionists will
begin fashioning the new plan at
a meeting to be held at Transport
House. The prime movers are Major
C. R. Attlee (Postmaster-General),
and Mr. G. D. H. Cole.

Sir Stafford Cripps (the Solici-
tor-General), Mr. Ernest Bevin, and
Mr. Noel Baker, M. P. (Mr. Arthur
Henderson’s Parliamentary Pri-
vate Secretary) are among those
expected to accept the invitation
of Major Attlee and Mr. Cole at to-
morrow’s meeting.


The new policy — or the plan for
a new policy — had its origin in a
series of house parties held last
year at Easton Lodge (the Labour
Chequers), when Socialist politi-
cians, economists and trades unio-
nists foregathered at week-ends.
Out of these meetings grew the
new Fabian Research Bureau (of
which Major Attlee is chairman and
Mr. Cole secretarv), which recei-
ved the official blessing of the
Labour movement two months ago
and is now established in premises
in Abingdon street.

One of the chief ideals of this Society is the extinction
of the poor as evidenced by the following extract from
The Sunday Express (London) of May 17, 1931.

Says G B S.




Mr. Bernard Shaw, speaking at
Letchworth yesterday, advised the
extinction of the poor.

” Never give anything to the poor, ”
he said. ” They are useless, dangerous,
and ought to be abolished, and until
this country becomes determined that
it shall never again have a poor man
or woman or child in it, it will not be
a country worth living In. ”

The best known and cleverest Destructionist laws
now on the statute books are those of the Income Tax



and the Inheritance Tax. This form of taxation is
calculated eventually to precipitate Municipalisation
and Nationalisation which also are part of the Fabian
scheme for world peifection. This ideal is to be achieved
by the gradual expropriation and pauperisation of all
classes by systematic, economic pressure, each class to
be separately ruined according to the best means avail-
able for ruining it. Municipalisation and Nationalisa-
tion means control by government, or, in other words,
domination by one great trust.
Is this Socialism ?

There is nothing new or extraordinary in this plan for
World control by a centralized, Super-Capitalist power.

It is the plan so minutely explained in The Protocols
of the Wise Men of Zion.

It is the plan of modern Judeo-Masonic Russian
Soviet Communism.

It is the plan of Weishaupt’s Illuminati and that of
International Freemasonry symbolized by the three
points of Albert Pike — Destruction, Materialism,

One is all and all is one.

It should here be noted that the tax question is
handled no differently by Conservative Governments,
when in power, than by Labour or Liberal Governments
and it is well known that any Conservative daring to
question the Fabian policy of confiscatory taxation
would commit immediate political suicide.

The stranglehold of Fabian Babouvism on England
may however eventually be mitigated by an interna-
tional organization of taxpayers combining as a counter
revolutionary body. Who knows ?

For root of this movement see Chapters LXXXV, XCIII.
For development of this movement see Chapter CXXV.



(Founded 1884)

Founded by Parnell, Michael Cusack and Michael
Davitt in 1884. It was related to the Irish movement.


(Founded 1884)

This spiritistic Society was founded in London on
May 9, 1884, by Anna Kingsford and Edward Maitland,
both members of the Theosophical Society.

According to R. Guenon, it advocates a Gnostic
mixture of Christianity and Buddhism.

For Anna Kingsford, as for Mme Blavatsky, the
Christs are beings who have succeeded in developing
in themselves certain superior powers latent in all men.
This is presumably the ” Serpent Power ” or Kundalini,
the Sex Force. Jesus is not the historical personage
Jesus Christ. Jesus is only an initiate, one of ” the
Christs ” incarnating through the ages in different
bodies, other incarnations of the ” Christ force ” having
been in the persons of Maitreya Bouddha, Krishna and
the various prophets of the other religions.

As a foundation for a Universal World Religion, the
idea is a clever one but its consequences are that anyone
who makes enough fuss about himself can become a god,
thus reducing the idea ad absurdum.

This is the principle which when further elaborated
leads to the usual Gnostic belief that ” Man is God “.

Man being God is thus infallible therefore, as God




can ” do what he will “. This convenient principle
leads in turn to an equally convenient code of morals
which, unfortunately, eventually leads to the abyss.

Anna Kingsford and her society were in close contact
with MacGregor Mathers the head of ” Golden Dawn “.

The Hermetic Society eventually became known as
” The Esoteric Christian Union “. 1

1. Edward Maitland, Life of Anna Kingsford, Vol. II, p. 430.
For root of this movement see Chapters LXXXVII, XCV.



(Founded 1888)

This society was founded in England in 1888. It
admits men and women.

As a branch of Occult Masonry, its esoteric teaching
is a blend of modern Tibetan magic and Theosophy.
(See Chapters on Lamaism and Theosophy).

In his History of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia 1
M. W. Supreme Magus Dr. William Wynn Westcott
IX, P. M. P. Z., 30°, informs us that ” in associa-
tion with himself and Dr. Woodman “, R. W. Frater
MacGregor Mathers J. S. M. IX ” founded the Isis-
Urania Temple of the Hermetic Students of the G. D.
(Golden Dawn) and that he (Mathers) was then (in
1900) the Chief Adept of the entirely Esoteric Order
of the R. R. and A. C. in France, Great Britain and
other countries. ”

Thus the story basing its foundation on the finding,
by A. F. A. Woodford, of a German manuscript at a
bookstall 2 is shown to have been a fabrication calcu-

1. Presented to the British Museum Library 5/11 /05, Lon-
don. Privately printed Dec. 30th 1900, see p. 13.

2. Nesta Webster, Secret Societies, p. 311.



lated presumably to hide the direct connection with
the ” Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. ”

William Wynn Westcott in the above mentioned
book gives the following epitome of the Masonic career
of Mathers.

” R. W. Frater MacGregor Mathers (Comte Mac-
Gregor de Glenstrae), the present Junior Substitute
Magus, was admitted to Freemasonry in the Hengist
Lodge at Bournemouth and was an early member of
the Correspondence Circle of the Quatuor Coronati
Lodge at which he was a frequent speaker before he
settled in Paris. He is a very famous occult student,
and has contributed several learned lectures to the
Metropolitan College. He is the author of the Kabalah
Unveiled, the Tarot Cards, The Key of Solomon
the King and The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-
Melin the Mage. ”

Mrs. MacGregor Mathers, the sister of Henri Berg-
son, the Jewish-French philosopher, received clair-
voyantly most of the early teaching still used in the
order from the ” Hidden Secret Chiefs of the Third
Order. ” 3

A. E. Waite was an early member of the ” Golden
Dawn “, but at a meeting held at Dr. Felkin’s residence
in 1903, according to Dr. Felkin’s history, ” a split
occurred, as Waite and his followers denied the exis-
tence of the Third Order, refused to have examinations
in the inner, objected to all occult work, and said they
must work upon purely mystic lines. ”

In consequence of the split, the old organization of
Golden Dawn changed its name to Stella Matutina
with Aleister Crowley and William Wynn Westcott at
its head while the schismatic order, under A. E. Waite

3. ” Inquire Within “, Light-bearers of Darkness, p. SG.



and MacGregor Mathers, the latter a friend of Rudolph
Steiner, retained the old name of Golden Dawn.
In 1912, Golden Dawn merged with Stella Matutina.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXVII.
For development of this movement see Chapter CXV.



Exoteric names
Esoteric name

(Founded 1895)

Modern Illuminism, as we know it, was founded by
Karl Kellner in 1895. He died in 1905 and was
succeeded by Theodore Reuss, the agent of John Yarker.

In 1902, Reuss named William Wynn Westcott as
Regent of the Illuminati in England thus establishing
the interlocking directorate between Soc. Rosicru-
ciana in Anglia and German Illuminism. This con-
nection is further explained in the article on Societas
Rosicruciana in Anglia in Chapter LXXXVII.

According to The Equinox 1 Vol III No. 1, 1919, the
official organ of both the A .’. A „\ (Atlantean Adepts)

1. In an Appendix to this book, 33 pages are transcribed
from the eleventh book of The Equinox, an organ of the sect.
This eleventh volume having been withdrawn from circula-
tion is little known. It was published in Detroit, U. S. A., in
1919. There is no copy of it in the British Museum but copies
of all books published in the United States of America are
kept in the Library of Congress at Washington, D. C.




and the 0. T. 0. initiates are taught that this latter
order is ” a body of initiates in whose hands are con-
centrated the wisdom and knowledge of the following
bodies : —

1. The Gnostic Catholic Church.

2. The Order of the Knights of the Holy Ghost.

3. The Order of the Illuminati.

4. The Order of the Temple (Knights Templar).

5. The Order of the Knights of St. John.

6. The Order of the Knights of Malta.

7. The Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre.

8. The Hidden Church of the Holy Grail.

9. The Hermetic Brotherhood of Light.

10. The Holy Order of Rose Croix of Heredom.

11. The Order of the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch.

12. The Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry (33 de-


13. The Rite of Memphis (97 degrees).

14. The Rite of Mizraim (90 degrees).

15. The Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry

(33 degrees).

16. The Swedenborgian Rite of Masonry.

17. The Order of the Martinists.

18. The Order of the Sat Bhai, and many other orders of

equal merit, if of less fame.

II docs not include the A,*. A.*, with which august
body it is, however, in close alliance. ”

This publication also states that ” the dispersion
of the original secret wisdom having led to confusion,
it was determined by the Chiefs of all these Orders to
recombine and centralize their activities, even as white
light, divided in a prism, may be recomposed. ”

” Secret wisdom ” in the case of masonic societies
of any kind is invariably synonymous with ” occult
knowledge. ”



In the case of the 0. T. 0. the practice of the ” secret
wisdom ” begins with the understanding of the very
name of the order.

The book referred to above contains the following
information on page 200 : ” The letters O. T. O. repre-
sent the words Ordo Templi Orientis (Order of the
Temple of the Orient, or Oriental Templars); but they
have also a secret meaning for initiates. ”

Were we to make a guess at the secret meaning ot
the O. T. O., we would borrow the words of Godfrey
Higgins, the author of Anacalypsis and, with him,
” penetrate into the Sanctum Sanctorum of the ancient
philosophers of India, Egypt, Syria and Greece. ”
There shall we discover the secret meaning of the Order
of To Ov, Greek term for the emanation of fluid or
invisible fire. It is the To Ov of neo-platonism of which
Godfrey Higgins writes : ” I am convinced that the
emanation of the To Ov was believed to be this fire. ”

The To Ov was supposed to be duplicate, then from
that to triplicate. From him proceeded the male
Logos, and the female Aura or Anima or Holy Ghost
in ancient times always female. The To Ov was supposed
in himself to possess the two principles of Generation.

The reader who already knows the meaning of this
” fire ” otherwise known as Kundalini, sex-force, astral
light, etc. will easily understand the phallic hidden
meaning of the O. T. O. However, it would hardly be
fair to leave such a statement under the classification
of either suggestion or assumption. Proof might be
demanded and proof therefore is appended.

The Equinox states that ” it was Karl Kellner who
revived the esoteric organization of the 0. T. 0. and
initiated the plan now happily complete of bringing
all occult bodies again under one governance. ”

In the ” Gnostic Mass ” printed in the same volume,



mention is made, in one of the orisons, of the saints
among which are named Karl Kellner and Theodore

From notes written by Theodore Reuss himself
and from correspondence between him and Karl Kell-
ner, the basic principles of the 0. T. 0. have become
known and bear out the statement that this organi-
zation was formed for the express purpose of substi-
tuting the phallic religion for Christianity.

The conception of the O. T. O. was far from being
original but it was undoubtedly reformed by the two
Germans above named. 2 It was no vain boast on the
part of the writer in The Equinox to name all the orders
as concentrated in the O. T. O., for proof has been obtain-
ed that both Karl Kellner and Theodore Reuss were,
among a host of others, in close masonic relationship
with John Yarker, William Wynn Westcott, Supreme
Magus of Soc. Rosicruciana in Anglia, a Warden of
the Grand Lodge of England, Papus of the Martinists,

Apparently all concurred in the formation of the
esoteric doctrine of the Order of Oriental Templars.

In the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris is filed a
document, dated 1917, containing the constitution and
certain information concerning the O. T. O. It states
that ” The Ancient Order of Oriental Templars “,
an organization formerly known as The Hermetic
Brotherhood of Light, has been re-organized and

As evidenced by the Reuss papers, one may gather
that the O. T. O. has existed since 1902. Prior to
1917, the official date of its foundation, it was
presumably a secret organization, operating under

2. The German Organ of the Sect was The Oriflamme.



Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites, acting, as
these papers indicate, as the link between this
organization and the various unofficial International
occult groups. 3

The prominent persons connected with this orga-
nization at its start were : John Yarker, William Wynn
Westcott, Papus, Karl Kellner, Theodore Reuss, Mac-
Gregor Mathers, Franz Hartmann and Aleister Crowley.

Apart from its secret phallic doctrine the 0. T. 0.
seeks to unite with a revival of Gnosticism, the study
of the Jewish Cabala, Esoteric Lamaism and Indian
Yogism. It seeks to extract from their combined doc-
trines the practical application of Eastern Sorcery and
Western Witchcraft, wherein medicine and hypno-
tism occupy a place of prime importance, serving solely
materialistic ends.

The reader can always be referred to the press for
descriptions of the practices of the present Chief of
the Order who was obliged to leave Italy following an
investigation into his magic practices at Cefalu near
Palermo in Sicily.

Calling himself ” The Master Therion”, Aleister
Crowley is also known under the name of Frater Per-
durabo and, from his own extravagant writings, we
know that he looks upon himself as a reincarnation of
Eliphas Levi etc. etc.

To give the reader a feeble idea of the perversion of
the O. T. O. we quote the following : — ” The blood
is the life. This simple statement is explained by the
Hindus by saying that the blood is the principal vehicle

3. Article IV, Section 3, of the constitution of the O. T. O.
provides that ” The person (male or female) filling this office
(head) shall serve for life or until his or her resignation ” and
Article IV, Section 4, provides that ” The person filling this
office shall appoint his or her successor. ”



of vital Prana. There is some ground for the belief that
there is a definite substance, not isolated as yet, whose
presence makes all the difference between live and dead
matter. 4

” It would be unwise to condemn as irrational the
practice of those savages who tear the heart and liver
from an adversary, and devour them while yet warm.
In any case it was the theory of the ancient Magicians,
that any living being is a storehouse of energy varying
in quantity according to the size and health of the
animal, and in quality according to its mental and moral
character. At the death of the animal this energy is
liberated suddenly.

” The animal should therefore be killed within the
Circle, or the Triangle, as the case may be, so that its
energy cannot escape. An animal should be selected
whose nature accords with that of the ceremony, —
thus, by sacrificing a female lamb one would not obtain
any appreciate quantity of the fierce energy useful
to a Magician who was invoking Mars. In such a case
a ram would be more suitable. And this ram should
be virgin — the whole potential of its original total
energy should not have been diminished in any way.
For the highest spiritual working one must accordingly
choose that victim which contains the greatest and
purest force. A male child of perfect innocence and high
intelligence is the most satisfactory and suitable victim.

” For evocations it would be more convenient to
place the blood of the victim in the Triangle, the idea
being that the spirit might obtain from the blood this
subtle but physical substance which was the quin-
tessence of its life in such a manner as to enable it
to take on a visible and tangible shape.

4. The Master Therion, Magick, published 1930, p. 93.



” Those magicians who object to the use of blood
have endeavoured to replace it with incense. For such
a purpose the incense of Abramelin may be burnt in
large quantities.

” But the bloody sacrifice, though more dangerous,
is more efficacious ; and for nearly all purposes human
sacrifice is the best. The truly great Magician will be
able to use his own blood, or possibly that of a disciple,
and that without sacrificing the physical life irrevo-
cably. ”

To such persons as have read in L’Elue du Dragon 5
page 43, the description of the first impressions of
Clotilde Bersone (Comtesse de Coutanceau) afterwards
the Inspiree (Seeress) cf the Grande Loge des Illumines
de Paris, the following note by ” The Master Therion ”
will be of interest. —

” It is here desirable to warn the reader against
the numerous false orders which have impudently
assumed the name of Rosicrucian. The Masonic Societas
Rosicruciana is honest and harmless ; and makes no
false pretences ; if its members happen as a rule to be
pompous busybodies, enlarging the borders of their
phylacteries, and scrupulous about cleaning the out-
side of the cup and the platter ; if the masks of the
Officers in their Mysteries suggest the Owl, the Cat,
the Parrot, and the Cuckoo, while the Robe of their
Chief Magus is a Lion’s Skin, that is their affair. ” 6

Animal masks referred to above as being used in
the mysteries of the Rosicrucian Order are indeed also
described by Clotilde Bersone in L’Elue du Dragon.

They were a distinctive feature of the Masonic

5. Abbe Paul Boulain, Publisher, Les Etincelles, 26, rue de
Bassano, Paris, 1929.

6. The Master Therion, op. cit, p. 97, Note.



gathering in the Grand Lodge of the Illumines d’Orienl
at Constantinople at which she claims to have been

It is even suggested by Miss Murray in The Witchcult
in Western Europe that most of the legends of transfor-
mations of witches into cats, horses and other animals
arose from references by other witches to craft adepts
by the costumes and masks these had worn during the
witchcraft ceremonies.

Thus again, the witchcraft of the Middle Ages is
reflected in the occultism of today.

The philosophical teachings of the 0. T. 0. seem to
be adequately summarized by its leader in the follow-
ing sentence 7 : ” This is in fact the formula of our
Magick; we insist that all acts must be equal ; that
existence asserts the right to exist ; that unless evil
is a mere term expressing some relation of haphazard
hostility between forces equally self-justified, the
universe is as inexplicable and impossible as uncom-
pensated action ; that the orgies of Bacchus and Pan
are no less sacramental than the Masses of Jesus ;
that the scars of syphilis are sacred and worthy of
honour as such. ”

Eliphas Levi, quoting from the Oupnek’hat, the stan-
dard Indian book on Magic (Histoire de la Magie,
p. 76) outlines the same moral code ;

” It is permissible to lie in order to facilitate marriage
and in order to exalt the virtues of a brahmin or the
qualities of a cow.

” God is truth and in him light and darkness are one.
He who knows that never lies, for, if he wishes to lie
his lie becomes a truth.

” Whatever sin he commits, whatever evil work he

7. The Master Therion, op. cit., p. 338.



does, he is never guilty. Even should he be twice parri-
cide, even though he should have killed a brahmin
initiated into the mysteries of the Vedas, whatever
he may do, his light is never less, for, says God, ‘ I am
the universal soul, in me are good and evil to correct
one another. ‘ He who knows that is never a sinner ;
he is universal as I am myself. ” 8

Is this not the ever recurring dogma of Manichean
Dualism ?

Every effort is made to attract wealthy people, mostly
women, to the ” Profess Houses ” of the Order of
O. T. O. In these centres, where the ” Nudity cult ”
and other eccentricities are cultivated, the victims
become quickly amenable to the insinuating sugges-
tions of such as covet their wordly goods.

To enhance its attractiveness to the public, the sys-
tem is represented as embodying the secret knowledge
which leads to all material success. Playing on the
egoistical instincts of humanity, the O. T. O. attracts
within its orbit all those who, with inordinate ambition
and limited capacity, hope in some nebulous way,
through the Glorification of self, to save humanity.

There seems no doubt that the head of the O. T. O.
is justified in saying that this order reigns above all
others as, everything, from political espionage to
blackmail may emanate from it.

Like numerous organizations such as Mazdaznans
and Rudolf Steiner’s Anthroposophism, it lays great
stress upon physical culture and rhythmic movements.
Pretences of producing renewed youth and vigour
attracts many adepts. Moreover, it promises its initiates
the attainment of their ambition and desires. The

8. Oupnek’hat, instruction 108, pages 85 and 92 of the first
volume of the translation by Anquetil.



” Do what thou wilt ” applies to this in an ambiguous
manner. The inmates of ” Fontaiuebleau “, under the
hypnotic power of a certain Oriental, said by some to
be an Armenian and by others a Jew, have offered the
spectacle of automata performing movements, dances
etc., under the will of their master. It was even said
that under the Avill ol this new Svengali, voiceless people
sang beautifully and inartistic personalities worked
as well as renowned artists and sculptors.

Advertising the accomplishment of such feats attrac-
ted many people to Fontainebleau. What actually
took place there has several times been revealed before
the French law courts and in articles written by erst-
while inmates of this institution.

As to the American house of the same type, the scan-
dalous happenings taking place within its precincts
have sometimes been reported in the Press. Yet to
the amazement of a great many, such places as the
” Abode of Love ” in England, the ” House of Rest ”
at Nyack in America and Gourgiefs establishment in
Fontainebleau remain undisturbed.

On entering the O. T. O., aspirants must acquiesce
in the complete subordination of their ” will ” to that
of ” Unknown Superiors “. This provision places them
entirely in the power of the ” Order ” and its secret

Under occult dominion Art, Music and Politics all
tend to the same end : confusion, a calculated and induc-
ed confusion : for minds that are confused will obey
and bow to the hidden masters !

The rule of the Triangle and Ellipse, together with a
crude Geometry in modern art, is the rule of Masonry
in aesthetics.

Standing before a meaningless Cubist canvas at an
art exhibition one day, a puzzled amateur asked ” But



what does it mean ? ” To which the painter replied.
” It’s not a question of what it means, it’s a question
of what is its effect on the observer. ”

Consciously or unconsciously the artist spoke the
truth. Psychiatrists tell us that this school of insidious
humbug is simply an elaboration of the policy of the
interruption of ideas leading to total incoherence and
madness. ” Cubist ” art is an effort to produce certain
psychic effects obtainable by optical illusion. Beauty
has nothing to do with it. The cubist school is not in
the realm of art at all. It belongs to that of medicine
and psychic science. Those who forget that this devas-
tating fad of ” The Interrupted Idea ” can be extended
to music, literature and every other phase of human
effort, do so at their peril.

A mind that is positive cannot be controlled. For
the purposes of occult dominion minds must therefore
be rendered passive and negative in order that control
can be achieved. Minds consciously working to a defi-
nite end are a power, and power can oppose power for
good or for evil. The scheme for world dominion might
be doomed by the recognition of this principle alone,
but, as it is unfortunately unrecognized, it remains

Destruction, Materialism, Imposition. These are
the three points of Albert Pike and they seem to be
ruling the world today.

For root of this movement see Chapter XXII.



(Founded 1895)

In November 1894 William Q. Judge rebelled against
Mrs. Besant’s domination of The Theosophical Society.

On April 27th, 1895, he and his followers seceded
from the Adyar Society and constituted an indepen-
dent organization under the name ” Theosophical
Society of America “. This organization, which still
exists, has its headquarters at Point-Loma, California,
It was first presided over by Ernest Hargrove and
later by Katherine A. Tingley. It has branches in
Sweden and Holland.

Katherine A. Tingley, known to her followers as ” The
Purple Mother “, was in touch with Bro. Theodore
Reuss, Magus Supremus in Mundo of the Esoteric

This sect it appears, practises Raja Yoga.

Parents desirous of having their children brought
up under its aegis must forfeit all their natural rights
of inquiry concerning their children’s welfare, this
prohibition extending even to their right to assist at

Pupils whose education has been entrusted to the



sect are taught to observe absolute secrecy towards
their parents as regards matters concerning the school.

Notwithstanding such subversive rules the school
is well attended.

For root of this movement see Chapter XCV.



(Founded 1896)

This society was founded by James Conolly in 1896
and through him became linked with the anarchist
terrorist organization known as the Industrial Workers
of the World in America. (I. W. W.).





(Founded 1900)

Not till 1900, when the Grand Orient virtually took
over the Young Turk Party which was composed
chiefly of Jews, Greeks and Armenians, did this move-
ment assume a serious aspect.

Vicomte Leon de Poncins in The Secret Powers behind
the Revolution (page 66) giving the history and origin of
the Young Turk Movement adds the following informa-
tion taken from the Masonic organ of the Grand Orient,
The Acacia (October 1908).

” A secret Young Turk council was formed and the
whole movement was directed from Salonica.

Salonica, the most Jewish town in Europe —
70,000 Jews out of a population of 100,000 — was
specially suitable for the purpose. It already contained
several Lodges in which the revolutionaries could work
without being disturbed. These Lodges are under the
protection of European diplomacy and as the Sultan was
without weapons against them his fall was inevitable. ”

He further adds : —

” The Young Turks entered these lodges and met




there in order to organize and prepare the revolution.
Moreover a great number of the members of the lodges
strengthened the secret Young Turk ‘ Committee of
Union and Progress “… On the 1st May, 1909, the
representatives of 45 Turkish lodges met in Constan-
tinople and founded the ‘ Grand Orient Ottoman ‘.
Mahmoud Orphi Pasha was nominated Grand Master…
A short time after a Supreme Council of the Ancient
and Accepted Scottish Rites was also founded and
recognized by the French and Italian authorities. ”

To complete this information, we may add that
two of the Salonica lodges, those of Macedonia and Labor
and Lux were connected with the Grand Orient of
Italy and that of Veritas was under the Grand Orient
of France.

For root of this movement see Chapters XLI and LIII.



(Founded 1901)

The International Federation of Trade Unions, not
to be confused with The Second International, was
founded at Copenhagen in 1901.

It ceased to function during the War, but was re-
established as The Amsterdam International in 1919.

Its objects include the following :

To unite the international working class.

To promote the interests and activities of the trade
union movement.

The development of international social legislation.

To avert war and combat reaction.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXV.




(Founded 1903)

The foundation of Stella Matutina, with Aleister
Crowley and Wm. Wynn Westcott at its head, was
the result of a split and consequent reorganization of
the old Golden Dawn in the Outer which occurred in 1903.
It admits men and women.

Dr. Felkin, who had been elected one of the three
members of the Council governing the Society in 1902
was appointed head of Stella Matutina by Rudolph
Steiner in 1912 at which date A. E. Waite’s temple,
Golden Dawn, received the order to join with it.

Dr. Felkin held this office until 1919.

We are told by ” Inquire Within “, author of Light-
bearers of Darkness (page 152) at one time Ruling Chief
of the Mother Temple and of the Stella Matutina and
R. R. & A. C. that after the oath of Initiation into
Stella Matutina has been taken the candidate is terro-
rised by the following threat… ” If thou shalt fail of
this thy oath of secrecy, thy blood may be poured out
and thy body broken, for heavy is the penalty exacted
by the Guardians of the Hidden Knowledge from those
who wilfully betray their trust. ”

Its occult teaching is identical with that of Golden




Dawn from which it issued and, for some of its shameful
practices, the reader must be referred to Light-bearers
of Darkness by « Inquire Within. ” It is regrettable that
this expose does not take the reader back to the early
stages of initiation.

For root of this movement see Chapters LXXXVII, CIX.



(Founded 1905)

Sinn Fein, an Irish patriotic organization advoca-
ting boycott and passive resistance against England
was founded by Arthur Griffiths in 1905. He was suc-
ceeded as president in 1917 by Eamon de Valera. By
that time the Society was controlled and subsidized
by the Clan-na-Gael and Germany.

After the start of the World War in 1914, it asserted
itself as the open foe of England.

Richard Dawson in Red Terror and Green, page 176,
publishes a despatch sent to Count von Bernstorff,
the German Ambassador in the United States at that
date. The document was marked ” very secret ” and
dated April 18, 1916. It reads as follows :

” Judge Cohalan (of New York, U. S. A.) requests
the transmission of the following remarks : The revo-
lution in Ireland can only be successful with the sup-
port of Germany : otherwise England will be able to
suppress it, even though it be only after a hard struggle.
Therefore help is necessary. This should consist prin-
cipally of aerial attacks on England and a diversion
of the fleet simultaneously with the Irish revolution.
Then if possible a landing of arms and ammunition in




Ireland and possibly some officers from Zeppelins. This
would enable the Irish ports to be closed against
England. The services of the revolution, therefore, may
decide the war. ” 1

The part played by the Irish-Roman Catholic church
in Irish National and International politics is gathered
from the following telegram from Count von Berns-
torff to the German Foreign Office.

” The Bishop of Cork having died, there is a sharp
contest over the succession. The present Assistant
Bishop, Daniel Cohalan, is the choice of the local
clergy ; but England is using unusual efforts to have —
appointed. — is strongly anti-German, although Ger-
many, at our request, released him shortly after the
outbreak of war. Assistant-Bishop Cohalan is cousin
of Judge Cohalan, and strongly Nationalist and pro-
German. He was the intermediary between the insur-
gent Cork Volunteers and the British military autho-
rities, and publicly exposed the gross breach of faith
of the English with the surrendered men. Hence the
effort to defeat him through the English Envoy at
the Vatican. It would have a great moral effect in Rome
if Cohalan were chosen. If Germany can exert any
influence to bring about this result it would defeat the
English intrigue against her interests. ” 2

Dr. Daniel Cohalan was chosen.

Let us repeat that by a close study of the Ancient
Order of Hibernians and the Knights of Columbus,
one cannot fail to see the control that Freemasonry
exercises over the Irish-Roman Catholic church. This,
unfortunately, is a phase of the international situation
which is generally overlooked.

1. Richard Dawson, Red Terror and Green, p. 176.

2. Ibid., p. 185.



In an effort to dissociate politics from religion,
writers on these subjects have lost sight of the fact
that they are viewing a fight between two theocrasies,
Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry.

For root of this movement see Chapters LXXXII,




(Founded 1908)

This order, which began its existence as an organi-
zation in 1908, thanks to the efforts of the Rev. Geikie
Cobb, admitting both men and women on equal terms,
no longer accepts men as candidates, deeming their
proper place to be in Lodges working under the juris-
diction of the United Grand Lodge of England. It
seeks to supplement the work of Grand Lodge.

In 1920, it presented a petition to The Grand Lodge
of England for examination with a view to recognition.
To have acceded to the request would have been poor
policy and, in any case, unnecessary, so Grand Lodge
gave the usual answer and the matter ceased to be
further discussed.

By 1927, there were 12 Lodges of this order in Great
Britain. We know it is the policy of the official body
to deny the existence of “real female masonry” and
we also know that many English Masons of high rank
as well as members of other rites continue to believe
that there are no ” real ” women’s lodges.

These lodges, supposed to have no connection with




the Co-masonic lodges under the Grand Orient of
France are however an offshoot of this body working
the first three masonic degrees only.

Mrs. Reginald Halsey, Grand Mistress, died on
December 27, 1927.



(Founded 1908)

The ” Federal Council of the Churches of Christ
in America ” was founded in 1908. Until then it had
been the ” National Federation of Churches and Chris-
tian Workers “, founded in 1901.

Its constituent bodies are —

” Baptist Churches North, National Baptist Convention,
Free Baptist Churches Christian Church, Churches of God
in N. A. (general eldership), Congregational Churches, Dis-
ciples of Christ, Friends, Evangelical Synod of N. A., Evan :
gelical Church, Methodist Protestant Church, Methodist
Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal Church South,
African M. E. Church, African M. E. Zion Church, Coloured
M. E. Church, Moravian Church, Presbyterian Church in
the United States of America, Presbyterian Church in the
United States (South) Primitive Methodist Church, National
Council of Protestant Episcopal Church, Reformed Church
in America, Reformed Church in the United States, Re-
formed Episcopal Church, Seventh Day Baptist Churches,
United Brethren Church, United Presbyterian Church,
United Lutheran Church (consultative body). ”




Further data from Twenty Years of Church Federation
by the Federal Council 1929 informs us that the officials
of the organization are as follows —

Officials (in part); President, Bishop Francis J. McCon-
nell, Methodist Episcopal; vice president Dr. Ernest H. Cher-
rington, 1 Methodist Episcopal. Executive Committee (in
part); Dr. Ernest H. Cherrington, 1 Methodist Episcopal;
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman, Congregational; Rev. F. Scott
McBride, 1 United Presbyterian ; Bishop James Cannon
jr. 1 Methodist Episcopal South ; Bishop Thomas Nicholson, 1
Methodist Episcopal; Bishop Francis J. McConnell, Metho-
dist Episcopal.

Administrative Committee (in part) ; Rev. S. Parkes
Cadman, Congregational; Bishop James Cannon jr. 1 Metho-
dist Episcopal South ; Bishop Francis J. McConnell, Metho-
dist Episcopal.

Members of Federal Council (in part) ; Hon. George
W. Wickersham, Protestant Episcopal; Bishop Thomas
Nicholson, 1 Methodist Episcopal; Dr. Ernest H. Cher-
rington l , Methodist Episcopal; Bishop James Cannon,
jr. 1 Methodist Episcopal South.

Most of these officials are also officials of the Anti-
saloon League according to the statement of Dr.
Ernest H. Cherrington who is reported as saying : —
” The league is controlled by the churches. ” 2

The chief achievement, so far, of the Federal Council
of the Churches of Christ in America, seems to have
been the introduction of Prohibition in the United

If the general public is unaware of the motives under-

1. Officially connected with both Anti-saloon League and

2. See Hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, House
of Representatives, 71sl Congress. The Prohibition Amendment,
p. 546.



lying the Prohibition policy of the Federal Council of
Churches, it can at any rate judge of its lesults which
are a national calamity for the United States. No surer
method could have been devised for the promotion
of general subversion and complete disregard of law
and order. A summary of the situation created by
Prohibition was given by Mr. Ralph Shaw during the
Congressional hearings already referred to. He thus
expressed himself :

” For the first time in the history of the civilized
world, organized violators of the law are being financed
— the criminal underworld is being financed, and finan-
ced magnificently. Prior to this amendment, the under-
world was dependent for its scanty living upon houses
of ill fame and the gambling resorts. The saloons,
deplorable as they were, were at least observing the
law, and they paid taxes to the State. Now the enor-
mous revenues which were formerly paid into the
Treasury of the Government and the State is going
to the underworld, and it is going by millions.

” Organized society, resenting invasion of the liberty
of the individual, is willing to pay any price to destroy
the invasion, not so much because organized society
wants what it pays for, but in order to show those who
have trampled upon the spirit of liberty that they
cannot possibly succeed. The result is that millions
and millions of dollars are pouring into the coffers of
the underworld and making it so powerful financially
that it is able to debauch prosecutors, judges, legisla-
tors and all the instrumentalities of government. ”

The truth of these words has been clearly demon-
strated in the sensational revelations made lately in
the American press. It is not overrating the power of the
underworld gangsters to say that they rule the United
States for he indeed rules who is able to ” debauch



prosecutors, judges, legislators and all the instrumen-
talities of government “.

By its fruits shall you judge a tree.

When, in addition to the above one takes into consi-
deration the friendly support the Federal Council of
Churches has constantly afforded to the subversive
” Civil Liberties Union “, one is entitled to look upon
this Federation as upon a tree, the fruits of which are
a menace to the national welfare. 3

3. Since the foregoing was written, Tainted Contacts, by Col.
Sanctuary, has been published and it fully bears out the
truth of the above statements.


(Founded 1910)

In his history of Persia, Sir John Malcolm devotes
much space to Sufism or Sopheism.

It is supposed to have been the esoteric knowledge
of the Mohammedan religion and in the possession of
Ali and his successors.

Sufism in Persia dates from A. D. 1500 to 1736 when
the kingdom was conquered by Nadir Shah.

Godfrey Higgins, in Anacalypsis, concludes that
Sufism ” is Gnosticism and that if we can discover the
one we shall discover the other. ” He tells us however
that their (Sufist) sect has four stages or degrees and
that they have ” a species of Masonic or Eleusinian
initiation from lower to higher degrees. ”

The subtle metaphysics of Sufism are contained in
the Dabistan and their esoteric teaching is centred
around the principle of life. It is essentially pantheistic,
the soul beirg an emanation of God’s essence.

The teaching of Sufism was introduced by Knayat-
Khan into the West in 1910. 1 The centre of teaching

1. Sufism, Revue Philosophique Mensuelle, Feb. 1926.




is at Geneva and a big temple has recently been built
at Suresnes near Paris for the numerous proselytes
made in France.

Sufism is Islamic Mysticism and adapts itself to all



(Founded 1911)

The Narodna Odbrana was founded in 1911 by the
well known Dr. Karl Kramarsch, the organizer of the
Panslavic movement. It claimed to be a patriotic Ser-
bian organization pledged to free Serbia from Austrian
influence and to achieve specifically the independence
of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Its secret lodge however was closely affiliated to
the Crna Ruka (The Black Hand, a terrorist society)
and it had absorbed the large and well known Slav
organization ” Omladina “.

” Sokol “, a group of physical culture clubs, served
as a mask for the wider activities of the Narodna
Odbrana in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was stated
as a fact by Cubrilovitch during his trial following
the murder of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
on June 28th, 1914, which precipitated the World War.

The trial for high treason of Vangaluka which lasted
from Nov. 15 to the spring of 1916 gives a short idea of
the activities of the Narodna Odbrana.

Its aim, the grouping of all the Slav southern states
into one federation, could be achieved only through the
death of high standing personalities and the revolution




of the masses. The master mind of the attempt on the
Archduke’s life was Radoslav Kazimirovitch, a Free-
mason, who had prepared the attempt. He had travelled
abroad extensively, visited all the Lodges and had
returned with revolvers and bombs. Among the mur-
derers, Sovanovitch, Cabrinovitch and Grabez were
Freemasons and Veliko Cubrilovitch was member of
Narodna Odbrana and Sokol.

Gabriel Prinzip, a student, a youth ot 19, the mur-
derer of the Archduke, was found to have received arms
through Major Tankosich, a Freemason and a friend
of the Serbian Crown Prince Alexander, His assistant
assasin, the bomb-thrower Cabrinovitch, stated openly
at his trial that in Masonry, killing was permissible,
adding further that the heir to the throne oi Austria
had been condemned to death by the Freemasons two
years previously but that hitherto, no one had been
found to execute the sentence.

The Serbians however could not divulge the secrets
of the Serbian Lodge Narodna Odbrana which, in secret
alliance with the Crna Ruka had organized the murder
of the Archduke, heir to the Austrian throne. The docu-
ments concerning the organization of this murder were
however made known and available from the diary
of the Serbian Major Todorovitch which was found in
Loczinka, and it was clearly demonstrated at the trial
for high treason of the bomb-thrower Cabrinovitch that
the leading personalities of the Narodna Obrana were
Freemasons. (Refer Kolnische Volkzeitung. Nov. 1914.).

The Badische Observer for June 1917 says that it
cannot be doubted that the International Lodges
(Scottish Rite) must take the full responsibility for the
uprising en masse of the Rrethren in the Lodges and it
is therefore responsible for the political propaganda
(made against Germany) and also for the murder of



the Archduke which was organized in the Lodges.

On the 15th of September, 1912, La Revue Inter-
nationale des Societes Secretes contained the following
lines (page 788).

” Possibly also, some day we will understand the
remark made by a Swiss about the Archduke, heir
presumptive to the Austrian throne. ” He is all right.
It is a pity that he has been condemned. He will die
on the steps of the throne. ”



(Founded 1913)

The Anthroposophical Society, an offshoot of the
Theosophical Society, was founded on Jan 14, 1913.
by Rudolph Steiner, who had been secretary of the
Theosophical Society of Germany in Berlin since 1902.

Mr. Edouard Schure, the author of the well known
book Les Grands Inities, deserted Mrs. Besant and The
Theosophical Society at the time of the schism and
followed Steiner into the Anthroposophical Society.
Later, however, he reverted also to his old allegiance.

Soon after its creation it practically merged with
the Theosophical Society.

Stsiner was a friend of Dr. Hubbe Schleiden, the
Secretary General of the German Theosophical Society
and President of several German secret societies, the
Druidenorden, Black Templars, Rosicrucians, Ygdrasil.

The headquarters of the cult and its chief temple
” The Goetheaneum” are at Dornach, Switzerland.
This building, a crude ” Noah’s Ark ” specimen of
architecture, flaunts the symbol of the cult above its
main portal, while within its precincts the use of the iod
(see Appendix, Chapter on Symbolism) as a decorative
motif further emphasizes its esoteric phallic dedication.



Anyone perusing The East in the Light of the West,
by Rudolph Steiner, will find on pages 38 and 119 to
125 a fairly comprehensive sample of the Rosicrucian
doctrine of Luciferianism as advocated by this branch
of the sect.

Its Christ teaching is the same as that of the Theo-
scphical Society and The Herm3tic Society.

The Anthroposophical Society is developing an exten-
sive educational system for children of all ages.
Its principal school, founded in 1919 by Emil Molt,
teaching what is known as the Waldorf System, 1
is at Stuttgart, Germany. The Society conducts a
school, The New School, at 40 Leigham Court Road,
Streatham, London, and contemplates many further
acquisitions along these lines.

Space does not permit of further elaboration of the
Steiner Educational system which robs the child of
its birthright of innocence and ideals to plunge it into
the grossest materialism.

Steiner died in 1925 and was succeeded by Karl

1. George Kaufmann, Fruits of Anthroposophy, The Threefold
Commonwealth, 74 Grosvenor St. W. London, 1922.
For root of this movement see Chapter XCV.



(Founded 1915)

This society was founded by Judge Cohalan, T. St.
John Gaffney, Jeremiah A. O’Leary and Professor
Kuno Meyer in 1915 under the auspices of the Clan-

As regards this organization Captain Pollard gives
the following facts : —

” T. St. John Gaffney was appointed representative of
the Friends of Irish Freedom for Europe. A bureau was
established in Stockholm, whither Gaffney repaired,
and from there and at Berlin maintained, along
with George Chatterton-Hill, close relations between
the German Government and the various Irish-Ameri-
can and Sinn Fein organizations… ” 1

1. Captain Pollard, The Secret Societies of Ireland, p. 141.



(Founded 1915)

The patriotic nationalist Order of the Knights of
the Ku-Klux Klan was founded in Georgia on Decem-
ber 4, 1915, by William Joseph Simmons, a Royal
Arch Mason and a member of the Great Order of
Knight Templars. 1

The ” Imperial Palace ” of the ” Invisible Empire ”
is at Atlanta, Georgia.

Under sections 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of its charter the
following powers were granted the society : 2

” 2. The purpose and object of said corporation is
to be purely benevolent and eleemosynary, and there
shall be no capital stock or profit or gain to the mem-
bers thereof.

3. The principal office and place of business shall
be in Fulton Covmty, Ga., but petitioners desire that
the corporation shall have the power to issue decrees,
edicts, and certificates of organization to subordinate
branches of the corporation in this or other States of

1. The Ku-Klux Klan, Hearings before the Committee of
Rules, House of Representatives, Sixty-seventh Congress,
U. S. A. (1) p. 97.

2. Ibid., p. 102.




the United States and elsewhere, whenever the same
shall be deemed desirable in the conduct of its business.

1. The petitioners desire that the society shall have
the power to confer an initiative degree in ritualism,
fraternal and secret obligations, words, grip, signs,
and ceremonies under which there shall be united only
white male persons of sound health, good morals, and
high character ; and further desire such rights, powers,
and privileges as are now extended to the Independent
Order of Odd Fellows, Free and Accepted Order of
Masons, Knights of Pythias, et al., under and by vir-
tue of the laws of the State of Georgia.

5. Petitioners desire that there shall be a supreme
legislative body in which shall be vested the power to
adopt and amend constitutions and by-laws for the
regulation of the general purpose and welfare of the
order and of the subordinate branches of same.

6. Petitioners desire that the ” Imperial Klonvoka-
tion ” (supreme legislative body) be composed of the
supreme officers and “kloppers” (delegates selected
by the ” klororo ” State convention) of the several
“realms” (subordinate jurisdiction) : and of such
other persons as the constitution and by-laws of the
society may provide.

7. Petitioners desire that the business of the society
shall be under the control of the ” Imperial Wizard ”
(president), who shall be amenable in his official admi-
nistration to the ” Imperial Kloncilium” (supreme
executive committee, a majority of whom shall
have authority to act and a two-thirds majority power
to veto the official acts of the ” Imperial Wizard ”
(president) in the matters pertaining to the general
welfare of the Society: and to contract with other
members of the society for the purpose of promoting
and conducting its interests and general welfare in


any way, manner, or method he may deem proper for
the society’s progress and stability, subject to the
restrictions of the power of the ” Imperial Wizard ”
(president) as is heretofore set forth in this paragraph.

8. Petitioners desire that they shall have the right
to adopt a constitution and by-laws and elect the first
Kloncilium (supreme executive committee), which shall
possess all the powers of the ” Imperial Klonvokation ”
(supreme legislative body) until the first organization
and meeting of that body, and shall fix the number,
title, and terms of officers composing said ” Klonci-
lium ” (supreme legislative committee).

9. Petitioners desire the right to own separate unto
itself and to control the sale of all paraphernalia, rega-
lia, stationery, jewelry, and such… ”

The executive committee of the K. K. K. was com-
posed of members selected by Simmons himself who
held his position as Imperial Wizard ” for life or during
good behaviour. ” 3 As chairman of the advisory board
and executive committee of the ” kloncilium ” 4 he was
regarded as the chief power in the order which was to
have four degrees. Prior to 1921 however only one of
these was in operation.

Among the objects and purposes of the order were
the following : 5

” Article II, Section I. The objects of this order
shall be to unite only white male persons, native-born
gentile citizens of the United States of America, who
owe no allegiance of any nature or degree to any
foreign Government, nation, institution, sect, ruler,

3. The Ku-Klux Klan, Hearings before the Committee of
Rules, House of Representatives, Sixty-seventh Congress,
U. S. A. (l)p. 91.

4. Ibid., p. 92.

5. Ibid, p. 122.



person, or people; whose morals are good ; whose
reputations and vocations are respectable ; whose
habits are exemplary; who are of sound minds and
at or above the age of 18 years, under a common
oath into a common brotherhood of strict regulations
for the purpose of cultivating and promoting real
patriotism toward our civil Government ; to practice
an honorable clannishness towards each other; to
exemplify a practical benevolence ; to shield the
sanctity of the home and the chastity of womanhood;
to forever maintain white supremacy; to teach and
faithfully inculcate a high spiritual philosophy through
an exalted ritualism, and by a practical devotedness
to conserve, protect, and maintain the distinctive insti-
tutions, rights, privileges, principles, traditions, and
ideals of a pure Americanism. ”

The K. K. K. require the following qualifications for
membership : 6

” Article IV, Section I. The qualification for member-
ship in this order shall be as follows : An applicant must
be white male gentile person, a native-born citizen of
the United States of America, who owes no allegiance
of any nature or degree whatsoever to any foreign
Government, nation, institution, sect, ruler, prince,
potentate, people, or person ; he must be at or above
the age of 18 years, of sound mind, good character, of
commendable reputation, and respectable vocation,
a believer in the tenets of the Christian religion, and
whose allegiance, loyalty, and devotion to the Govern-
ment of the United States of America in all things is
unquestionable. ”

A few years after its foundation ” attacks against
the klan were originated and started by the New York

6. ibid., p. 123.


World, which was owned or controlled by a Jew, Mr.
Pulitzer. ” 7

These attacks ultimately provoked a congressional
investigation into the Society during which the details
relevant to its organization above given were read into
the record. Many charges were brought against the klan
on that occasion but none was satisfactorily proved.

After five years of quiet uninterrupted organization,
the society, which had adopted for its uniform the
white hoods of the Ku-Klux Klan, its ancestor of the
reconstruction period of American history, had reached
proportions which the subversive element in the United
States regarded with great uneasiness.

The Jewish power, in particular, recognized a chal-
lenge to its established dominion of American Free-
masonry for the K. K. K. constituted an ” Imperium
in Imperio ” in the heart of Judeo-American Freema-
sonry, a Christian empire sound and free and, as a masonic
sect, one refusing to adhere to three of its chief tenets
namely; Mongrelization of race, Anti-christianity, and

The great war was over and the new immigrant
” Americans ” were mostly natives of the different
ghettos of Poland, Russia, the Balkan states and Ger-
many. American ideals meant nothing to them. New
York city alone numbers over two million Jews in
its heterogeneous population and was derisively known
by native gentile Americans as ” Jew York “.

The Americans had realized too late that in the melt-
ing pot of Israel Zangwill nothing melted.

The American Jewish Kahal, fully aware of the
menace to their peoples from this new nationalist move-
ment, took precautions against it.

7. ibid., p. 75.



With great political dexterity, the whole press
concurring, the K. K. K. was pointed out on all sides
as the great foe of the Roman Catholic Church and the
Roman Catholics of America, falling in with the ideas,
recognized the K. K. K. as merely a branch of their
old enemy, Freemasonry.

So the Roman Catholics and the Ku-Klux Klan took
up the old fight and the Jews looked on, while their
two old rivals proceeded to destroy each other. Divide
et Impera !

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXVI.



(Founded 1917)

Sinn Fein was founded in America by James Larkin
and Peter Golden Monteith in 1917.





(Founded 1919)

In 1917, Leon Trotzky, through the intercession of
an agent acting for Mr. Jacob Schiff of the firm of Kuhn,
Loeb and Co. of New York, broke through the Bri-
tish blockade and with a cheque on Max Warburg
of Hamburg (Mr. Schiffs brother-in-law) started the
Bolshevik revolution in Russia.

Few people seem to be aware of the fact that Mr.
Jacob Schiff was the head of the Russian Section of
the Jewish International World government (Kahal). 1

The Third International was founded at a Conference
held in Moscow from March 2-6, 1919. The Russian
Bolsheviks founded the Third or Communist Interna-
tional, sometimes known as the ” Komintern “.

Mrs. Nesta Webster in The Socialist Network (page 44)
describes the foundation of this International political
subversion centre, in the following words :

” The Manifesto of the Conference, issued on Septem-
ber 8, 1919, calling upon the revolutionaries of the

1. See the notes to the Small Maynard and Co. Boston
edition of The Protocols published in 1920.




-world, whether Socialist, Syndicalist or Anarchist,
to unite as soon as possible and form a unified Commu-
nist Party, was drafted by a committee consisting of
Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Rakovsky and Fritz Platten.
Zinoviev, alias Radomislsky, alias Apfelbaum, alias
Ovse Gershon Aronovitch, was elected President of the
Executive Committee. Among those who later formed
the Executive were W. Maclaine and Tom Quelch of the
B. S. P., Jack Tanner and J. T. Murphy of the Factory
and Works Committee of England, Jacques Sadoul,
A. Rosmer and Delignet for France, L. Fraina and
A. Stocklitsky of the American Communist Party,
D. Bilan of the American Communist Labour Party,
the Jewish leader of the Dutch Communists, D. Wyn-
koop, whilst the Petrograd Committee of the Russian
Communist Party was represented by N. Bukharin,
V. Vorovsky, G. Klinger and Angelica Balbanova “.
Let no one believe that these people were personalities
in the game. They were agents. Agents only !

” While the Second International was being recon-
stituted in Geneva the Red or Third International
was holding its Second Congress, which on July 19,
1920, met at Petrograd, and then continued its sessions
in Moscow from July 23 to August 7.

” This time it was able to call itself a ” World Con-
gress “, for no less than thirty-seven countries were
represented. 2

” At this second Congress the attitude of the Komin-
tern was made clear on two important points : Parlia-
mentarianism and Syndicalism. With regard to the
former, it was frankly stated that the aim of the Commu-
nists was to destroy parliamentarianism, which ” has
become a democratic form of the rule of the bourgeoisie.

2. Nesta Webster, The Socialist Network, p. 44 et seq.



At the same time Communists should not refrain from
participating in a political campaign on the score that
parliament is a bourgeois government institution…
The Communist Party enters such institutions not for
the purpose of organization work, but in order to
blow up the whole bourgeois machinery and the par-
liament itself from within “.

” The foundation of the Third International had
immensely facilitated the spread of Bolshevism by
providing the Soviet Government with a camouflage
for its activities. No longer could groups or individuals
working in co-operation with Moscow be accused of
having dealings with a foreign power, but only with an
independent Socialist organization.

“By the end of 1919 the Komintern had spread its
tentacles all over Europe. In December of that year
the West European Secretariat of the Third Interna-
tional, a marvellous organization controlling a network
of smaller organizations, both open and secret, was
established at a Conference attended by Great Britain.
At a further Conference at Amsterdam in February 1920,
it was decided to mark off this Secretariat as a Central
European Secretariat, with head-quarters at Vienna
(later known colloquially as the D. I. K. I.) and to set
up a new Western Secretariat at Amsterdam.

A Southern European Bureau of the Third Interna-
tional and an Eastern Secretariat of Propaganda, com-
prising the Far East, were established. ”

In August 1922, the Convention of the Communist
Party of America was raided at Bridgeman, Mich., and
numerous revolutionary documents were seized by the
United States government.

Manifold requests for the recognition of the Soviet
government by the United States of America, were
later met by a refusal on the part of the Senate.



We extract the following from :

Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee
of Foreign relations, United States Senate
Sixty-eighth Congress
Senate Resolution 50
Declaring that the Senate of the United States
favours the recognition of the Present Soviet
Government in Russia
Year 1924

” It is believed that the evidence presented by the
Department of State at this hearing has conclusively-
established three facts ; First, the essential unity of the
Bolshevik organization known as the Communist Party,
so-called Soviet Government, and the Communist
International, all of which are controlled by a small
group of individuals, technically known as the political
bureau of the Russian Communist Party. Second, the
spiritual and organic connection between this Moscow
group and its agent in this country — the American
Communist Party and its legal counterpart, the Wor-
ker’s Party. Not only are these organizations the crea-
tion of Moscow, but the latter has also elaborated their
activities. While there may have existed in the United
States individuals, and even groups, imbued with
Marxist doctrines prior to the advent of the Communist
International, the existence of a disciplined party
equipped with a program aiming at the overthrow of the
institutions of this country by force and violence is due
to the intervention of the Bolshevik organization into
the domestic political life of the United States. The
essential fact is the existence of an organization in the
United States created by and completely subservient to

3. Recognition of Russia, p. 530, part 2.



a foreign organization striving to overthrow the exist-
ing social and political order of this country. Third,
the subversive and pernicious activities of the American
Communist Party and the Worker’s Party and their
subordinate and allied organs in the United States are
activities resulting from and flowing out of the program
elaborated for them by the Moscow group. ”

These findings of the Senate of the United States
were duly brought up before the British Parliament
on Monday July 7, 1924 (see Hansard).

They were however disregarded.

The United States alone persevered in its condem-
nation of the tyrannical rulers of Russia in opposition
to European countries which had welcomed The Commu-
nist International at Locarno and reinstated its ambas-
sadors as the representatives of the Russian people.

The Third International disseminates its subversive
propaganda through the medium of so called commercial
organizations such as Amtorg in America and Arcos
in England. These organizations operate in conjunction
with certain powerful banking institutions.

The Communist International and Soviet Russia
stand today as monuments ot the Masonic ideal of
Albert Pike symbolized by the three .-.

Destruction — Its organization of the Terror.

Materialism — Its assault on Religion.
Imposition — Its communist State.

For root of this movement see Chapter LXXXV.



(Founded 1919)

From their activities one may assume the Fascisti
to be the descendants of the Calderari.

After the European War of 1914 certain banks,
conscious of the menace of Satanism, ultimately rechris-
tened Bolshevism, fearing that the monster might get
out of hand, selected certain men whose integrity,
patriotism and bravery they trusted and, by paying
them a stipend, kept them as a nucleus, ready, when
the signal was given, to rally to a leader.

Fascism was founded at Milan on March 23, 1919
and Benito Mussolini became the leader of ” the First
Fifty-Five “.

On October 27, 1922, the Fascisti marched on

At a meeting convoked previously, seventy-two
socialist-bolshevist leaders had been summarily dealt
with, thus preparing the way for the Coup d’Etat.

Freemasonry was outlawed in Italy in 1922, and the
Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy, Domizio
Torregiani, was arrested and condemned to five years
banishment to the Lipari Islands. A similar fate also
awaited Ulisse Bacci, son and namesake of the confi-




dential agent of Crispi, Lemmi and Mazzini forty years

The Fascisti also put an end to the activities of the
terrorist society known as the Mafia in 1928 which, two
years previously, had received its death blow at a trial
involving 280 prisoners and 1600 witnesses.

The following reprint from The Daily Telegraph of
May 26, 1931, is of interest in this connection :




The Italian Freemasons, sup-
pressed by Mussolini, have sought
refuge in England, but Grand Lodge
declines to receive them.

Officials of the Grand Orient of
Italy in March wrote to the Grand
Master of English Freemasons sta-
ting that as they had been compel-
led to reconstitute themselves
outside their own country, they

had settled temporarily in Lon-

They added that they had no inten-
tion of disregarding the tradition of
nationality by which Freemasonry was
governed or the territorial rights “which
belonged to the Grand Lodge of England.
They also asserted that they hail no
desire to make use of the sovereignty
of the Grand Orient on the territory of
the United Kingdom.


The Board of General Purposes,
in its report to Grand Lodge for
the -meeting on June 3, says that
it has ” viewed with surprise ”
the receipt of this letter, and has
sent the following answer :

” The statement in your letter that
the Grand Orient of Italy has settled
tempcrarily in London has occasioned
considerable surprise. I am instructed
to protest against the action of the
Grand Orient… ”

For root of this movement see Chapter LXX.





The eighteenth amendment to the Constitution of the
United States was passed and became the law of the
land in 1920.

The Anti-Saloon League, the organization which thus
succeeded in outlawing the use of all wines, spirits and
liquors, was founded in 1874 by a group of Oberlin
citizens, headed by H. Fairchild, who became its first

The suggestion made by F. Scott McBride, General
superintendent of the Anti-Saloon League, before the
Senate lobby Committee, on May 9, 1930, that the chief
protagonist of Prohibition in America, The Anti-
Saloon League, was “born of God ?nd will fight on while
He leads ” precipitated altercations which, seeming
ridiculous to some, suddenly brought a hitherto unsus-
pected factor to the fore, in which the Wet and Dry
issue is concerned.

As recorded in the New York Herald of May 10, 1930
(Paris Edition), Mr. McBride’s remark provoked the
following conversation :

” When Mr. McBride, referring to drinking, added,




” Those things in the way of the progress of the King-
dom of God must get out of the way “, Senator Blain
demanded :

” What authority have you for claiming that the
Anti-Saloon League is a son of God ? ”

” The league was born at a prayer meeting in Ober-
lin. ”

” Did you get a message from God that He gave
birth to your organization ? ”
“No. ”

” Then what notice did you receive that this had
been a divine conception ? ”

” The fact that it was born at a prayer-meeting.
We never have such a meeting without opening with
a religious service, and we are led by the leadership
of God just as the activities of the church. ”

” Oh ! So the league dons the cloak of religion ! ”

” We do not don the cloak, it is real religion. ”

Then Senator Blain, launching into the fray, ex-
claimed :

” I don’t believe that God would approve of some of
your practices, and I think your statement is an out-
rageous and sacrilegious thing. That’s how I feel
about it ! ”

To us, attempting to trace the obscure sources of
these movements the following question seems relevant.
What “mediumistic ” instructions were received at that
prayer meeting in Oberlin thus to have fanaticised the
faithful ?

We note that all religious extravagances seem indeed
to spring from the same root, namely, the exercise of
occult hypnotic influences over the masses to determine
any movement whether religious, social or political.
That this is so has been clearly demonstrated in the
articles which deal with the Moravians, Jansenists,



Anabaptists, Mormons, etc. but to be obliged to add
Prohibition to this list comes rather as a shock.

In order that the reader may realize that we have a
logical reason for putting Prohibition in this category
of extravagances we must stress the point of alcohol
being recognized by occultists as a deterrent to hypnotic

Thus the annulling of the receptivity of mediums,
conscious and unconscious, by the general use of alcohol
among the masses, must create serious difficulties to
such powers, if such indeed there be, who seek to rule
by thought transference and absent suggestion.

Alcoholism, being undoubtedly a menace to the life
of any nation, it is natural that the soundest element in
the community should wish to fight the spread of such
an evil. Thus again, the hidden powers wishing to
eliminate the use of Alcohol for their own purposes,
found fertile ground on which to sow the seed of dis-

This explains the creation of the Anti-saloon League
which was in effect opposed to the interests of the Catho-
lic church (Vatican) the funds of which, in the United
States, had been largely invested in the whisky trust
by the Jew Judge, Max Pam of New Orleans. The
Roman Catholic Church, had, by this act of its agent,
thus been put in the unhappy political position of
fostering the evil of the Saloon !

The move was a clever one, for the Saloon was a
manifest evil and the saloon had to disappear. Its
disappearance was precipitated by the drastic Prohibi-
tion law as a consequence of which, not temperance, but
the 18th Amendment, is the law of the land today.

The following report of what may indeed be termed
a national disaster was given on Feb. 12, 1930, by Hon.
George S. Graham, in his opening speech as chairman



of the House Committee 71st Congress (U. S. A.) on
The Prohibition Amendment. 1

” The eighteenth amendment and the enforcement
law have been tested for 10 years, without satisfactory
results. Enforcement has left a train of consequences
most deplorable and depressing to every patriot. Kill-
ings amounting to over 1,360 have resulted in the last
10 years from enforcement. One hundred and fifty-one
citizens were killed by prohibition officers, and 64 agents
killed by citizens. In one year there were 77,351 arrests
for violations, alleged or real. During the first year under
prohibition there were 29,000 cases instituted, and
during the last fiscal year there were close to 70,000.
Demand for more prisons has been made and new ones
ordered, which it is said will not give relief from over-
crowding except for a period of 5 years or possibly 10.
Prison population has jumped 4 per cent per 100,000
in the last five years. When we add corruption, bribery,
demoralization of the citizenry, disrespect for law,
bootlegging, and kindred offences, does not such a
picture call for the fair dispassionate judgement of men
and women, to come together and reason over what
remedy can be devised to abate this sad condition ? ”

Later Mr. Channing Pollock, in his testimony before
the Congressional Committee, made the following state-
ments. (Pages 176-178)

” At the most unfortunate and dangerous of all
dangerous and unfortunate times, it has bred class
hatred, religious hatred, and sectional hatred.

” I know a great deal about the Federal Council of
Churches of America and I have worked with them a

1. The Prohibition Amendment. Hearings before the Com-
mittee . . . Washington, 1930, 102788.



long time. I know every one of the men mentioned here
to-day very intimately — Doctor Cadman and others.
That contempt of public opinion led the saloon keeper
to bring about prohibition by continuing to do things no
people would stand, and I want to say this, that if
these men in the Federal Council of Churches are not
careful, they will bring about the abolishment of the
church for that same reason. People will not stand that
sort of dictation.

I consider the eighteenth amendment the greatest
danger in our national existence. Inability to enforce
it spells anarchy; ability to enforce it spells despotism.
Between the two lies the golden mean of Aristotle,
which is good government. ”

In reading this indictment we are once more forcibly
reminded of the three points of Albert Pike :

But meanwhile this ” Despotism or Imposition ”
established by Prohibition is being helped along its
destructive career by all the occult groups which fur-
thered the passage of the 18th Amendment.

Among these are The Theosophical Society, Good
Templars, Women’s Christian Temperance Union,
Methodist Board of Temperance and Social Service and
a host of others !

The present officials of the Anti-Saloon League (1929)
are : 1

1. Data are from Anti-Saloon League Year book of 1929,
published by the League, edited by Ernest H. Cherrington.

Mr. Pollock

Albert Pike


Destruction of the Church




Officials (in part) President, Bishop Thomas Nichol-
son 2 , Methodist Episcopal ; Director Department of
Education, Publicity and Research, Dr. Ernest H. Cher-
rington 2 , Methodist Episcopal ; General superinten-
dent Rev. F. Scott McBride 2 , United Presbyterian.

National executive committee (in part); Secretary,
Dr. Ernest H. Cherrington 2 Methodist Episcopal,
Bishop James Cannon, Jr. Methodist Episcopal South ;
Bishop Thomas Nicholson 2 , Methodist Episcopal.

Administrative committee (in part); Bishop Thomas
Nicholson 2 , Methodist Episcopal; Bishop James Can-
non, Jr 2 , Methodist Episcopal South ; Dr. Ernest
Cherrington 2 , Methodist Episcopal.

National board of directors (in part); Chairman Bishop
Thomas Nicholson 2 , Methodist Episcopal; Hon. Grand
M. Hudson, Baptist (Member of Congress from Michigan
and was formerly superintendent for Anti-Saloon
League in Michigan); Bishop James Cannon, Jr 2 ,
Methodist Episcopal South.

2. Officially connected with both League and Federal
Council of Churches of Christ in America.

For root of this movement see Chapter CXVIII.



(Founded 1920)

In 1924, a book by R. M. Whitney called The Reds
in America made its appearance. The American Civil
Liberties Union founded by Upton Sinclair had by that
time become an important branch of the Third Inter-
national so Mr. Whitney gave several pages to a des-
cription of its organization and methods. All these
would be quoted here were it not that space forbids. Our
chief object in including this minor society among those
already mentioned is to show the methods whereby
Communism is rendered palatable to those whose
world it would destroy.

” The American Civil Liberties Union owes its exis-
tence to the notorious pacifist organizations of war-time
fame, which were presumably financed by German
agents in this country working desperately, and for a
time successfully, to keep the United States from entering
the war. To be sure, in its present form it has existed
only since January 12, 1920, when it was formed as an
outgrowth and with the merging of various organizations
which were developed during the World War, dating
from October, 1914, and the members of which were
pacifists, defeatists, German agents, radicals of many
hues, communists, I. W. W. and Socialists. Among the




organizations included in the merger were such pacifist
bodies as the American League to Limit Armaments,.
Emergency Peace Federation, First American Conference
for Democracy and Terms of Peace, People’s Freedom
Union, People’s Council of America, American Union
against Militarism, League for Amnesty for Political
Prisoners, Civil Liberties Bureau, National Civil Liber-
ties Bureau, American Neutral Conference Committees
and Legal First Aid Bureau. 1

” The activities of this organization are extensive.
It assists any radical movement through publications
of high standing in order to influence public sympathy
toward the radical organizations, furnishing attorneys
for radical criminals, conscientious objectors and radical
or foreign spies, ” bores from within” in churches,
religious and labour organizations, Women’s Clubs,
schools and colleges and the American Federation of
Labour, in order to spread radical ideas. The union
maintains a staff of speakers, investigators and lawyers
who are working in all sections of the country. Lawyers
are furnished on short notice wherever a radical criminal
gets into trouble. A press clipping service is maintained
which keeps the organization in close touch with every
radical criminal or group of radical criminals in trouble
and immediate financial aid, publicity and counsel is
offered. Aiding in this service are some 800 co-operating
lawyers, and more than a thousand correspondents and
investigators, representing 450 weekly labour, farmer and
liberal papers with 420 speakers and writers.

” The American Civil Liberties Union was particu-
larly active in aiding the Communists caught in the
Bridgman, Mich., raid.

” An office is maintained in Washington with the

1. R. M. Whitney, The Reds in America, p. 120 et seq.


Federated Press organization to handle matter requiring
direct contact with the Government.

” The policies of the organization are determined by
the National Committee and the carrying out of them is
left to the Executive Committee which meets weekly. ”

Mr. Whitney quotes the following paragraphs from
the 1920 Lusk Committee report concerning the Ameri-
can Civil Liberties Union :

” An examination, however, of the propaganda and
agitation which has been carried on in favor of the force-
ful overthrow of this Government shows that it does not
consist of a mere expression of opinion, but invariably
advocates measures for its effectuation. In other words,
the representatives of revolutionary Socialists, Commu-
nists, Anarchists and other groups, state that by doing
certain acts this Government may be overthrown and in
each instance the agitator urges his hearers or his readers
to commit those acts. It is a well settled principle of law
that any reasonable man is responsible for the logical
and reasonable consequences of his acts and utterances.

” While the Constitution of the State of New York
guarantees the right of free speech it also contains the
warning that the citizen may exercise it ” being respon-
sible for the abuse of that right “. The effect of the acti-
vities of the American Civil Liberties Union is to create
in the minds of the ill-informed people the impression
that it is un-American to interfere with the activities of
those who seek to destroy American institutions. They
seek to influence legislators and executives to repeal or
veto any act calculated to protect the State or the
Federal Government from the attacks of agitators. ”

After some further analysis this report says :

” The American Civil Liberties Union, in the last
analysis, is a supporter of all subversive movements,
and its propaganda is detrimental to the interests of



the state. It attempts not only to protect crime but to
encourage attacks upon our institutions in every form.

” The union is closely identified with groups in prac-
tically every city in the country known as ‘ parlor
Bolsheviki’. Speakers are furnished for these dilettante
radicals whose influence would amount to little, but for
the fact that they can be counted upon for financial
contributions to any movement that promises them a
thrill. It has been said that many idle men and women
become identified with this parlor Bolshevik movement
through emotionalism and because it gives them some-
thing to think about. Whatever the reason, the Commu-
nists and the Civil Liberties Union agitators make use of
these groups for financial aid and as means of spreading

” It is well known “, as Mr. Whitney further explains,
” that the Workers’ party, as a branch of the Commu-
nist party, has access to the ‘ sucker lists ‘ of people
who have contributed to the finances of the party in
various cities, and besides has ‘ sucker lists ‘ of its own
which are shared by the Communists. The most remark-
able feature of these lists is the number of names of
prominent people upon them. ”

Naturally most of the people on these ‘ sucker lists ‘
have no idea what sort of an organization they are
assisting, but their money assists just the same ! Hazy
notions of helping the poor and downtrodden and better-
ing the condition of the working classes serve to produce
the necessary enthusiasm leading to subscriptions.

Among the persons whose names have appeared as
members or officers of this society we name the following:
Roger N. Baldwin, Albert De Silver, Scott Nearing and
Max Eastman.

For root of this movement see Chapter CXXVII.


THE V. V. V.


(Founded 1920)

The origin of this society is given by Mrs. Webster
in The Surrender of an Empire (p. 132) in the following
terms :

” The League of Oppressed Peoples had been
founded in the United States under the name of the
‘ League of Small and Subject Nationalities ‘ by Dudley
Field Malone, attorney for Ludwig Martens, who was
afterwards appointed Bolshevist ambassador to the
United States by Chicherin. Aleister Crowley, the well-
known Satanist, who was then working in the United
States for Germany, was connected with this association
through one of its agents in America… After the Armis-
tice the society became the ‘ League of Oppressed
Peoples ‘, a name coined by the Germans who had
declared themselves to be the champions of the nume-
rous oppressed peoples of the British Empire “.

In the archives of certain Secret Services, there is a
report stating that John Wesley De Kay, having
travelled from Switzerland to Berlin on a German
diplomatic passport, had an interview there with
Count von Brockdorff-Rantzau, and four members of the




Druidenorden of which the direct outcome was the
foundation in January 1920 of the V. V. V.

This organization was to operate in a subordinate
capacity to the well known masonic ” Druidenorden ”
and, at a secret meeting held Jan. 14, 1920, a certain
Colonel was elected President of the Council. At the
same meeting, a council of the League was founded and
provision was made for the headquarters, and representa-
tives in every country. It was also further decided that
only bonafide accredited representatives in a recognized
revolutionary society, with an occasional ” Socialist
Humanitarian “, would be eligible for membership in
this council, two representatives being the quota
allotted to each member country.

It was further ordered that a secret Inner Council,
the very existence of which was to be ignored by the
General Council and the members of the League, was
to be formed. Five persons composed this secret council
of which John De Kay was the President for life.

The Swiss branch of the society was founded on the
same day as the German by a colleague of De Kay.

” The Druidenorden ” writes Mrs. Webster, ” was the
concrete expression of the idea… of the ‘ Eastern School ‘
of German Monarchists, who believed in coming to an
understanding with Soviet Russia for the purpose of a
war of revenge against the Allies or, failing this, of
undermining them by revolutionary propaganda, par-
ticularly throughout the British Empire. This section of
German Monarchists never ceased to co-operate with
the Bolsheviks after Lenin and his companions in the
sealed train were sent by them to Russia : and the mar-
vellous organization of Soviet propaganda abroad has
been largely attributable to the German as well as the
Jewish brains behind it.

” Up till about 1922 the activities of this German

THE V. V. V.


group and the Soviet Government were indistinguish-
able. Radek — alias Sobelssohn — acted as the link
between Berlin and Moscow. The Druidenorden, like the
Komintern, was internationally organized with lodges
in Rome, Milan, Prague, Budapest and ramifications in
England, France, Holland, Italy, Algeria, Canada,
Egypt, India, Vladivostok and Japan. At the same time
it had two important centres in Switzerland — at
Zurich and Lugano — under Baron von A. and Baron
von D. who co-operated with the Soviet agents in that
country by supplying revolutionaries throughout the
world with arms, ammunition and propaganda, Bolshe-
vist, pro-German and anti-Entente.

” This inner secret society was behind the Moplah
risings in India in 1921, and it was again the Druide-
norden that recruited revolutionary Jews in Germany,
and passed them through Switzerland via Milan and
Genoa to Palestine, in order to stir up feeling against
Great Britain. ”

” There was also a direct connection between the
Druidenorden and the I. R. B. (Irish Republican
Brotherhood) though relations with Ireland were prin-
cipally maintained through the V. V. V. and its agents
in America. ”

In 1922 the V. V. V. founded a subsidiary organiza-
tion : ” The League of Oppressed Peoples of the East,
calculated to coordinate the activities of various societies
such as those of ” The Friends of Soviet Russia ” and
the ” Friends of India “.



(Founded 1920)

If a novice is not the son of a Freemason he must,
according to the rule, be 25 years old; that is to say,
he must be the age demanded by the Priesthood before
he can become a Mason. The son of a Freemason,
however, can obtain a dispensation as regards the age at
which he is admitted into the order. It is only necessary
for him to be 18 years of age.

According to an article in Freemasonry Universal,
Vol. I, Part I, June 1925, page 22 — ” There are two
movements in U. S. A., however, particularly worthy
of attention. The first is the establishment of two orders,
for boys and girls respectively, under the age of 21.
These are more or less attached to Masonry, and the
Order of De Molay, which is open to boys, and which
five years ago consisted of nine members, to-day has
over 1,177 Chapters, with over 125,000 members. The
Order of the Rainbow for Girls, which was only
started in 1923, now has over 300 Assemblies, with
at least 20,000 members, and is increasing by leaps
and bounds “.

We refrain here from going too closely into the subject




of the boy and girl scouts movement leaving it as a
suggestion that parents, guardians and teachers of
youth would do well to investigate the judeo-masonic
allegiance of scout leaders and masters.


(Founded 1920)

The League of Nations came into being on January 10,
1920, when the Treaty of Versailles, incorporating the
first 26 articles of ” The Covenant of the League ” was

Cradled in Mazzini’s Masonic Young Europe move-
ment, the League and Treaty are the apotheosis of the
policy of the old International Commitree of London
and its satellite societies.

Of these, Mrs Webster, in her book The Surrender of
an Empire, 1 gives us the following epitome :

” It was towards 1850 that a modified form of this
scheme became known as ‘ The United States of Europe ‘,
The actual formula seems first to have been used
publicly by Victor Hugo in his opening speech to the
Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849, but it was not
until some years later that it was formally adopted as
the slogan of International Socialism.

The impulse came again from the masonic lodges. In
1866, a Freemason named Santallier composed a work
on Pacifism for his brother masons which led to the

1. Op. cit, p. 56.



founding of the Union de la Paix, under the presidency of
another Freemason, a German Jew named Bielefeld. The
movement spread to Switzerland and on September 5,
1867, a further Congress was held. The proceedings were
enlivened by a duel between the Constitutionalists and
the Socialists, who declared that kings, soldiers — and
some added priests — must be swept away in order to
make room for the new Federation of Republics. The
Socialists, led by Emile Acollas, won the day. Dupont,
Karl Marx’s right hand, was invited to represent the
First International, of which he was secretary. Longuet,
Marx’s son-in-law, also attended. It was finally decided
to found a ” League of Peace and Liberty “, with a
Franco-German periodical, entitled Les Etats-Unis de
FEurope, as its organ. This association, the ‘ Ligue
Internationale de la Paix et de la Liberte ‘, still exists
and publishes its paper “.

It is small wonder that members of Fabianism should
have made themselves the heralds of the idea of the
League of Nations. In 1917, Henry Noel Brailsford,
helped by Noel Buxton, a noted Fabian, had written
a book called A League of Nations, in which he outlined
its principles and eventual organization. Later, Fabians
proudly proclaimed that with the advent of the Labour
Party, which was their party, they had gained full control
of the League of Nations. But the most outspoken
statements on its spirit of internationalism comes from
the pen of one of the Founders of Fabianism, George
Bernard Shaw.

In April, 1929, the Fabian Society published a tract
(No. 226) called The League of Nations, in which the
noted author gives an account of the strange relations
which exist between the members of the respective
national governments and those of the international
government of the League. Alluding to an incident



which took place at Geneva between Mr Locker-
Lampson, Under-Secretary to the British Foreign
Office, sent by his Government and representing it, and
Sir Eric Drummond, permanent Secretary-General of
the League at Geneva, George Bernard Shaw writes :

“These deciduous members arrive mostly in scan-
dalous ignorance of the obligations already contracted
by their Governments to the permanent governing
bodies of the League. As party men they are at the oppo-
site pole to the ‘ good Europeans ‘ of Geneva. As
patriots they conceive themselves to be advocates of
British national interests (not to say nationalist spies
in the international camp) and expect to be supported
devotedly by their distinguished fellow-countrymen on
the permanent staffs. They are rudely undeceived the
moment they begin their crude attempts at sabotage.

” Thus the British Jingo Imperialist finds himself
writhing in the grip of Sir Eric Drummond whilst the
French Poincarist-Militarist takes the full count in the
first round from Mr Albert Thomas…

” This situation, in which the permanent nominees of
the constituent governments are thrown into resolute
opposition to their deciduous representatives is chronic
at Geneva. One of Mr Albert Thomas’s greatest victories
there was won over the French Government when he
defeated its attempt to exclude agricultural workers
from the scope of the Labour Office on the ground that
they are not ‘industrials’. The really great thing that
is happening at Geneva is the growth of a genuinely
international public service, the chiefs of which are minis-
ters in a coalition which is, in effect, an incipient inter-
national Government. In the atmosphere of Geneva
patriotism perishes ; a patriot there is simply a spy who
cannot be shot.

” In short, the League is a school for the new inter-



national statesmanship as against the old Foreign
Office diplomacy “.

The struggle described by Bernard Shaw as taking
place at Geneva between the Assembly — or ” Hot Air
Exchange ” — as he terms it, and the Secretariat of the
League on the one hand and the International Labour
Office on the other is also edifying. The Labour Office,
as its offspring, has the blessing of Fabianism and we
are informed that together with its friends it is
” quite willing to let the Secretariat die a natural
death. ”

How reminiscent of Marxism are all these utterances
of one of the notorious disciples of the School of

Another aspect of the League of Nations was given
by an ardent Zionist — Jessie E. Sampter, who wrote
that ” the League of Nations is an old Jewish ideal,
the ideal of nationalism and internationalism… The
Jewish God-ideal implies democracy and internationa-
lism “. Further the same author vouchsafed the infor-
mation that ” the solution of self-determination and the
recognition of the necessity for a League of Nations to
protect small peoples from future aggression have
grown in large measure out of the claims of Zionists. ” 2

We also know that Lord Robert Cecil, Chairman of
the League of Nations Union, in speeches he made in
the United States, in favour of the League, predicted
that eventually it would have its seat at Jerusalem.
Thus speaking, he was only voicing the Zionist state-
ments which had already been made by Leon Simon in
Studies in Jewish Nationalism. 3

Studying the League of Nations under its different

2. Jessie E. Sampter, Guide to Zionism, pp. 21, 87.

3. Leon Simon, op. rit, p. 120, Edition 1920.



aspects we are led to draw the logical conclusion that it
is a Judeo-Masonic achievement.

As the embryonic future World Government, destined
shortly to be the Central Government of the European
Federated States, the League of Nations is at present
concerned with two schemes wherewith it will even-
tually be enabled to enforce its dictates — viz : one, an
international army and air force, the other the Inter-
national Bank which is already aiming at the creation and
circulation of an international universal money. Mean-
while, its creators and sponsors are endeavouring to
maintain the illusion of Democracy and its manifold
benefits whereas, in fact, they have already erected
at Geneva a temple to the Autocracy and Tyranny of



(Founded around 1920)

The Tend Kenjukai, a Japanese politico-religious
sect, is an offshoot of the main cult known as Tenrikyo,
itself dissident from Shintoism, the national religion
of Japan.

It is subversive, inasmuch as its adherents object
mostly to one of the main tenets of the Japanese reli-
gion, namely, the traditional regard held for the Impe-
rial Family.

When, in April 1928; the police discovered several
plots for the assassination of members of the Imperial
Family and Conservative Statesmen, it came to light
that the Communists from Moscow had had, as chief
tools, Tenri Kenjukaists.

Numerous arrests were made, including that of the
founder of the sect, Aijiro Onishi. His life and beha-
viour bear a great resemblance to that of the leaders
of the O. T. O., of Theodor Reuss, Rudolf Steiner,
Aleister Crowley, Gourgieff, as also of Piggott of the
” Abode of Love ” and others.

Like them, Aijiro Onishi exacted a vow of poverty
from his adherents who had to turn over to him all
their property. With this wealth he had built for him-




self a beautiful house wherein he lived in great luxury.

Regardless of place, creed or nationality, the same
causes produce the same effects, and greed on the one
hand and human gullibility of dupes on the other, lead
to uniform results.



(Founded in 1928)

In the spring of 1928 much perturbation was caused
in educational circles by the discovery that Buchman-
ism, defined by English University authorities as
perverted religious mania, had permeated men’s as
well as women’s colleges at Oxford.

Isis, the Oxford undergraduates’ weekly, attacked
Buchmanism in its leading article in one of its May
issues ot 1928. On May 17, 1928, the Daily Telegraph
partly reproduced it in the. following article :




” In the women’s colleges, ”
declares the paper, ” Buchman-
ism is procuring the worst
effects attendant on perverted
religious mania. ”

” The theory of Buchmanism “, says
the leading article, ” we do not presume
to judge, but the effects of its practice
we deplore. Buchmanism, on the sur-
face, is almost painfully innocuous ; its
semi-public meetings are patronised by
several leading Oxford ecclesiastics, and
even housed by one Oxford rector; respon-
sible senior members of the University
have attended them in a spirit of inquiry,
and gone awav satisfied that these re-
ViRorouslv flttorV^ in tn iwS unions, pervaded by the spirit of com-
E*”?. vU °™ attacked in to-da> s | ra( teship and ‘ uplift, ‘ and punctuated

by ‘ straight ‘ talks and ‘ informal ‘
prayers, are probably a healthy outlet




M Our Own Correspondent.
Oxford, Wednesday.
The religious cult known as
“uchmanism, ” which attracted
attention at Oxford last term

of /sis, the undergraduate



for surplus religious feeling ; and so, no
doubt, they are.


” These meetings, however, have,
roughly, the same relation to Buchman-
ism as a dentist’s waiting-room has tc the
pain the dentist is about to inflict.
Attendance at several of them is a pre-
liminary step to admission to a group,
a gathering of perhaps four or five
friends, so delightfully informal that it
seems uncharitable tc call it clandestine.
Here, in an atmosphere hovering be-
tween giggles and fanaticism, restraint is
flung aside, souls are laid bare by hys-
terical confession, and, with a fervour
which no longer pretends to be religious,
the tenets of the doctrine are discussed.

” Now, Buchmanism attributes to
Christianity a four-fold foundation on
honesty, unselfishness, purity and love.
II is worthy of remark that the first
two qualilies are seldom considered
worthy of discussion. Honesty, in fact,
is not a conspicuous feature of these
proceedings, from which the sceptical
are firmly excluded, and in which the
perfervid are virtually hoodwinked.

” In the women’s colleges, although, th
name of its founder is never mentioned
Buchmanism has firmly established’
itself, and is producing the worst elltcu
attendant on perverted religious mania
One of its adherents has recently been
obliged to leave Oxford. In several others
devotion to the cult is producing lesults
not usually associated with the practice
of Christianity. The authorities appear
to be alarmed but remain apathetic
It is time something was done about

” Buchmanism is not widespread.
Probably, in Oxford, it never wilt be!
We do not wish to exaggerate the dan-
ger it represents, but neither do wc
wish other people to minimise or ignore
that danger. Its worst ellccts, tin. ugh
almost impossible to cure, can be pre-
vented. Accordingly we take this oppor-
tunity of asking the L’niverhity autho-
rities to exert the power which >s un-
doubtedly theirs to remove fiom Oxford
those responsible for a phenomenon
which would be faintly comic were it
not apt to produce such extremely
unpleasant results. ”



(Founded 1928)

Racketeering finds a place in this study on Occult
Theocrasy because its adepts are the faithful servants
of Mammon and their methods of terrorism, intimida-
tion, plunder and murder are analogous to those of the
Thugs, worshippers of Siva. Moreover, according to Fred
Pasley, author of Al Capone and Muscling In, racke-
teering is organized and controlled by the members of
the Italian Society, the Unione Sicilione, the Mafia,
which he calls an invisible government.

Racketeering, as a system for plundering legitimate
business, often with the connivance of the police and
government officials, has assumed formidable propor-
tions within the last few years.

Mr. Fred. D. Pasley, in his book Muscling In, states
that ” The Rackets ” started with Prohibition in the
United States.

In 1928, after Mussolini had suppressed the terrorist
Sicilian Society known as The Mafia, whose members
took an oath to ” resist Law and defeat Justice “, they
found a refuge in Chicago, U. S. A. There, through
their affiliation with the Unione Sicilione, later known
as the Italo-American Union, they manoeuvred them-




selves into a position which enabled them to cooperate
with the vice and liquor purveyors of the city on the
one side and the political party machines on the

To quote Mr. Pasley : 1

” The Unione Sicilione had become a $ 10,000,000 a
year enterprise, supplying the basic ingredient for the
synthetic Bourbon, Rye, Scotch, brandy, rum and gin
marketed in and around Chicago, and controlling the
sale of sugar to the affiliated distillers of the West Side
Italian district : Melrose Park, Cicero, and Chicago
Heights. ”

The head of the Unione, ” … ruled locally as a despot
over some 15,000 Sicilians and dominated the councils
of the Unione’s branches in St. Louis, Detroit, Pitts-
burgh, Cleveland, Philadelphia and New York City. ”
He was virtually the chief executive in the invisible
government, administering the gunman dictatorship of

In 1928, the organized gunmen ot Chicago seized
control of the Chicago Coal Teamsters’, Chauffeurs’ and
Helpers’ Union, local No. 704, and the Rackets entered
a new phase, that of economic terrorisation by the armed
forces of the Underworld.

In 1931, the New York Times of November 28 drew
the following picture of the gangster situation :

New York City has become the world’s capital of the
racketeers, who ” with the power of Tammany hookups,
reinforced with revolver bullets and sawed-off shotgun slugs ”
are exacting an annual tribute of at least $ 600,000,000 here,
Fred D. Pasley, biographer of Al Capone, asserts in ” Mus-
cling In, ” to be published today by Ives Washburn. Every
trade and business organization is racket-ridden, some of
the hardest hit groups being dealers in such foodstuffs as

1. Fred D. Pasley, Al Capone, p. 228.



artichokes, flour, milk, fish and ice, the garment trades, the
building industry and the various branches of transportation,
the author declares.

Mr. Pasley’s nation-wide survey pays special attention to
Chicago and New York. Crime, he reiterates, has become
” big business, ” thoroughly organized in every large Ameri-
can city ” with its various racket departments — whether beer,
booze, pretzels, gambling, vice or the muscling in on industry
and labor unions — as efficiently administered as the units
of a great corporation. ” Instead of diminishing, the power of
the racketeers is increasing and ” in Chicago, Detroit, Cleve-
land, Philadelphia, New York and other American cities the
gangster with his syndicate is in the racket saddle in 1931
and riding high, wide and handsome. ”

In Chicago the annual tribute exacted by racketeers amounts
to $ 200,000,000, Mr. Pasley says. The levy in Philadelphia
is estimated at $ 100,000,000, in Detroit $ 75,000,000, in Los
Angeles $ 50,000,000 and in Cleveland and Pittsburgh
S 25,000,000 each. The nation’s annual crime bill is put at
$ 1,119,000,000.

Asserting that the rise of the racketeer dates from the
enactment of prohibition, Mr. Pasley continues :

” Prohibition after twelve years is pouring into the coffers
of the Capones, the Maddens, the Gordons and the Duffys
something like $ 3,000,000,000 a year for the financing of
their varied enterprises and the maintaining of political rela-
tionships. The State laws which they violated with impunity
in their criminal operations were ineffective against them, for
it was the record that the only convictions obtained, and these
at excessive cost, were for violations of a Federal statutef
namely, income tax evasion. ”

The author criticizes severely the practice of freeing gang-
sters on bail while awaiting trial, contending that this allows
the racketeer to silence his enemies by murder, to bribe offi-
cials, and to use the power of his organization to defeat justice
in other ways.

But the term ” Racketeering ” does not apply only
to the deeds of American gangsters.

Besides the underworld vice rings, drug rings, bootleg-
gers and purveyors to the white slave traffic, we must



also recognise the existence of Economic and Financial
Rackets organized internationally on a huge scale.

To this category belong the International Foreign
Exchange and National Credit Ramps operating to
control the currencies of various countries for the benefit
of a few ” Insiders “. Foreign Exchange gambling gains
are not even taxable and therefore constitute a doubly
valuable racket. A banker’s racket!

The Stock Exchange Racket, whereby the invested
economies of the thrifty are siphoned out of their pockets
into those of the ” Insiders ” is another popular form
of business ramp. Stolen property being tax exempt,
stock frauds yield a high return. However we do not
advocate taxing stock fraud profits, we merely suggest
that the law should provide for the punishment of those
criminals who operate such transactions.

Then there are the Tax Department, Income and
Super Tax Rackets. Should Racketeers gain control of
the machinery of government of a country and use its
system of taxation as a means of extorting and bleeding
the taxpayer, such abuses are none the less a racket!
The Income and Super Tax Racket conduces naturally
to the extension of the operations of the Stock Exchange
fraudulent operator. The poor pay the tax. Sometimes
the rich pay it too. In any case, the honest pay for the

And what of the law ? People often have to wonder,
especially in the U. S. A., whether they can always go to
law solely on the basis of a just claim. Must they not
sometimes consider whether they will not be acting
through a lawyer who may have interests which are
opposed to their own ? And if there should be such a
thing as a betrayal, need it always be paid for in
money ?

Again, we must not overlook the Social Racket, one



of the most interesting examples of which is the now
famous ” Douglas-Pennant Case “. From recent develop-
ments, however, it would seem that this was largely
a Masonic intrigue. The Chairman of the House of
Lords Committee trying the case was the late Lord
Kintore, a noted Freemason. Others connected with
the conspiracy to ruin Miss Violet Douglas-Pennant’s
life and reputation were also Freemasons. Nothing
was ever proved against this lady and she herself
makes no mystery of the fact that she was, for a short
time, a member of a masonic organization, “The G. D. ”
She resigned her membership in this body, however,
shortly after her initiation but from then onward was
hounded and threatened in every way. That her
failure to gain Justice in an English court is only a
part of a policy of persecution will surprise few of
those who have followed her case.

The present wave of International Unemployment
is interesting as an Economic Racket. Already France,
England and the U. S. A. have been led to segregate
their own workers and exclude foreign labour. This
course seemed a patriotic necessity at the outset but
the idea, exploited to its logical conclusion, spells slavery
of the workers. Nations decreeing that only native
labour can be employed within their boundaries thus
subtly rob labour of its freedom to work where it com-
mands the highest price and best conditions.

Labour, robbed of its right to control its own
market, may suddenly find itself restricted to even
county boundaries. In that event a condition will arise
for which there is already an historical precedent. Boris
Goudounoff, through the creation of just such a situa-
tion in Russia, instituted serfdom in a country where,
previously, the workers had been free men.

Italy, Australia and England have already enforced



virtual embargoes on capital — why not therefore
embargoes on labour ?

The Rackets are the last stage of the battle in the
economic war between Predatory Capitalism and
Predatory Labour against Constructive Capitalism and
Constructive Labour. The progressive stages of this war
are outlined in a document known as The Protocols of the
Wise Men of Zion. 2 The full significance of this record
should have been made the subject of a comprehensive
course of studies in every school, church and university,
but whereas Marxism, which is but one of the means
devised for the accomplishment of the Protocols, is
freely taught and practised, a wall of silence and fear
has been built around the Protocols themselves.

2. L. Fry. Waters Flowing Eastward, Part II.



(Founded 1930)

This Society was founded on April 5, 1930, at a meet-
ing at The Park Lane Hotel, New York, presided
over by Mirza Ahmed Sohrab who read a resolution
embodying the ideals of Professor Einstein and Arthur
Henderson which was unanimously adopted.

In Torchbearers (p. 32), a pamphlet published by The
New History Society in 1931, we read that Mr. Einstein
has declared the position he will take in the next war ;

” I should unconditionally refuse every direct or
indirect war service and try to induce my friends to
take the same stand, and this independently of any
critical opinion of the causes of the war. ”

History is, or should be, the truth on past events.
When it is distortion of past records to suit the aims
and convenience of specific groups it is not history.
There can be no such thing as New History. We are
therefore entitled to question the historical basis of
this society whose members are the ” advocates of
the Universal Principles of Baha’u’ llah and spreaders
of the Ideals of Abdul Baha. ” 1

1. Torchbearers, p. C.




The direct result of another Mass meeting held on
April 5 under the auspices of this society was the
affiliation of twenty Peace Societies under the name
of ” Youth Peace Federation “.

Among the members of this New History Society
we find the name of Besanta Koomar Roy.



(Founded 1930)

Early in the 20th Century the headquarters of The
Worker, the Communist weekly, were at 8 East 10th
Street, New York. It also harboured a ” Youth Move-
ment ” imported from Germany.

In a pamphlet issued by the Massachusetts Public
Interest League, (210 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass.
April 1925) we read that this ” Youth Movement ”
was sponsored by The National Student Forum, an
organization ” made up of those elements in the col-
leges which have at different times called themselves
Inter-collegiate Socialist Societies, Liberal Leagues
and Leagues for Industrial Democracy. It was Lenin’s
cleverness which suggested ‘ frequent changes of
name ‘ to radical organizations. This bewilders the
public and the new names serve as an alias. ”

An article in the Survey Graphic for December 1921
stated the aims of this movement to include advoca-
tion of the Nudity Cult and promiscuity in sex rela-
tionships under the name of free love. Its advocacy of
Body worship enables us to classify it as ” Phallic “.

” It is the purpose of the National Student Forum “,
writes R. M. Whitney, in a pamphlet entitled The




Youth Movement, ” and the other organizations which
it supports by its sympathy, to undermine and sink,
or overthrow, the Government of the United States,
and to set up in this country a s( viet form of govern-
ment, such as Russia now boasts. ”
” Its constituent organizations are :

Barnard Social Science Club.
Bryn Mawr Liberal Club.
Dartmouth Round Table.

George Washington University Free Lance Club.

Harvard Student Liberal Club.

Hood College Contemporary Club.

Hollins (Virginia) Student Forum.

Howard (coloured) Student Progressive Club.

Mt. Holyoke Forum.

Miami University Law School Liberal Club.

Northwestern University Liberal League.

Oberlin College Liberal Club.

Park College Social Science Club.

Rockford College International Relations Club.

Radcliffe Liberal Club.

Stanford University Forum.

Swarthmore Polity Club.

University of Chicago Liberal Club.

University of Colorado Forum.

Union Theological Seminary Contemporary Club.

Vassar College Political Association.

Wellesley College Forum.

Western College Forum.

Yale Liberal Club “. 1

The first executive Secretary of the National Stu-
dent Forum was Mr. John Rothschild, a New York
Socialist. Among others interested in the movement was

1. See pamphlet published by The American Defense
Society Inc. 154 Nassau Street. New York City.


” W. A. Robeson, an Englishman who had studied
under Harold Laski, the Radical who came into the
limelight while teaching at Harvard. ” 2 Robeson was
a member of the Advisory Committee of the British
Labour Party and a friend of the well known Fabian,
Mr. George Bernard Shaw.

In the New Student, the organ of the National Student
Forum of Dec. 2nd, 1922, Mr. George Bernard Shaw
is quoted as saying; — “As far as I can gather, if
the students in American Universities do not organize
their own education, they will not get any. The pro-
fessors are overworked schoolmasters, underpaid, and
deprived of all liberty of speech and conscience. From
them nothing can be expected… the remedy is co-
operative organization by the consumers; that is,
by the students… In forming intellectual Soviets, and
establishing the Dictatorship of the Learner, the Ame-
rican students may save their country, if it is capable
of being saved. If not, they will at least learn something,
and perhaps teach something, in the ecstasy of demo-
lition. ”

In a speech made in Moscow in June, 1923, Zinovieff
(Chairman of The Young Communist International
Movement) said : — ” The Youth Movement is the
best section of the Communist International. ” 3

In further corroboration of the tendencies of this
organisation to an ” ecstasy of demolition “, Professor
George Leiken of the Volga region is further mentioned
in the pamphlet above referred to as saying : —
” When the Russian youth reaches the age of 12 the
so-called League of Communist Youth awaits him. This

2. R. M. Whitney, The Youth Movement in America.

3. See pamphlet issued by the Massachusetts Public Inte-
rest League, April, 1925.



organization accepts girls as well as boys and promptly
reduces them to a low state of moral corruption. The
institutions of marriage and home are ignored…

‘ Children are taught that they owe no obedience to
parents, that they need acknowledge no authority but
the Red Government. ”

” It was W. Z. Foster, one of Moscow’s cleverest
agents, who said : ‘ Communists get things done and
paid for by others. ‘ ”

The Youth Peace Federation founded in 1930 is
also to be found at 8 East 10th Street, New York. Orga-
nized in April 14 1930 at the residence oi Mr. and Mrs.
Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler this society was founded
at a mass meeting held under the auspices of “The
New History Society ” on April 5, 1931. It is the col-
lective name of the following associations : —

Civic Club, Junior Group;

International Club ;

League of Youth of Community Church ;
Methodist Epworth League, New York District ;
New York Committee of the Fellowship of Recon-
ciliation ;
Pioneer Youth of America;

Progressive Youth League of Bronx Free Fellowship ;
Seven Arts Club ;

The Peace Education Group of the Ethical Culture

Society of New York ;
Women’s International League for Peace and

Freedom (Junior Group);
Women’s Peace Society (Junior Group);
Young Caravan ;
Young Circle League ;
Young Judea ;

Young Peoples Fellowship of St. Philip’s Parish
(Senior; ;



Young Peoples Fellowship of St. Philip’s Parish
(Junior) ;

Young Peoples Group of the Ethical Culture Society,

Brooklyn, N. Y.
Young Peoples Socialist League of Greater New

Young Poale Zion;

Youth Section of the War Resisters League. ” 4

The above organization is that familiar to any busi-
ness man of a Holding Corporation in which are joined
subsidiary companies.

Basing our deductions on the foregoing articles in
this book we conclude that the secret objectives of
this corporation may be :

Disarmament of all countries except Russia in order
to facilitate the rule of the World by the International
Jewish Super-Capitalist Group now dominating Russia
with the Red Army under its control, and the end of

A basic principle of war strategy is to have your
enemy unprepared for assault.

The Massachusetts Public Interest League warns us
that :

” The Youth Movement is using American Youth
as a pawn in the Communist game.

The real menace of the movement in this country
(America) lies in the fact that it is revolutionary propa-
ganda in romantic disguise subtly preaching to imma-
ture youth the ecstasy of demolition of the foundations
of civilization. ”

4. Peace Militant, published by The New History Foundation
New York City.



(Founded 1930)

The Internationalization of finance reached its
apotheosis when, on April 23 1930 the International
Bank at Basle, commissioned to enrol the central banks
of nine nations in its membership, was founded.

As for the delegates from the different countries
attending the meeting their names signify little for,
owing to the speed and unanimity with which official
appointments were made, it is evident that they were
all instructed, or, in other words pledged, to obey
orders. By whom were the orders given ? History may
answer that question some day!

Mr. Gates McGarrah was elected chairman of the
board of directors with Mr. Leon Frazer his deputy
and Sir Charles Addis and Dr. Melchior were elected

The significance of this international institution was
commented upon in an article entitled ” Mammon
being enthroned” by ” Arthurian” in the Referee
dated Sunday, April 13, 1930, in the following terms
which, while constituting a warning to the English
people, is actually an appeal to the people of the world.

” One is amazed at the equanimity with which
Sir Charles Addis describes the difficulty of enabling




the Bank for International Settlements to avoid inter-
ference with the Sovereign Rights of the people of
each of so many countries ! Surely the possibility alone
ought to be adequate condemnation of the bank. The
opening for chicanery, brute force, bribery, corrup-
tion and war, in the supposed solution of this problem,

is unprecedented in the history of the world

” The Bank is to exist for fifty years, if it can ; it
is to pay no taxes during all that time ; and its assets
and deposits are to be immune from seizure, confis-
cation, and censorship, in peace or war ; it is also to
be subject to no restriction or prohibition of any kind
on its imports and exports of gold or currency. So
little do Government decisions regarding the Bank
really count that, before the scheme has been sanc-
tioned, the first part of the subscription has already
been subscribed . The Bankers and business men to
be associated are to ensure that there will be no uncer-
tainty about the business that the Bank will promote,
the ‘ money troubles which lie at the root’ of the
industrial depression and financial uncertainty are,
of course, going to be cured by them — so they say.
The Governor of the Bank of England (Mr Montagu
Norman) is going to be a director of this foreign Bank.
What an honour ! This Board, with the daily lives of
hundreds of millions of people at its mercy, is going
to meet at least ten times a year — four times at Basle…
‘The Bank owes allegiance to no single Government. ‘
It need keep no currency reserve…

“This Bank that owes no allegiance to anyone can
do as it likes,…. Mammon is enthroned upon the world,
to make what profits it can, with unrestricted powers,
for fifty years ! In addition to its extraordinary powers,
it has control of the ‘ Machinery of Reparations ‘
which contains the means by which the wherewithal



to liquidate Reparations can be squeezed out of the
receivers at a profit to the payers . Economic control
involves political control as well as every other control
of any people. Truly, the megalomania of finance never
went further, truly, there has never been anything
like it in the world before

” People of England ! Remember how the strangle-
hold of the Rank of England on all the other banks,
on all the other financial houses, upon every business
and upon every home and family has grown from the
comparatively negligible sum of £1,200,000 of similar
credit free of interest and the ‘ usufruct’ thereof. This
new usufruct will be the impoverishment, debasement,
extinction, and disintegration of all that the masses of
this country care for, and the certain decline and fall and
redistribution, into foreign hands, of the Rritish Empire…

” In this country we have asked for the creation of
interest-free credit to be lent to the people to be used
for the production of wealth by and for the people,
but by a great conspiracy of silence the idea is being
suppressed. The hidden prize is not intended for us.
Only those who have been swindled on a race-course
by three-card trick men can realize what is now being
done to all the peoples of the Allied countries by a
debased money and credit-upon-credit trick, the like
of which has never been attempted in the world before…

” The alleged £ 80,000,000 per annum that Germany
is supposed to pay to the United States for fifty-nine
years is a delusion and a snare. Rut the aim of the sec-
tion of Wall Street repudiated by President Hoover,
which initially promoted the idea of the Plan (The
Young Plan), is that, through Germany, this section of
Wall Street shall dominate the world. ”

Note : Compare with The Protocols, (L. Fry, op. cit.)


The foregoing pages have had for object to show
how, whether open or secret, a great many societies,
masonic and non-masonic, of good or evil intent, seem
to function towards the same goal under centralized

This book claims to be an endeavour to prove that: —

1 — Owing to their union, all secret societies, whether

political, philanthropic or occult in appearance,
serve a political purpose unknown to the majo-
rity of their members.

2 — The power wielded by such societies is real and

its character is international.

3 — Regardless of their exoteric objects, the esoteric

aims of most societies are all directed towards
the same end — namely : the concentration of
political, economic and intellectual power into
the hands of a small group of individuals, each
of whom controls a branch of the International
life, material and spiritual, of the world today.

The main branches thus controlled are : —

1 — The International Banking Groups and their

2 — International, industrial and commercial control
groups with their interlocking directorates.



3 — Education, Art, Literature, Science, and Religion.

as vehicles of intellectual and moral perversion.

4 — The Groups already organized throughout diffe-

rent countries for the study of International
affairs political, financial and economic.

5 — The International Press, the medium used to

mould public opinion.

6 — The Political party organizations of each nation,

whether conservative, liberal, radical, socialist
etc. existing in every country with parliamen-
tary administration.

7 — Internationally organized corruption, the white-

slave traffic, vice and drug-rings, etc.

Any one of the branches above enumerated has
innumerable ramifications and the control of even the
least of them cannot be obtained without money.
Money therefore becomes one of the most powerful levers
in the hands of men who form the controlling groups.
Thus does research in the realm of Finance become
indispensable to the students bent upon tracing the
real power behind universal control. This power, they
will find, is wholly in the hands of international Jewish

Glancing at the body frame of all political organiza-
tions, do we not perceive that money is its main sinew ?
It would not sound preposterous to state that the elec-
toral system is similar to that of auction, insomuch as
it favours the highest bidder. In election campaigns,
the successful candidate is not necessarily the most
deserving or worthy of votes, but too frequently he
who was able to buy the greater number of votes. Votes
are captured by slogans, propaganda and, not unfre-
quently, bribery. Only an infinitesimal percentage
among them will ever strive to find out the power or



powers behind the candidate, and by whom he is, in
effect, controlled.

Yet the importance of such an investigation is both
obvious and necessary, for it is a proven fact that can-
didates to parliament in one country have sometimes
been controlled by a man, or group of men, in another
country inimical to their own.

If political control is international it must of neces-
sity be subversive of patriotism. If it holds in its power
the reckless forces of Socialism and Communism, it
must be subversive of social order and the promoter
of revolution.

If spiritual control is anti-christian, Gnostic and
occult, it must be subversive of Christianity and Reli-
gion. If it directs vice rings of all kinds, it must aim at
the destruction of the moral, intellectual and physical
strength of the human Race.

If, in conclusion, Finance is Power and as such is
concentrated in one point, it is the arbiter of War and
Peace, Life and Death, Welfare and Wretchedness,
Prosperity and Ruin.

Everything and, it is sad to say, almost everybody,
has a price and can be bought though not always with
money. Men who to-day wield financial power have,
long since based their system of purchase on this
axiom. Far be it from us to suggest that there are no
idealists in every walk of life for whom the pursuit of
either patriotism, religious mysticism or philanthropy
is unadulterated. On the contrary, we shall go as far
as to say that such people become the best tools in the
hands of plotters by whom they are led to believe that
disinterested material help will be given them for the
attainment of their ideals or aims. The study of secret
revolutionary societies will show many examples of
remarkable cases of self sacrifice on the part of genuine



idealists. Subversives of either religious, social and
political order have ever known how to make use of
such people by instilling into them the super religion
of the secret.

It is against this ” secret ” that the fight should be
waged. If the aims of secret societies are good, one
fails to see the need for their secret oaths and initia-
tions. The “light ” they promise should, like the sun,
shine upon everyone.

To use the words of Christ : ” Who lighteth a candle
and putteth it under a bushel ? ”

Masonic and secret societies need light.

Hence, Light should be thrown upon them from
without that their secrets may be revealed.

As to ” Toleration ” — indiscriminate toleration
preached at random, it should be considered one of
the exoteric bases upon which are erected subversive

Recognizing as they do the practical power of
thought, sects induce their novices to surrender their
use of this power whose normal function, guided by
the individual conscience, is to discriminate between
good and evil in order to oppose the latter. Thus they
create a dangerous negative state of mind as opposed
to the Christian or positive. The individual when robbed
of his initiative can easily be swayed and guided by
the will of others. Therein resides the power of hyp-
notism and in this wise the shibboleth of ” toleration ”
which, in fact, paralyses opposition to evil, serves an
esoteric purpose suspected by few.

If the contents of this book may help in safe-
guarding the young and the unwary against falling into
the pitfalls set by agents of subversive sects, its author
will not have laboured in vain.

The work is far from being completed. It claims, in



fact, to be only an attempt in the direction of inexhaus-
tible research work upon the coordination of the aims
of all societies whether political or occult. It is to be
hoped that others, and may they be many, will begin
work where this book ends for —

” The harvest is great indeed but the labourers are few ”


ABAFI, LUDWIG, Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Oesterreich-

Ungarn, 1899.
Adriano Lemmi, DOMENICO MARGIOTTA 33°, 1894.
AHMADIYYAH SECT : Chief Publications are
The Islamic Review, pub. at London
The Sun of Islam, » » Lahore

The Light, » » Lahore

Aim able, Louis, La R L Les Xeuf Sceurs.

Al Capone, FRED D. PASLEY.

Analysis of Magic and Witchcraft (An), C. W. OLLIVER, 1928.
Annotations on the Sacred “Writings of the Hindus, EDWARD

SELLON, 1902. (Printed for Private Circulation).
Anstifter (Der) des Weltkrieges by Friedrich Wichte, 1918,

Arabia, Adventures in, W. B. SEABROOK.
Arcane Schools (The), JOHN YARKER.
Assassins, History of, VON HAMMER.
Astrologica Bulletina, 1931, No. 192. (Periodical).
BAILEY, ALICE A., Initiation Human and Solar, 1922.
BARRUEL, Histoire du Jacobinisme, 1819.
BATAILLE, Le Diable au xix e siecle.
Batailles Maconniques, FERNAND PIGNATEL.

BLANC, HIPPOLYTE, Le Merveilleux dans le Jansenisme, le Magne-
tisme, etc.

BLANCHARD, 33rd Scotch Rite Illustrated, 1915.

— 33rd Knight Templarism Illustrated, 1915.
BOULAIN, ABBE PAUL, L’Elue du Dragon, 1929.
CAILLET, EMILE, La Prohibition de l’Occulte.
CALMEIL, L. F., De la Folie.

Moslem Sunrise,
Moslemische Review,
Revue Islamique,




» Chicago
» Berlin
» Mauritius




Carbonari Conspiracy of Belfort and La Rochelle.
CARLILE, RICHARD, Manual of Freemasonry.
CHACORNAC, PAUL, Eliphas Levi, 1926.

CHEREP-SPIRIDOVICH, Maj. Gen. Count, The Secret World Govern

ment or ” The Hidden Hand “, 1926.
Christian Science Journal, MARY BAKER EDDY. (Periodical).
Churches of Christ in America, Origin and History of the Federal

Council of, ELIAS B. SANFORD.

— See also Tainted Contacts, SANCTUARY, E. M,
Clef (La) des Grands Mysteres, ELIPHAS LEVI, 1861.
Complete Manual of Oddfellows, 1879.
Crispi, le 33°, DIANA VAUGHAN.

— Francesco, Memoirs of, THOMAS PALAMENGHI-CRISPI, 2 vols.
(Translation), 1922.

CROWLEY, ALEISTER, Magick, Paris, 1930.

DAKIN, EDWIN FRANDEN, Mrs Eddy, New-York, 1929.

DAVID-NEEL, ALEXANDRA, Initiations Lamaiques, 1930.

— Mystiques et Magiciens du Thibet, 1930.
DAWSON, RICHARD, Red Terror and Green.

DE LA HODDE, Histoire des Societes Secretes, 1850.
DE LA RIVE, La Femme et I’Enfant dans la Franc-Maconnerie

Devil Worship in France, A. E. WAITE, 1896.

Diable (Le) au xix e siecle, BATAILLE.

Dictionary of Universal Biography, HYAMSON.

Discourse (A) upon the Theology and Mythology of the Antients

in the Travels of Cyrus, CHEVALIER DE RAMSAY, 1728.
Disraeli, The Alien Patriot, E. T. RAYMOND, 1926.
Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, ELIPHAS LEVI, 1860.

East (The) in the Light of the West, RUDOLPH STEINER, (Trans-
lation) 1922.
EDDY, MARY BAKER, Science of Health.

— Christian Science Journal. Periodical.
Eddy, Mary Baker, Life of, SYBIL WILDER.

— Mrs Eddy, EDWIN FRANDEN DAKIN, New-York, 1929.
L’Elue du Dragon, 1929. ABBE PAUL BOULAIN.

Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry (Ars Magna Latomorum) and of
Cognate Instituted Mysteries : Their Rites, Literature and
History, The New, 2 vols. A. E. WAITE, P. M., P. Z., 1921.

— The Jewish.

— of Religions and Ethics, HASTINGS, 1918.

— of Religious Knowledge, SCHAFF HERZOG.



L’Ennemie Sociale, PAUL ROSEN 33°.

Entente Freimaurerei und Veltkrieg, CARL HEISE, 1919.

Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists compared, BISHOP LAVING-

TON, London, 1751.
Equinox (The) Periodical.

Fabian Society, History of The, EDWARD R. PEASE, London, 1925.
Fakirisme (Le) et les Yogas, SEDIR, 2 e Edition, 1911.
Fils des Dieux (Les), Louis JACOLLIOT, 1873.

Finished Mystery (The), CHARLES TAZE RUSSELL, Brooklyn, 1918.
Folie (De la), L. F. CALMEIL.

Franc-mafonnerie allemande. Les Illumines de Baviere et la,

— Batailles maconniques, FERNAND PIGNATEL.

— La Femme et l’Enfant dans la, DE LA RIVE.

— universelle. Le Culte de la Nature dans la, DOMENICO


— L’Ordre des Francs-Macons trahi et le secret des Mopses

revele. Published at Amsterdam, 1763.
(see also Freemasonry)
Freemasonry and the Anti-Christian Movement, Rev. E. CAHILL,
S. J., 1930.

— Encyclopaedia of, KENNING, 1878.

— Exposed, Capt. WILLIAM MORGAN, 1826.

— History of, ROBERT FREKE GOULD, 1887.

— Irish and English Freemasons and their Foreign Brothers,


— Lexicon of, MORRIS.


— New Encyclopaedia of, A. E. WAITE.

— The Speculative Mason. Periodical, 1927.

— Universal, The Official Journal of the Order of Universal

Co-Masonry (British Jurisdiction), 1929.
(see also Masons and Franc-maconnerie)
FROST, THOMAS, Secret Societies of the European Revolution

1776-1876, 2 vols.
Fruits of Anthroposophy, GEORGE KAUFMANN, 1922.
FRY, L. Waters Flowing Eastward, 1931.
Gambetta — Life and Letters, P. B. GHEUSI.

DI GARGANO, MICHAEL, Irish and English Freemasons and their

Foreign Brothers.
Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Oesterreich-Ungarn, LUDWIG

ABAFI, 1899.
GHEUSI, P. B., Gambetta — Life and Letters.

GIOLITTI, GIOVANNI, Memoirs of my Life, Translated by Edward
Storer, 1923.

GOULD, ROBERT FREKE, History of Freemasonry, 1887.



GRAETZ, H. History of the Jews.

Grand Mystic Temple (The), JOHN YARKER.

Grand Orient (Histoire du), Published at Rennes, 1865.

GUENON, RENE, Le Theosophisme, 1921.

HANNAY, The Rise and Fall of the Roman Religion, 1925.

HASTINGS, Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics, 1918.

HECKETHORN, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, 1875.

HEISE, CARL, Entente Freimaurerei und Veltkrieg, 1919.

HIGGINS, GODFREY, Anacalypsis.

HUDSON, THOMAS JAY, The Law of Psychic Phenomena, 1894.
Hung Society (The), J. S. WARD AND W. G. STERLING.
HUNOLSTEIN, Count VOGT D’, Unpublished Letters of Marie

Antoinette, 1864.
HYAMSON, Dictionary of Universal Biography.
Illumines : Dom Pernety et les Illumines d’Avignon, MARC DE

— Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc-ma§onnerie allemande,

Initiation Human and Solar, ALICE A. BAILEY, 1922.
Initiations Lamaiques, ALEXANDRA D A VID-NEEL, 1930.
” INQUIRE WITHIN “, Light-bearers of Darkness, 1930.
International, The Secret History of The, ONSLOW YORKE.
Ireland — A Catspaw, ELIZABETH LAZENBY, 1928.
Irish and English Freemasons and their Foreign Brothers, MICHAEL

(See also Secret Societies)
Italy, The making of Modern, ARRIGO SOLMI.
J. I. W. Universal Co-Masonry ; What is it ? n. d.
Jacobinisme (Histoire du), BARRUEL, 1819.
JACOLLIOT, LOUIS, Les Fils de Dieu, 1873.

— Occult Science in India, 1919.

JENNINGS, HARGRAVE, The Rosicrucians, their Rites and
Mysteries, n. d.

— The Letters of, Edited by ” Invictus “, 1895.
Jewish Encyclopaedia.

Jews (History of The), H. GRAETZ.

JOLY, MAURICE, Son passe, son programme. (Autobiography).
JONES, D. The Secret History of White-Hall.
KAUFMANN, GEORGE, Fruits of Anthroposophy, 1922.
KENNING, Cyclopaedia of Masonry and Handbook of Masonic

Archaeology, History and Biography, Edited by Rev. A. F. A.

Woodford, M. A., P. G. C. of England, 1878.
Knight Templarism (33rd) Illustrated, BLANCHARD, 1915:
Koran (The).

KRAMARSH, DR. KARL, Der Anstifter des Weltkrieges, bv Friedrich
Wichte, 1918.



Ku-Klux Klan (The), Hearings before The Committee on Rules,
House of Representatives, Sixty-seventh Congress, U. S. A.,

LAFONT, G. DE, Le Mazdeisme, LAvesta, 1897.
LASKI, HAROLD J., The Socialist Tradition in the French Revo-
lution, 1930.

LAVINGTON, BISHOP, The Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists
compared, 1751.

— The Moravians compared and detected, 1755.
LAZENBY, ELIZABETH, Ireland — A Catspaw, 1928.

LE FORESTIER, R., Les Illumines de Baviere et la Franc-Macon-

nerie allemande, 1915.
LENIENT, C, La Satire en France au Moyen-Age.
LEVI, ELIPHAS, La Science des Esprits, 1865.

— Transcendental Magic, Its Doctrine and Ritual, Translated

by A. E. Waite, 1923.

— La Clef des Grands Mysteres, 1861.

— Histoire de la Magie, 1860.

— Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, 1860.
Levi, Eliphas, 1810-1875, PAUL CHACORNAC, 1926.
Light-bearers of Darkness, ” INQUIRE WITHIN “, 1930.
LITTLE AND WOODMAN, ” The Rosicrucian ” .

MACKEY, Lexicon of Freemasonry.

MADDEN, R. R., F. R. C. S. ENG. Phantasmata, or Illusion and
Fanaticisms of Protean Forms Productive of Great Evils, 2 vols.,

Magic and Witchcraft, An Analysis of, C. W. OLLIVER, 1928.
Magic, Transcendental, Its Doctrine and Ritual, ELIPHAS LEVI,

Magie (Histoire de la), ELIPHAS LEVI, 1860.
MARGIOTTA 33°, DOMENICO, Adriano Lemmi, 1894.

— Le Culte de la Nature dans la Franc-Maconnerie Univer-


Marie-Antoinette, Unpublished Letters of, COUNT VOGT D’HU-

Martines de Pasqually, PAPUS (DR. ENCAUSSE).
MARTIN, STUART, The Mystery of Mormonism.

Masonry and Handbook of Masonic Archaeology, History and

Biography, Cyclopaedia of, KENNING, 1878.
Masons, History of the Antient and Honorable Fraternity of

Free and Accepted, STILLSON and HUGHAN, 1891.
MAYO, KATHERINE, Why I wrote Mother India.
Mazdeisme (Le), LAvesta, G. DE LAFONT, 1897.



Mazzini, Joseph, Lettres intimes de, D. MELEGARI, 1895.
MELEGARI, D., Lettres intimes de Joseph Mazzini, 1895.
Memoirs of my Life, GIOVANNI GIOLTTI, 1925.
Mendelssohn, Moses, Memoirs of, SAMUELS.
Merveilleux (Le), HIPPOLYTE BLANC, 1865.

MOEHLEN, J. A., D. D., Symbolism, Translated by James

Mopses, See Franc-Maconnerie.

Moravians (The) compared and detected, BISHOP LAVINGTON

MORGAN, Capt. WILLIAM MORGAN, Freemasonry Exposed, 1826.
Mormonism, The Mystery of, STUART MARTIN.

MURRAY, MARGARET ALICE, The Witch-Cult in Western Europe

Muscling In, FRED. D. PASLEY.

Mvstiques et Magiciens du Thibet, ALEXANDRA DAVID-NEEL

NETCHVOLODOW, Lt. Gen. A., Nicolas II et les Juifs, 1924.
Nicolas II et les Juifs, Lt. Gen. A. NETCHVOLODOW, 1924.
O’BRIEN, R. BARRY, The Autobiography of Wolfe Tone, 1893.
Occultism : Occult Science in India, Louis JACOLLIOT, 1919.

— Traite Elementaire de Science Occulte, PAPUS (D r EN-


(See also Magic and Magie).
Occult Science in India, Louis JACOLLIOT, 1919.
Oddfellows. The Complete Manual of, 1879.
ODEGARD, PETER, Pressure Politics, 1928.
OLLIVER, C. W., An Analysis of Magic and Witchcraft, 1928.
L’Ordre des Francs-Macons trahi et le Secret des Mopses revele,

Published at Amsterdam, 1763.
Oriflamme (The) (The German Organ of Ancient Order of Oriental


PALAMENGHI-CRISPI, THOMAS, Memoirs of Francesco Crispi, 2 vols.

(Translation), 1922.
PAPUS (DR. ENCAUSSE), Marlines de Pasqually,

— Traite Elementaire de Science Occulte.
PASLEY, FRED. D., Muscling In.

— — Al Capone.

PEASE, EDWARD R., History of The Fabian Society, 1925.
PECKHAM, 33°, WM. H., The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite

in the United States of America, 1884.
PIGNATEL, FERNAND, Batailles Maconniques.

Phantasmata, or Illusions and Fanaticisms of Protean Forms
Productive of Great Evils, R. R. MADDEN, F. R. C. S. Eng.,
2 vols., 1857.

POLLARD, Captain H. B. C, The Secret Societies of Ireland, 1922.



PONCINS, Vicomte LEON DE, The Secret Powers behind the Revo-
lution, 1930.

Potted Biographies, A Dictionary of Anti-NATioNAL Biography

Pressure Politics, PETER ODEGARD, 1928.

Prohibition Amendment (The), Hearings before the Committee
on the Judiciary House of Representatives, Seventy-first Con
gress, on H. J. Res. 11, 38, 99, 114, 219 and 246, 1930.

Prohibition (La) de l’Occulte, EMILE CAILLET.

Protocols of The Meetings of The Learned Elders of Zion, set
Waters Flowing Eastward, L. FRY.

Psychic Phenomena, The Law of, THOMAS JAY HUDSON, 1894.

RAMSAY, Chev. DE, A Discourse upon the Theology and Myth-
ology of the Antients in The Travels of Cyrus, 1728.

RAYMOND, E. T., Disraeli, The Alien Patriot, 1926.

Recognition of Russia. Hearings before a Subcommittee of The
Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, 68th
Congress, Senate Resolution 50, 1924.

Reds in America, R. M. WHITNEY, 1924.

Red Terror and Green, RICHARD DAWSON.

Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Periodical.

Revue Philosophique Mensuelle (Periodical dealing with Sufism.
Feb. 1926).

R .-. L .’. Les Neuf Sceurs, Louis AIMABLE.

Roman Religion, The Rise and Fall of the, HANNAY, 1925.

Rose-Croix (Histoire des), SEDIR, 1910.

— F. WITTEMANS, 1925.

ROSEN 33°, PAUL, Satan et C ie , 1888.

— L’Ennemie Sociale.

ROSICRUCIAN : The ” Rosicrucian ” Quarterly Record of the Society’s
Transactions, edited by Frater ROBERT WENTWORTH LITTLE
(S. M.), Master General, and Frater WILLIAM ROBERT WOODMAN.
British Museum Press Mark 4782-h 22.

Rosicrucian and Masonic Record, Periodical.

Rosicrucians and their Mysteries, HARGRAVE JENNINGS.



— The Finished Mystery, 1918.

Sacred Writings of the Hindus, Annotations on, SELLON, 1902

(Printed for Private Circulation).
SAMUELS, Memoirs of Moses Mendelssohn.
SANCTUARY, E. M. Tainted Contacts, 1931.

SANFORD, ELIAS B., Origin and History of the Federal Council of

the Churches of Christ in America.
Satan et C ic , PAUL ROSEN 33°, 1888.
Satire (La) en France au Moyen-Age, C. LENIENT.



SCHAFF HERZOG, The Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge.

Science (La) des Esprits, ELIPHAS LEVI, 1865.

Science of Health, MARY BAKER EDDY.

Scotch Rite (33rd) Illustrated, BLANCHARD, 1915.

Scottish Rite, The Ancient and Accepted, in the United States

WM. H. PECKHAM 33°, 1884.
SEARROOK, W. B., Adventures in Arabia.

Secret History of the ” International” Working Men’s Association
ONSLOW YORKE (WM. HEPWORTH DIXON), 1921. (First published!
in 1872).

Secret History of White-Hall, D. JONES.

Secret Powers behind the Revolution, Vicomte LEON DE PONCINS

Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, NESTA H. WEBSTER

— of all Ages and Countries, HECKETHORN, 1876.
of the European Revolution, 1776-1876, THOMAS-
FROST, 1876.

— – of Ireland, Captain H. B. C. POLLARD, 1922.

(See also Societes secretes).
SEDIR, Histoire des Rose-Croix, 1910.

— Le Fakirisme Hindou et les Yogas, 2 e edition, 1911.
SELLON, EDWARD, Annotations on the Sacred Writings of the


Sketches of Imposture, Deception and Credulity, 1836.
Socialist Network (The), NESTA H. WEBSTER.
Socialist Tradition in the French Revolution (The), HAROLD
J. LASKI, 1930.

Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, History of the, WM. WYNN

Societes Secretes, Histoire des, DE LA HODDE, 1850.

— Revue Internationale des, Periodical.

(See also Secret Societies).
SOLMI, ARRIGO, The Making of Modern Italy.
Son passe, son programme, MAURICE JOLY (Autobiography).
Speculative Mason, Periodical (July 1927).

STEINER, RUDOLPH, Ph. D., The East in the Light of the West

(Translation), 1922.
STILLSON and HUGHAN, History of the Ancient and Honorable

Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons and Concordant

Orders, 1890.

Sonfisme, Revue Philosophique Mensuelle (Periodical).
SUMMERS, M. History of Witchcraft and Demonology, 1926.
Surrender of an Empire (The), NESTA H. WEBSTER.
Swedenborg, Emanuel, The Spiritual Columbus, U. S. E.



Symbolism, J. A. MOEHLEN, D. D.
Talmud (The).

Tainted Contacts — Being a compilation of facts of the personnel
and activities of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in
America, E. M. SANCTUARY, 1931.

Templarism: Knight Templarism (33rd) Illustrated, BLANCHARD,

— The Oriflamme, The German Organ of Ancient Order of

Oriental Templars.
Theosophisme (Le), RENE GUENON, 1921.
Theosophist (Periodical).

Torchbearers, Published by The New History Society.

Traite Element aire de Science Occulte, PAPUS (DR. ENCAUSSE).

Universal Co-Masonry : What is it ? J. I. W. n. d.

U. S. E. Emanuel Swedenborg, The Spiritual Columbus.

VAUGHAN, DIANA, Diana Vaughan, 1896.

— Le 33° Crispi.

Vaughan, Thomas, The Works of, A. E. WAITE.

YISSAC, MARC DE, Dom Pernety et les Illumines d’Avigncn.

VON HAMMER, History of the Assassins.

WAITE, A. E., The Works of Thomas “Vaughan.

— Devil Worship in France, 1896.

— New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry. (See under Encyclo-

paedia for full title).
WARD and STERLING, The Hung Society.
Waters Flowing Eastward, L. FRY, 1931.

WEBSTER, NESTA H., Secret Societies, and Subversive Move-

— The Socialist Network.

— The Surrender of an Empire.

— World Revolution, 1921.

WESTCOTT, WM. WYNN, History of The Societas Rosicruciana in

Anglia, 1900.
WHITNEY, R. M., Reds in America, 1924.

— The Youth Movement in America.

Why I wrote Mother India, KATHERINE MAYO.
WILBER, SYBIL, The Life of Mary Baker Eddy.

Witch-Cult in Western Europe (The), MARGARET ALICE MURRAY,

Witchcraft and Demonology, The History of, MONTAGUE SUMMERS,

WITTEMANS, F., Histoire des Rose-Croix, 1925.
Wolfe Tone, The Autobiography of, R. BARRY O’BRIEN,

World Revolution (The), NESTA H. WEBSTER, 1921.



YARKER, JOHN, The Arcane Schools.

— The Grand Mystic Temple.

” The International ” Working Men’s Association, 1921 (First

published in 1872).


From Volume III, Number I

The Official Organ of the A.*. A.-

(Great White Brotherhood) 2
The Official Organ of the 0. T. 0.
(Ordo Templi Orientis or Order of the Golden Dawn)

An XV Vol. III. Number I 0 in r

The Universal Publishing Company
57, Grand River avenue.

Detroit. Michigan.

Manifesto of the 0. T. 0.

Peace, Tolerance, Truth ;
Salutation on all, points of the Triangle ;
Respect to the order to all whom it may concern ;
Greeting and health.

Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.

1. The 0. T. 0. is a body of initiates in whose hands are
concentrated the wisdom and the knowledge of the follow-
ing bodies : —

1. Op. cit., p. 197.

2. Esoteric name is ” Atlantean Adepts “.




1. The Gnostic Catholic Church.

2. The Order of the Knights of the Holy Ghost.

3. The Order of the Illuminati.

4. The Order of the Temple (Knights Templar).

5. The Order of the Knights of St. John.

6. The Order of the Knights of Malta.

7. The Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre.

8. The Hidden Church of the Holy Graal.

9. The Hermetic Brotherhood of Light.

10. The Holy Order of Rose Croix of Heredom.

11. The Order of the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch.

12. The Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry (33 degrees).

13. The Rite of Memphis (97 degrees).

14. The Rite of Mizraim (90 degrees).

15. The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry

(33 degrees)

16. The Swedenborgian Rite of Masonry.

17. The Order of the Martinists.

18. The Order of the Sat Bhai, and many other orders of

equal merit, if of less fame.

It does not include the A. – . A. – ., with which august body
it is however, in close alliance.

It does not in any way infringe the just privileges of duly
authorized Masonic Bodies.

2. The dispersion of the original secret wisdom having led
to confusion, it was determined by the Chiefs of all these
Orders to recombine and centralize their activities, even as
white light, divided in a prism, may be recomposed.

It embodies the whole of the secret knowledge of all Oriental
Orders ; and its chiefs are initiates of the highest rank, and
recognized as such by all capable of such recognition in
every country in the world.

In more remote times the constituent origination assem-
blies of the O. T. O. included such men as — Siddartha,
Krishna, Simon Magus, Basilides, Paracelsus and Jacob



And recently : —

Wolfgang von Goethe
Sir Richard Payne Knight
Sir Richard Francis Burton
Furlong Dux

Ludovicus Rex Bavariae
Richard Wagner
Ludwig von Fischer

Friedrich Nietzsche
Hargrave Jennings
Karl Kellner
Eliphas Levi
Franz Hartmann
Cardinal Rampolla
Papus (Dr. Encausse).

The names of women members are never divulged.
It is not lawful here to disclose the name of any living

It was Karl Kellner who revived the exoteric organiza-
tion of the 0. T. 0. and initiated the plan now happily com-
plete of bringing all occult bodies again under one gover-

The letters 0. T. 0. represent the words Ordo Templi
Orientis (Order of the Temple of the Orient, or Oriental
Templars), but they have also a secret meaning for initiates.

3. The Order is international, and has existing branches
in every civilized country of the world.

4. The aims of the 0. T. 0. can only be understood fully
by its highest initiates ; but it may be said openly that it
teaches Hermetic Science or Occult Knowledge, the Pure
and Holy Magick of Light, the Secrets of Mystic attainment,
Yoga of all forms, Gnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, Bhakta Yoga
and Hatha Yoga, and all other branches of the secret Wis-
dom of the Ancients.

In its bosom repose the Great Mysteries ; its brain has
resolved all the problems of philosophy and of life.

It possesses the secret of the Stone of the Wise, of the
Elixir of Immortality, and of the Universal Medicine.

Moreover, it possesses a Secret capable of realizing the
world-old dream of the Brotherhood of Man.

It also possesses in every important centre of population a
hidden Retreat (Collegium ad Spiritum Sanctum) where
members may conceal themselves in order to pursue the
Great Work without hindrance.



These houses are secret fortresses of Truth, Light, Power
and Love, and their position is only disclosed under an oath
of secrecy to those entitled to make use of them.

They are also temples of true worship, specially conse-
crated by Nature to bring out of a man all that is best in

5. The authority of the 0. T. 0. is concentrated in the
0. H. 0. (Outer Head of the Order), or Frater Superior.

The name of the Person occupying this office is never
disclosed except to his immediate representatives.

6. The Authority of the 0. H. 0. in all English-speaking
countries is delegated by charter to the Most Holy, Most
Illustrious, Most Illuminated and Most Puissant Baphomet X°,
Rex Summus Sanctissimus, 33°, 90°, 96°, Past Grand Master
of the United States of America, Grand Master of Ireland,
Iona, and All the Britains, Grand Master of the Knights of
the Holy Ghost, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Order
of the Temple, Most Wise Sovereign of the Order of the Rosy
Cross, Grand Zerubbabel of the Order of the Holy Royal
Arch of Enoch, etc., etc., National Grand Master General
ad vitam of the O. T. O.

7. The National Grand Master General ad vitam is assisted
by two principal officers, the Grand Treasurer General and
the Grand Secretary General.

There are many other officers, but they do not concern
those to whom the present manifesto is addressed.

8. The whole of the Knowledge dispersed among the
bodies mentioned in paragraph 2 has been sifted and con-
centrated in the following degrees.

0° Minerval.
1° M.
IF M..

imF m…

P.-. ML.

IV s Companion of the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch.
Prince of Jerusalem.
Knight of the East and of the West.



V° Sovereign Prince of Rose Croix. (Knight of the
Pelican and Eagle.)
Member of the Senate of Knight Hermetic.
Philosophers Knights of the Red Eagle.
VI 0 Illustrious Knight (Templar) of the Order of Kadosch,
and Companion of the Holy Graal.
Grand Inquisitor Commander, Member of the Grand

Prince of the Royal Secret.
VII 0 Very Illustrious Sovereign Grand Inspector General

Member of the Supreme grand Council.
VIII 0 Perfect Pontiff of the Illuminati.
IX 0 Initiate of the Sanctuary of the Gnosis.
X° Rex Summus Sanctissimus (Supreme and Most Holy

9. Every man or woman that is of full age, free, and of
good report, has an indefeasible right to the III 0 .

Beyond this, admission is only granted by invitation from
the governing bodies concerned.

The O. T. O., although an Academia Masonica, is not a
Masonic Body so far as the ” secrets ” are concerned in the
sense in which that expression is usually understood; and
therefore in no way conflicts with, or infringes the just
privileges of, the United Grand Lodge of England, or any
Grand Lodge in America or elsewhere which is recognized
by it.

10. Application for admission to the Order may be made
personally at headquarters, between the hours of Ten a. m.
and Twelve Noon on week-days, or by letter to the Grand
Secretary General. In the former case, applicants should be
provided with the Twenty Dollars entitling them to the
Third Degree ; in the latter, it should be enclosed with the

The First Annual Subscription is payable on taking the
Third Degree ; if this is taken after June 30 in any year, only
half the amount is due.

Subscriptions of old members are due on January 1, but



the Brother is considered in good standing, and he does not
lose his rights, if it is paid by March 1. Should he fail to dis-
charge his obligation by this date, he ceases ipso facto to
be a member of the Order, but may be reinstated on paying
arrears and Five Dollars extra. If his lapse extend to the
next year following, he can only be reinstated under special
conditions, and by the express consent in writing of the
National Grand Master General ad vitam.

11. The Constitution, Trust Deeds, Charters, Warrants
and all other documents, are exhibited to candidates on
their exaltations to the IV 0 , should they desire it.

12. Besides the free certificate of membership, special
diplomas for framing are granted to all members at a uni-
form price of Ten Dollars.

Special diplomas of the IX 0 , Twenty-five Dollars.

13. The privileges of members of the 0. T. 0. are very
numerous. These are the principal;

1° They have not only access to, but instruction in,
the whole body of hidden knowledge preserved in the
Sanctuary from the beginning of its manifestation.

In the lower grades the final secrets are hinted, and
conveyed in symbol, beneath veil, and through sacra-

In this way the intelligence of the initiate is called into
play, so that he who uses the knowledge of the lower
grades may be selected for invitation to the higher, where
all things are declared openly.

2° They become partakers of the current of Universal
Life in Liberty, Beauty, Harmony, and Love which
flames within the heart of the 0. T. 0, and the Light of
that august fraternity insensibly illuminates them and
more as they approach its central Sun.

3° They meet those persons most complemental to
their own natures, and find unexpected help and brother-
hood in the whole world whereever they may travel.

4° They obtain the right to sojourn in the secret
houses of the 0. T. 0., permanently or for a greater or



lesser period of the year according to their rank in the
Order ; or, in the case of those of the Fifth and lower
degrees, are candidates for invitation to these houses.

5° The Knowledge of the Preparation and Use of the
Universal Medicine is restricted to members of the IX 0 ;
but it may be administered to members of the VIII 0 and
VII° in special circumstances by favour of the National
Grand Masters General, and even in particular emergency
to members of lower degrees.

6° In the V° all members are pledged to bring immediate
and perfect relief to all distress of mind, body, or estate,
in which they may find any of their fellows of that degree.
In the higher degrees the Bonds of Fraternity are still
further strengthened. The Order thus affords a perfect
system of insurance against every misfortune or accident
of life.

7° Members of the IX become part proprietors of the
Estates and Goods of the Order, so that the attainment of
this degree implies a return with interest of the fees and
subscriptions paid.

8° The Order gives practical assistance in life to worthy
members of even its lower degrees, so that even if origi-
nally poor, they become well able to afford the compara-
tively high fees of the VIP, VIII 0 , and IX 0 .

On exaltation to the IV 0 each Companion may file an
account of his circumstances, and state in what direction
he requires help.

14. In selecting members for advancement, attention is
paid to their devotion to the Order, to their intelligence
in apprehending the nature of its teachings, to their zeal in
spreading the principles of the Order so far as they themselves
understand them, though always with the discretion inse-
parable from the due guarding of the secrets, and to all those
qualities of courage, honour, and virtue without which man
is not worthy of that name.

15. The 0. H. 0., is only known to members of the VIII°
and IX 0 .



The National Grand Master General ad vitam is not
approachable as such by any person who has not reached
the VP.

All communications should be addressed to the Grand
Secretary General, and all cheques drawn in favour of the
Grand Treasurer General.

Issued by Order

IX° Grand Secretary General.

All enquiries should be addressed to


Care of the Publishers of ” The Equinox “.

0. T. 0.
(Ordo Templi Orientis)


An Epistle of BAPHOMET to Sir GEORGE MAC-
NIECOWIE, Very Illustrious and Very Illuminated,
Pontiff and Epopt of the Areopagus of the VIII Degree
O. T. O. Grand Treasurer General, Keeper of the Golden
Book, President of the Committee of Publications of
the O. T. O.

Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.

It has been represented to UTS that some persons who
are worthy to join the 0. T. 0. consider the fees and sub-
scriptions rather high. This is due to your failure to explain
properly the great advantages offered by the Order. We
desire you therefore presently to note, and to cause to be
circulated throughout the Order, and among those of the
profane who may seem worthy to join it, these matters follow-
ing concerning the duties and the privileges of members
of the earlier degrees of the 0. T. 0. as regards material
affairs. And for convenience we shall classify these as per-
taining to the Twelve Houses of the Heaven, but also by




numbered clauses for the sake of such as understand not the
so-called Sciences of the Stars. First, therefore, concerning
the duties of the Brethren. Yet with our Order every duty
is also a privilege, so that it is impossible wholly to separate


Of the duties of Brethren.

First House

1. There is no law beyond Do what thou wilt. Yet it is
well for Brethren to study daily in the volume of the Sacred
Law, Liber Legis, for therein is much counsel concerning
this, how best they may carry out this will.

Second House

2. The private purse of every Brother should always be
at the disposal of any Brother who may be in need. But in
such a case it is a great mischief if the one ask, and the other
consent; for if the former be really in need, his pride is woun-
ded by his asking ; and if not, the door is opened to beggars
and impostors, and all manner of arrant knaves and rogues
such as are no true Brethren. But the Brother who is possessed
of this world’s goods should make it his business to watch
the necessity of all those Brethren with whom he may be
personally acquainted, anticipating their wants in so wise
and kindly and delicate a manner that it shall appear as if
it were the payment of a debt. And what help is given shall
be given with discretion, so that the relief may be permanent
instead of temporary.

3. All Brethren shall be exceedingly punctual in the pay-
ment of Lodge Dues. This is to take precedence of all other
calls upon the purse.




Third House

The Brethren shall be diligent in preaching the Law of
Thelema. In all writings they shall be careful to use the
prescribed greetings ; likewise in speech, even with stran-

5. They shall respond heartily to every summons of the
Lodge or Chapter to which they may belong, not lightly
making excuse.

6. Brethren should use every opportunity of assisting
each other in their tastes, businesses, or professions, whether
by direct dealing with Brethren in preference to others, or
as may suggest itself. It seems desirable, when possible, that
where two or more Brethren of the same Lodge are engaged
in the same work, they should seek to amalgamate the same
by entering into partnership. Thus in time great and power-
ful corporations may arise from small individual enterprisfs.

7. They shall be diligent in circulating all tracts, mani-
festos, and all other communications which the Order may
from time give out for the instruction or emancipation of
the profane.

8. They may offer suitable books and pictures to the Libra-
ries of the Profess-Houses of the Order.

Fourth House

9. Every Brother who may possess mines, land, or houses
more than he cam himself occupy, should donate part of
such mines or land, or one or more of such houses to the

10. Property thus given will be administered if he desire
it in his own interest, thus effecting a saving, since large
estates are more economically handled than small. But the
Order will use such property as may happen to lie idle for
the moment in such ways as it may seem good, lending an
unlet house (for example) to some Brother who is in need,
or allowing an unused hall to be occupied by a Lodge.



11. (Yet in view of the great objects of the Order, endow-
ment is welcome.)

12. Every Brother shall show himself solicitous of the
comfort and happiness of any Brother who may be old, attend-
ing not only to all material wants, but to his amusement, so
that his declining years may be made joyful.

Fifth Home

13. Every Brother shall seek constantly to give pleasure
to all Brethren with whom he is acquainted, whether by
entertainment or conversation, or in any other manner that
may suggest itself. It will frequently and naturally arise
that love itself springs up between members of the Order,
for that they have so many and so sacred interests in com-
mon. Such love is peculiarly holy, and is to be encouraged.

14. All children of Brethren arc to be considered as chil-
dren of the whole Order, and to be protected and aided in
every way by its members severally, as by its organization
collectively. No distinction is to be made with regard to
the conditions surrounding the birth of any child.

15. There is an especially sacred duty, which every Bro-
ther should fulfil, with regard to all children, those born
without the Order included. This duty is to instruct them in
the Law of Thelema, to teach them independence and free-
dom of thought and character, and to warn them that ser-
vility and cowardice are the most deadly diseases of the
human soul.

Sixth House

16. Personal or domestic attendants should be chosen
from among the members of the Order when possible, and
great tact and courtesy are to be employed in dealing with

17. They, on their part, will render willing and intelli-
gent service.

18. While in Lodge, and on special occasions, they are
to be treated as Brothers, with perfect equality ; such beha-



viour is undesirable during the hours of service, and familia-
rity, subversive as it is of all discipline and order, is to be
avoided by adopting a complete and marked change of man-
ner and address.

19. This applies to all persons in subordinate positions,
but not to the Brethren Servient in the Profess-Houses of
the Order, who, giving service without recompense, are to
be honoured as hosts.

20. In case of the sickness of any Brother, it is the duty
of all Brethren who know him personally to attend him, to
see that he want for nothing, and to report if necessary his
needs to the Lodge, or to Grand Lodge itself.

21. Those Brethren who happen to be doctors or nurses
will naturally give their skill and care with even more than
their customary joy in service.

22. All Brethren are bound by their fealty to offer their
service in their particular trade, business, or profession, to
the Grand Lodge. For example, a stationer will supply the
Grand Lodge with paper, vellum, and the like ; a bookseller
offer any books to the Library of Grand Lodge which the
Librarian may desire to possess ; a lawyer will execute any
legal business for Grand Lodge, and a railway or steamship
owner or director see to it that the Great Officers travel in
comfort wherever they may wish to go.

23. Visitors from other Lodges are to be accorded the
treatment of ambassadors ; this will apply most especially
to Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of the Order on their
tours of inspection. All hospitality and courtesy shown to
such is shown to Ourselves, not to them only.

Seventh House

24. It is desirable that the marriage partner of any Bro-
ther should also be a member of the Order. Neglect to insist
upon this leads frequently to serious trouble for both par-
ties, especially for the uninitiate.

25. Lawsuits between members of the Order are abso-
lutely forbidden, on pain of immediate expulsion and loss



of all privileges, even of those accumulated by past good
conduct referred to in the second part of this instruction.

26. All disputes between Brethren should be referred
firstly to the Master or Masters of their Lodge or Lodges in
conference ; if a composition be not arrived at in this manner,
the dispute is to be referred to the Grand Tribunal, which
will arbitrate thereon, and its decision is to be accepted as

27. Refusal to apply for or to accept such decision shall
entail expulsion from the Order, and the other party is then
at liberty to seek his redress in the Courts of Profane Jus-

28. Members of the Order are to regard those without its
pale as possessing no rights of any kind, since they have not
accepted the Law, and are therefore, as it were, troglodytes,
survivals of a past civilisation, and to be treated accord-
ingly. 1 Kindness should be shown towards them, as towards
any other animal; and every effort should be made to bring
them into Freedom.

29. Any injury done by any person without the Order
to any person within it may be brought before the Grand
Tribunal, which will, if it deem right and fit, use all its power
to redress or to avenge it.

30. In the case of any Brother being accused of an offence
against the criminal law of the country in which he resides,
so that any other Brother cognisant of the fact feels bound
in self-defence to bring accusation, he shall report the matter
to the Grand Tribunal as well as to the Civil Authority,
claiming exemption on this ground.

31. The accused Brother will, however, be defended by
the Order to the utmost of its power on his affirming his
innocence upon the Volume of the Sacred Law in the Ordeal
appointed ad hoc by the Grand Tribunal itself.

1. Compare with Schulchan Aruch and Talmud where non-Jews are as
animals to the Jews.



32. Public enemies of the country of any Brother shall
be treated as such while in the field, and slain or captured
as the officer of the Brother may command. But within the
precincts of the Lodge all such divisions are to be forgotten
absolutely; and as children of One Father the enemies of
the hour before and the hour after are to dwell in peace,
amity, and fraternity.

Eighth House

33. Every Brother is expected to bear witness in his last
will and testament to the great benefit that he hath received
from the Order by bestowing upon it part or the whole of
his goods, as he may deem fit.

34. The death of a Brother is not to be occasion of melan-
choly, but of rejoicing; the Brethren of his Lodge shall
gather together and make a banquet with music and dan-
cing and all manner of gladness. It is of the greatest impor-
tance that this shall be done, for thereby the inherited fear
of death which is deep-rooted as instinct in us will gradually
be rooted out. It is a legacy from the dead aeon of Osiris,
and our children’s children may be born free from the curse.

Ninth House

35. Every Brother is expected to spend a great part of
his spare time in the study of the principles of the Law and
of the Order, and in searching out the key to its great and
manifold mysteries.

36. He should also do all in his power to spread the Law,
especially taking long journeys, when possible, to remote
places, there to sow the seed of the Law.

Tenth House

37. All pregnant women are especially sacred to members
of the Order, and no effort should be spared to bring them to
acceptance of the Law of Freedom, so that the unborn may
benefit by that impression. They should be induced to



become members of the Order, so that the child may be
born under its aegis.

38. If the mother that is to be have asserted her will to
be so in contempt and defiance of the Tabus of the slave-
gods, she is to be regarded as specially suitable to our Order,
and the Master of the Lodge in her district shall offer to
become, as it were, godfather to the child, who shall be
trained specially, if the mother so wishes, as a servant of
the Order, in one of its Profess-Houses.

39. Special Profess-Houses for the care of women of the
Order, or those whose husbands or lovers are members of
the Order, will be instituted, so that the frontal duty of
womankind may be carried out in all comfort and honour.

40. Every Brother is expected to use all his influence with
persons in a superior station of life (so called) to induce them
to join the Order. Royal personages, ministers of State, high
officials in the Diplomatic, Naval, Military, and Civil Ser-
vices are particularly to be sought after, for it is intended
ultimately that the temporal power of the State be brought
into the Law, and led into freedom and prosperity by the
application of its principles.

41. Colleges of the Order will presently be established
where the children of its members may be trained in all
trades, businesses, and professions, and there they may
study the liberal arts and humane letters, as well as our holy
and arcane science. Brethren are expected to do all in their
power to make possible the establishment of such Univer-

Eleventh House

42. Every Brother is expected to do all in his power to
induce his personal friends to accept the Law and join the
Order. He should therefore endeavour to make new friends
outside the Order, for the purpose of widening its scope.



Twelfth House

43. The Brethren are bound to secrecy only with regard
to the nature of the rituals of our Order, and to our words
signs, etc. The general principles of the Order may be fully
explained, so far as they are understood below the VI 0 ;
as it is written, ” The ordeals I write not : the rituals shall
be half known and half concealed; the Law is for all. ” It
is to be observed that punctual performance of these duties,
so that the report thereof is noised abroad and the fame of
it cometh even unto the Throne of the Supreme and Holy
King himself will weigh heavily in the scale when it comes
to be a question of the high advancement of a Brother in
the Order.

Of The Privileges of the Brethren.

First House

44. The first and greatest of all privileges of a Brother
is to be a Brother ; to have accepted the Law, to have become
free and independent, to have destroyed all fear, whether
of custom, or of faith, or of other men, or of death itself.
In other papers the joy and glory of those who have accepted
the Book of the Law as the sole rule of life is largely, though
never fully, explained ; and we will not here recapitulate
the same.

Second House

45. All Brethren who may fall into indigence have a right
to the direct assistance of the Order up to the full amount
of fees and subscriptions paid by them up to the time of
application. This will be regarded as a loan, but no interest
will be charged upon it. That this privilege may not be
abused, the Grand Tribunal will decide whether or no such
application is made in good faith.



Third House

46. Members of the Order will be permitted to use the
Library in any of our Profess-Houses.

47. Circulating Libraries will presently be established.

48. Brethren who may be travelling have a right to the
hospitality of the Master of the Lodge of the district for a
period of three days.

Fourth House

49. Brethren of all grades may be invited to sojourn in
the Profess-Houses of the Order by Grand Lodge : and such
invitation may confidently be expected as the reward of
merit. There they will be able to make the personal acquain-
tance of members of the higher Grades, learn of the deeper
workings of the Order, obtain the benefit of personal instruc-
tion, and in all ways fit themselves for advancement.

50. In the higher degrees Brethren have the right to reside
in our Profess-Houses for a portion of every year, as shown : —

VI 0 Two weeks. VII 0 Two months.

G. T. One month. S. G. C. Three months.

P. B. S. Six weeks. VIII 0 Six months.

52. Members of the IX°, who share among themselves
the whole property of the Order according to the rules of
that degree, may, of course, reside there permanently. Indeed,
the house of every Brother of this grade is, ipso facto, a
Profess-House of the Order.

Fifth House

53. All Brethren may expect the warmest cooperation in
their pleasures and amusements from other members of the
Order. The perfect freedom and security afforded by the
Law allows the characters of all Brethren to expand to the
very limits of their nature, and the great joy and gladness
with which they are constantly overflowing make them the



best of companions. ” They shall rejoice, our chosen; who
sorroweth is not of us. Beauty and strength, leaping laughter
and delicious languor, force and fire, are of us. ”

54. Children of all Brethren are entitled to the care of
the Order, and arrangements will be made to educate them
in certain of the Profess-Houses of the Order.

55. Children of Brethren who are left orphans will be
officially adopted by the Master of his Lodge, or if the latter
decline, by the Supreme Holy King himself, and treated in
all ways as if they were his own.

56. Brethren who have a right to some especial interest
in any child whose mother is not a member of the Order may
recommend it especially to the care of their lodge or of
Grand Lodge.

Sixth House

57. In sickness all Brethren have the right to medical or
surgical care and attendance from any Brethren of the Lodge
who may be physicians, surgeons, or nurses.

58. In special necessity the Supreme Holy King will send
his own attendants.

59. Where circumstances warrant it, in cases of lives of
great value to the Order and the like, he may even permit
the administration of that secret Medicine which is known
to members of the IX 0 .

60. Members of the Order may expect Brethren to busy
themselves in finding remunerative occupation for them,
where they lack it ; or, if possible, to employ them per-

Seventh House

61. Members of the Order may expect to find suitable
marriage partners in the extremely select body to which
they belong. Community of interest and hope being already
established, it is natural to suppose that where mutual
attraction also exists, a marriage will result in perfect hap-
piness. (There are special considerations in this matter which
apply to the VII 0 and cannot be discussed in this place.)



62. As explained above, Brethren are entirely free of
most legal burdens, since lawsuits are not permitted within
the Order, and since they may call upon the legal advisers
of the Order to defend them against their enemies in case of

Eighth House

63. All Brethren are entitled after death to the proper
disposal of their remains according to the rites of the Order
and their grade in it.

64. If the Brother so desire, the entire amount of the fees
and subscriptions which he has paid during his life will be
handed over by the Order to his heirs and legatees. The
Order thus affords an absolute system of insurance in
addition to its other benefits.

Ninth House

65. The Order teaches the only perfect and satisfactory
system of philosophy, religion, and science, leading its mem-
bers step by step to knowledge and power hardly even
dreamed of by the profane.

66. Brethren of the Order who take long journeys overseas
are received in places where they sojourn at the Profess-
Houses of the Order for the period of one month.

Tenth House

67. Women of the Order who are about to become mothers
receive all care, attention, and honour from all Brethren.

68. Special Profess-Houses will be established for their
convenience, should they wish to take advantage of them.

69. The Order offers great social advantages to its mem-
bers, bringing them as it does into constant association with
men and women of high rank.

70. The Order offers extraordinary opportunities to its
members in their trades, businesses, or professions, aiding
them by co-operation, and securing them clients or cus-



Eleventh House

71. The Order offers friendship to its members, bringing
together men and women of similar character, taste, and

Twelfth House

72. The secrecy of the Order provides its members with
an inviolable shroud of concealment.

73. The crime of slander, which causes so great a propor-
tion of human misery, is rendered extremely dangerous, if
not impossible, within the Order by a clause in the Obligation
of the Third Degree.

74. The Order exercises its whole power to relieve its
members of any constraint to which they may be subjected,
attacking with vigour any person or persons who may endea-
vour to subject them to compulsion, and in all other ways
aiding in the complete emancipation of the Brethren from
aught that may seek to restrain them from doing That Which
They Will.

It is to be observed that these privileges being so vast,
it is incumbent upon the honour of every Brother not to
abuse them, and the sponsors of any Brother who does so,
as well as he himself, will be held strictly to account by the
Grand Tribunal. The utmost frankness and good faith be-
tween Brethren is essential to the easy and harmonious
working of our system, and the Executive Power will see
to it that these are encouraged by all possible means, and
that breach of them is swiftly and silently suppressed.

Love is the Law, Love under will.

Our fatherly benediction, and the Blessing of the All-
Father in the Outer and the Inner be upon you.

Baphomet X, O. T. 0., Ireland,




O.T. O.

Intimation with reference to the Constitution of the Order.

Any province of the O. T. O. is governed by the Grand
Master and those to whom he delegates his authority, until
such time as the Order is established, which is the case when
it possesses eleven or more Profess-Houses in the province.
Then the regular constitution is automatically promulgated.
The quotation is slightly adapted from an address in one of
the rituals.

” This is the Constitution and Government of our Holy
Order ; by the study of its Balance you may yourself come
to apprehension of how to rule your own. life. For, in True
Things, all are but images one of another ; man is but a map
of the universe, and Society is but the same on a larger scale.

” Learn then that our Holy Order has but Three True
Grades ; as it is written in the Book of the Law : The Hermit,
The Lover, and the Man of Earth.

” It is but for convenience that these grades have been
separated into Three Triads.

” The Third Triad consists of the degrees from Minerval
to Prince of Jerusalem. The Minerval degree is a Prologue
to the First ; the degrees subsequent to the Third but
pendants to it. In this, the Man of Earth series, there are
then but Three Degrees ; and these Three are One.

” The Man of Earth takes no share in the Government of
the Order ; for he is not yet called upon to give his life to

1. Op. cit., p. 241.




it in service ; and with us Government is Service, and
nothing else. The Man of Earth is therefore in much the posi-
tion of the Plebeian in Rome in the time of Menenius Agrippa.
But there is this marked difference ; that every Man of Earth
is encouraged and expected to push on to the next stage.
In order that the feelings of the general body may be repre-
sented, the Men of Earth choose four persons, two men and
two women, from among themselves, to stand continually
before the face of the Father, the Supreme and Holy King,
serving him day and night. These persons must not be of
higher rank than the Second Degree ; they must volunteer
for this service at the conclusion of that ceremony ; and there-
fore they give up their own prospect of advancement in the
Order for one year, that they may serve their fellows. This
is then the first lesson in our great principle, the attainment
of honour through renunciation.

” The degree of Knights of the East and West is but a
bridge between the first and second series ; but it is impor-
tant, for in that grade a new pledge-form must be signed, and
the new Knight vowed to devote his life to the Establish-
ment of the Law of Thelema.

” The members of the Fifth Degree are responsible for
all that concerns the Social welfare of the Order. This grade
is symbolically that of beauty and harmony ; it is the natural
stopping-place of the majority of men and women ; for to
proceed farther, as will appear, involves renunciation of the.
sternest kind. Here then all is joy, peace, well-being on all
planes ; the Sovereign Prince Rose Croix is attached equally to
the higher and the lower, and forms a natural link between
them. 2 Yet let him look to it that his eyes are set on high !

” In this degree the Most Wise Sovereign of each chapter
will appoint a committee of four persons, two men and two
women, to arrange for all social gatherings, banquets, dan-
ces, the performance of plays, and similar pleasures. They

2. Juncture of the two opposites ! From the foregoing one might infer
that the Rose Croix is formed of two opposite characters of men, good
and evil, thus accounting for the contradictory statements made about
Rosicrucianism. (Author’s note).



will also endeavour to promote harmony among the Brethren
in all possible ways, and to compose any disputes by tact
and friendliness without formal appeal being made to any
more authoritative tribunal.

” The next grade, that which lies between the Fifth and
Sixth Degrees, is called the Senate. This is the first of the
governing bodies, properly speaking, and here we begin to
insist upon Renunciation. For within this body is the Elec-
toral College of the 0. T. 0.

” The principle of popular election is a fatal folly; its
results are visible in every so-called democracy. The elected
man is always the mediocrity ; he is the safe man, the sound
man, who displeases the majority less than any other; and
therefore never the genius, the man of progress and illumi-

” This electoral college consists of Eleven Persons in each
country. It has full control of the affairs of the Men of Earth,
appointing Lodge Masters at will. It has however no authority
over the Chapters of Rose Croix.

” Persons who wish to be appointed to this College by
the Supreme and Holy King must volunteer for the office.
The appointment is for Eleven Years. Volunteers must
renounce for that period all further progress in the Order.
They must give evidence of first-rate ability in

1. Some branch of athletics.

2. Some branch of learning.

” They must also possess a profound general knowledge
of history and of the art of government, with some attention
to philosophy in general.

” They must each live in solitude, without more than the
necessary speech even to casual neighbors, serving themselves
in all respects, for three months continuously, once at least
in every two years. The President will summon them at
the four seasons of the year, and if necessary at other times,
when they will deliberate upon the affairs placed in their
charge. All applications to pass to the Fifth Degree must
receive their sanction. Appeal from their decisions may how-
ever be made to the Supreme Council.



” The Sixth Degree is an executive or military body, and
represents the temporal power of the Supreme and Holy
King. Each member is amenable to military discipline. Singly
or in concert with his comrades, each Knight is vowed to
enforce the decisions of authority.

” The Grade of Grand Inquisitor Commander follows.
Here every member has the right to a seat on the Grand
Tribunal, which body decides all disputes and complaints
which have not been composed by the Chapter of Rose Croix
or the Lodge Masters. Its verdicts are without appeal, unless
a member of the Electoral College give sanction to take the
case to the Areopagus of the Eighth Degree. All members of
the Order, even of higher grades, are subject to the Grand

” The next grade is that of Prince of the Royal Secret.
Every member of this degree is devoted to the Propagation
of the Law in a very special manner ; for this grade is the
first in which the Beginning of the Inmost Secret is declared
openly. He will therefore, by his personal exertions, induce
one hundred and eleven persons to join the Order, before he
may proceed to the Seventh Degree, except by special order
from the Supreme and Holy King.

” The Seventh Degree is, in military language, the Great
General Staff of the Army of the Sixth Degree. From its
members the Supreme and Holy King appoints a Supreme
Grand Council.

” This Council is charged with the government of the whole
of the Second Triad, or Lovers. All members of the Seventh
Degree travel as Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of the
Order, and report, on their own initiative, to the Supreme
and Most Holy King, as to the condition of all Lodges and
Chapters ; to the Supreme Council, on all affairs of the Second
Triad; and to the Electoral College, on those of the third.

” The Eighth Degree is a Philosophical Body. Its members
being fully instructed in the Principles of the Order, save in
one point only, devote themselves to the understanding of
what they have learned in their initiation. They have power
to reverse the decisions of the Grand Tribunal, and to com-



pose all conflicts between any of the governing bodies. And
this they do upon the great principles of philosophy. For it
will often occur that there is contention between two parties,
both of whom are right from their own point of view. This
is so important that an illustration is desirable. A man is
smitten with leprosy : is it right that men should circum-
scribe his liberty by isolating him from his fellows ? Another
holds back land or some other necessity from common use ;
is he to be compelled to surrender it ? Such cases of difficulty
involve deep philosophical principles ; and the Areopagus
of the Eighth Degree is charged with the duty of resolving
them in accordance with the great principles of the Order.

” Before the face of the Areopagus stands an independent
Parliament of the Guilds. Within the Order, irrespective
of grade, the members of each craft, trade, science, or pro-
fession form themselves into a Guild, make their own laws,
and prosecute their own good, in all matters pertaining to
their labour and means of livelihood. Each Guild chooses
the man most eminent in it to represent it before the Areo-
pagus of the Eighth Degree ; and all disputes between the
various Guilds are argued before that Body, which will
decide according to the grand principles of the Order. Its
decisions pass for ratification to the Sanctuary of the Gnosis,
and thence to the Throne.

” Epopts and Pontiffs of this exalted grade are bound to
live in isolation for four consecutive months in every year,
meditating the mysteries revealed to them.

” The Ninth Degree — the Sanctuary of the Gnosis — is
synthetic. The prime duty of its members is to study and
practice the theurgy and thaumaturgy of the grade ; but in
addition they must be prepared to act as direct representa-
tives of the Supreme and Most Holy King, radiating his
light upon the world. Yet, from the nature of their initiation,
they must veil their glory in a cloud of darkness. They move
unseen and unrecognized among the youngest of us, subtly
and loftily leading us into the holy ineffable mysteries of
the True Light.

” The Supreme and Most Holy King is appointed by the



O. H. O. His is the ultimate responsibility for all within
his holy kingdom. The succession to the high office of O. H. O.
is decided in a manner not here to be declared; but this
you may learn, O Brother Magician, that he may be chosen
even from the grade of a Minerval. And herein lieth a most
sacred Mystery.

” The Electoral College possesses one most singular power.
Every eleven years, or in case of a vacancy occurring, they
choose two persons from the Ninth Degree, who are charged
with the duty of Revolution.

” It is the business of these persons constantly to criti-
cise and oppose the acts of the Supreme and Most Holy
King, whether or no they personally approve of them. Should
he exhibit weakness, bodily, mental, or moral, they are
empowered to appeal to the O. H. O. to depose him; but
they, alone of all the members of the Order, are not eligible
to the Succession.

” O. H. O., as the supreme authority in the Order, will
act, in such an emergency, as he may see fit. He may him-
self be removed from office, but only by the unanimous vote
of all members of the Tenth Degree.

” Of the Eleventh Degree, its powers, privileges, and qua-
lifications, nothing whatever is said in any grade. It has no
relation to the general plan of the Order, is inscrutable, and
dwells in its own Palaces.

” There are certain important financial obligations in
various grades.

” The Electoral College of the Senate is vowed to poverty.
All property, earnings, or salaries are vested in or paid over
to the Grand Treasurer General. The members subsist on
the charity of the Order, which is extended to them in accor-
dance with their original rank in life.

” These remarks apply equally to the Supreme Grand
Council, and all higher degrees.

” In the Seventh Degree it is a qualification to vest some
real property in the Order ; and no one is admitted to this
grade without this preliminary.

” Those members of the Order who have given all to it



must obtain the money for their initiation fees and subscrip-
tions from the Third Triad, whose honour is thus concerned
in the unselfish support of those who have abandoned all
for their sakes.

” The Grand Treasurer General is appointed by the Su-
preme and Most Holy King; he may be a member of any
grade whatever ; but he must, on accepting office, take the
vow of poverty. His authority is absolute in all financial
matters ; but he is responsible to, and may be removed at
will by, the Supreme and Most Holy King. He will appoint
a committee to assist him and advise him in his work; and
he will usually select one person from each of the governing
bodies of the Order.

” Such is a brief outline of the government of the O. T. O.
It combines monarchy with democracy; it includes aristoc-
racy, and conceals even the seeds of revolution, by which
alone progress can be effected. Thus we balance the Triads,
uniting the Three in One ; thus we gather up all the threads
of human passion and interest, and weave them into an har-
monious tapestry, subtly and diligently with great art, that
our Order may seem an ornament even to the Stars that are
in the Heavens at Night. In our rainbow-coloured texture
we set forth the glory of the whole Universe — See thou to
it, brother Magician, that thine own thread be strong, and
pure, and of a colour brilliant in itself, yet ready to mingle
in all beauty with those of thy brethren 1 ”


The following is an extract from the ” Charter for Royal
Order in U. S. A. ” 1


WE, SIR JOHN WHYTE W. D. M., President of the Judges and
Council of the Great S. N. D. R. M.\
Seal Warder of the T. W. R. of R. F. R. S. M.

R. S. Y. C. S. N. T. : Deputy Grand Master and Gover-
nor of the High and Honourable Orders
Seal of H. R. M. of K. L. W. N. G. and R. S. Y.

H. R. M. C. S.: SIR ALEXANDER S. T. N. T. H., Senior
Grand Warden, Sir WILLIAM B. T. Y, Ju-
nior Grand Warden, and the Remanent
Knights Companions of the Royal Order
of R. S. Y. C. S. in Grand Lodge assem-


Sir ALBERT V. G. R. (Pike), Knight of the Order of the R. S.

Y. C. S., send greeting in God Everlasting.

By virtue of the authority vested in US from time imme-
morial WE do hereby grant unto you and the rest of the

1. Stillson and Hughan, History of Freemasonry and Concordant
Orders, p. 842.

2. Heredom of Kilwinning or Royal Order of Scotland is composed
of two degrees, H. R. M. or Heredom, and R. S. Y. G. S. Rosy Cross.
See Freke Gould, History of Freemasonry, Vol. Ill, p. 75.




Right Worthy and Worshipful Brethren of the Royal Order
of H. R. M. and of the R. S. Y. C. S. in the United States of
America, full power, warrant and authority to hold a Chap-
ter of the Order of H. R. M. in WASHINGTON, or elsewhere
within the United States of America, so long as you and they
shall behave as becometh Worthy Brethren of the said Order,
or until the powers hereby conferred shall be withdrawn
which the Grand Lodge of our Order reserves full power and
authority to do when they consider proper, with full power
to you to remove the same from place to place, but always
within the United States of America, as occasion shall offer
for the good and glory of the Order, you and they conforming
to the laws and regulations of the Grand Lodge transmitted
to you now or afterwards, and we do hereby appoint you
T. R. S. T. A. of the said Chapter and grant you full power,
warrant and authority to appoint proper officers to assist
you therein, viz. : a Deputy T. R. S. T. A., a Senior Guar-
dian, a Junior Guardian, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Mari-
schal, a Deputy Marischal, and a Guarder, who shall art as
Examiner’ and Introducer.

AND FURTHER, you know that for the good and promo-
tion of the Order of H. R. M. in general we do hereby em-
power you to form a PROVINCIAL GRAND LODGE of the said
Order, and do nominate, constitute and appoint you, the
said Sir Albert V. G. R., to preside and rule over and govern
the same and the Brethren thereunto belonging, so long as
you shall act conformably to the Laws and Rules of our
Grand Lodge, and so long as this Charter and the powers
therein conferred shall continue unrecalled ; and we do hereby
authorize empower and charge you to take upon yourself
the title of PROVINCIAL GRAND MASTER of the Order of
H. R. M. of the United States of America, being the province
hereby placed under your superintendence ; and we do hereby
grant you full power, warrant and authority to appoint
proper officers to assist you in the high office hereby on you
conferred, to consist of the following number and denomi-
nations : one Deputy Provincial Grand Master, a Senior
Provincial Grand Warden, a Junior Provincial Grand



Warden, a Provincial Grand Sword-bearer, a Provincial Grand
Secretary, a Provincial Grand Treasurer, two Provincial
Grand Marischals, a Senior Provincial Grand Steward, and
three other Provincial Grand Stewards, and a Provincial
Grand Guarder…

AND FURTHER, be it known to the Brethren in general
that it is not, nor can it be, in their power to depose or dis-
place you or your successors in office from the high office
hereby on you conferred, except for high or enormous crimes
tending to the scandal and detriment of the Order, and not
then without bringing you to a regular trial, and an account
of the proceedings therein, with the crime and sentence of
the Council, being first sent to and approved by our Grand
Lodge at Edinburgh… ”

The document is signed by George Murray, Grand Trea-
surer, John Brown Douglas, Grand Secretary, John Whyte
Melville, Deputy Grand Master and Governor, Alexander
Hay, Senior Grand Warden, William Mann, Junior Grand

The ” charter members ” were thirteen in number includ-
ing several well known and eminent brethren all of whom
are members of the Grand Lodge at Edinburgh : —

Founders’ Names, A. D. 1877 :
Brother Albert Pike, Washington, D. C.

» John Robin McDaniel, Lynchburgh, Va.

» Henry L. Palmer, Milwaukee, Wis.

» James C. Batchelor, New Orleans, La.

» Vincent L. Hurlbut, Chicago, 111.

» Josiah H. Drummond, Portland, Maine.

» William M. Ireland, Washington, D. C.

» Robert McC. Graham, New York, N. Y.

» Albert G. Mackey, Washington, D. C.

» Enoch Terry Carson, Cincinnati, Ohio.

» Charles Roome, New York, N. Y.

» Charles Eugene Meyer, Philadelphia, Pa.

» Samuel C. Lawrence, Boston, Mass.



Translated extract from a Document
addressed to all the Supreme Councils
of Scottish Rites of the World by


Delivered in Paris October 1885.
Quoted by Domenico Margiotta in.
he Culte de la Nature dans la
Franc-magonnerie Universelle.
(P- 51)

D.-.M.-.J/. . .

” The order demands the immediate enforcement of the
D.-. M.-. J.’. Nevertheless (Deus Meumque Jus).

” At different epochs of the life of the nations which have
the good fortune of possessing an active Supreme Council,
and from 1820 onwards, certain similar communications
have been made to certain chosen members of the Grand
Consistories and Supreme Councils respectively. It is neces-
sary to give the secret of this order.

” Exoterically D .*. M .*. J aTe the initials of the motto
of the 33rd degree. Deus Meumque Jus = Dieu et mon

” Esoterically D.*. M.\ J. – , are the initials of the words,
Destruction, Materialism, Imposition, which ” Impose Des-
truction of everything which resists Materialism.




” The three points ••• mean that the Masonic work of
Destruction Materialism and Imposition is triple :
of Supernaturalism
Destruction of Authority

of Anti-masonic activity

I of Conscience
Materialism of Education

I of the State

/ on the Family
Imposition on the Nation

| on Humanity

Consequently the order to enforce practically the D.-.
M.% J/. Nevertheless means.

” By every means, whatever they may be, one must
Impose first on the Family, and then on the Nation in order
to achieve the aim of imposing on Humanity.

1. Destruction of Supernaturalism, there where the Con-
science has not been reached by Masonic Materialism.

2. The Destruction of Authority, there where Education
has not been reached by Masonic Materialism.

3. The Destruction of Anti-Masonry, there where the
state has not been reached by Masonic Materialism.

The explanations which follow are taken from various autho-

rities as cited.


” The word temple is derived
from the Latin word tempus,
time ; and, therefore, the
ancient structures called tem-
ples were in reality intended to
be records of time and archives
of human knowledge. Such
institutions would have been
a great benefit to mankind;







but the veil of superstition was
thrown over them; it was
deemed politic or profitable to
the few to deceive the many;
that which should have been
a simple record of fact was
worked up into an allegory;
there arose an esoteric doctrine
for those initiated in the se-
crets of the temple, and a de-
ceptious exoteric doctrine for
the multitude; and this was
the origin of a priesthood… ”

The Masonic leather apron
does not perpetuate the mem-
ory of the apron of the artisan
masons of the middle ages. Its
origin must be looked for in
the attire of the Grand Priest,
intended to hide his nudity
when he mounted the steps of
the altar.

In other words it corresponds
to the linen drawers which,
according to the prescription
of Exodus, xxviii, 42, should
cover his loins. It represents
a sort of symbolical circumcision.

Means the Synagogue, also

The Egyptian Fable of Isis.
Typhon, having killed Osiris,
shut him up in a coffin, then, I Part 4, page
having cut his body into pieces, 172, Spring
threw it in the Nile. Isis, the | Equinox, 1929.


General von


als o Freema-
sonry Univer-
sal, Vol. IV,







good widow, searching for the
body of her husband found all
the parts save one member and
to commemorate this loss she
instituted the worship of the
Phallus, an enlarged represen-
tation of which she gave, res-
ting on a coffin.

The term also refers to The
Manicheans, being derived from
the legend according to which
Manes, the founder of the sect,
was assisted by a rich widow.

Also to Henrietta Maria,
widow of Charles I, for whose
cause the original ” Masons ”
claimed to be working.

One ruling like a King, the
Phallus being a universal em-
blem of Kings. From Pala,
Hindoo for the male organ.

Serpent swallowing its tail.
Sexual Passion, Symbol of
the Phallus.

= The City of the Gods,
which is in the West to some
nations, in the East to others,
in the North or South to yet
others. It is the sacred island
in the Gobi Desert. It is the
home of Mysticism and the
Secret Doctrine.

= The Sex Force






(Glossary to

Human and
Solar, p. 224.)





To Ov

I. N. R. I.

The Sword is used by the
medium (Grand Master, Grand
Mistress or other) who presides
and directs the ceremonies of
evocation only in dealing with
those spirits of fire belonging
to the higher degrees of the
infernal hierarchy.

There are two kinds of magic
pentagrams, one for lesser, and
the other for greater evocations.
The first is a five pointed star
set with precious stones, the
second is a similar star engra-
ved with many symbolic figures
set upon a disc which bears the
letters D 0 M A G, the initial
letters for ” Dei Optimi Maximi
Ad Gloriam. ”

Kundalini, Astral Light, Sex
Force, Serpent Power, Hebrew
” Gas “, Spiritual Fire whence
comes ghost. Galvanic Elec-
tric Fire, the Magnetic Fluid.

Water, Fire, Air, Earth.

It also stands for.

Igne Nitrum Roris Invenitur.

Igne Natura Renovanda Inte-

Igne Natura Renovatur In-

Jesus Nazarenus Rex Ju-






J. B. M. Jakin, Boaz, Moabone (Ma-

Jesus Bethlemitus Maledictus

MOABONE or The Complete God.
MAHABONE The Hermaphrodite (Man is
completed by the degree of
Master, 3rd degree).

THE CHRIST In the secret society-occult
jargon this means ” the Christ
force ” or Sex force — not Jesus




The Womb

(The Egyptian Beetle)

The Lotus is a water plant
from which each god at his
birth emerges… The Lotus is
also a symbol of reproduction
and generation, the flower of
concealment, night, silence,
mystery, and regarded with
nearly the same veneration as
the Yoni itself.

The Hindus adore the Lotus
for other reasons ; for example,
because being able to repro-
duce itself without the assis-
tance of the male pollen, it is
a type of the androgynous or
hermaphroditic character of the
Deity. For the same reason this
plant was also held sacred by
the Egyptian priests.











Le Culte de la
Nature dans la
nerie Univer-
selle, p 215.

Revue des

The Double-headed Eagle
represents an anagram of the
Baphomet, the esoteric expla-
nation of which is as follows : —

Reading Baphomet back-
wards we get, Tem-oph-ab.
TEM = duplex, OPH = avis,
AB = generation. Duplex avis
generation = The double bird
of generation.

This term supposed by the
Uninitiated to mean the quest
of the Alchemist’s stone esote-
rically denotes the act of the
male and female which pro-
duces offspring. Copulation.


The triangle is inverted in
Kadosch. It represents Lucifer
who, with the two crowned D. MARGIOTTA
heads of the Eagle, that is Le Culte de la
to say the Grand Patriarch Nature dans la
and the Grand Emperor or Franc-Magon-
Sovereign, compose the Very nerie Univer-
Holy and Indivisible Trinity selle, p. 227.
to which the Kadosch takes his
oath of blind obedience.

The Grand Inspector Inqui-
sitor Commander takes his
oath to the Very Holy and Indi-
visible Trinity.

The Red Cross of Rome and



The Templar’s Cross,

The Manichean’s Cross

The Rose Cross of ” Societas
Rosicruciana in Anglia “.

Definition :

From a speech pronounced
before Rristol College by Fra-
ter Vitam Impendere Vero-8.

” Animal magnetism, mes-
merism, clairvoyance, spiritual
manifestations of all kinds, are
but properties of the metapho-
rical stone and life-elixir, facul-
ties of the microcosm’s immor-
tality — in Hermetic parlance —
of the Rosie Cross. ”

This is the Sex-force,

Kundalini, etc.

The Rose Croix.
The upright — Symbol of

The cross-bar — Symbol of

The Rose-Symbol of secrecy
or the blooming of the genital
organs of woman.

Rose-Croix is the same
emblem as the Phallo-Kteis
or Lingam-Yoni of the Ancients.









Flamboyant Star, Blazing

Microcosm or Solomon’s Seal.
Emblem of Generation.
Pointing up, good.

Flamboyant Star, Star of the
Morning. Emblem of Lucifer.
Pointing downard, evil.
Black magic.

Interlaced Triangles — Sym-
bol of the Double Divinity,

Jehovah white and Jehovah

Other names, Macrocosmos,
Star of David, Solomon’s Seal.

Sex force — ^ male ^ fe-
male = union.

” Holy Grail ” meaning the
female organ, Uterus.

The Sun = Male.

The Moon = Female.

The Star = The Emblem of
Bi-sexuality in certain rites.

= The Male organ or Phallus.
= The Female organ or Uterus.





Revue des







or The Tetragrammaton =
IHUH Jehovah = He-Her =

or the Bi-sexual God

Male in the female organ,
Phallus in Uterus. Hindoo.



The Caduceus.


1. The Spine. c. W. LEAD-

2. The Sex Force or Kundalini. BEATER 33°

3. The Power to travel on

another plane.


God — Generation. The Great
God spoken of in the Hermetic-
Judaic-Masonic rituals is the
one who presides over genera-
tion. It is Jehovah, Lucifer,
The Angel of Night, The Phal-
lic God, not the God of the
Christians. The G in the Flam-
boyant Star of Masonry stands
for Gnosis in the higher de-

Ladder with seven steps —
Virgo intacta.



Symbol of Life,










Swastica reversed.
Black Magic.

Other form of Swastica.

Yima’s piercer, — Phallus
in Uterus God.

Other form of I. O.

The Symbol of Illuminism.

Compass — Symbol of
Masculinity of Freemasonry

Square — Symbol of the D. MARGIOTTA
genital organs of woman. The
Lodge in Freemasonry.



and others


Triangle pointing upward,

Exoterically good.

Triangle pointing downward,

Exoterically Evil.





Tetragrammaton. The Inef- BLANCHARD 33
fable name. Jehovah — I H O H.
— Shem-ham-phoreh.

Jewish and Freemasonic.



Yod — The Phallus.

Tau Cross or Crux Ansata —
Union of Male and Female,

Other forms of Tau Cross.

The Universal mark or sym-
bol for the complete male
organ, the Phallus.

Crux Decussata, or Cross of
St. Andrew see above.

Jakin — The Column — The
female organ, Uterus.

Boaz — The Column — • The
male organ, the Phallus (Sa-
cred word of the first degree,
The Apprentice).







The authoress is indebted to Brigadier-General
R. B. D. Blakeney for the documenls from which
the following cliches in this work have been made.

They completely illustrate the link which exists
between The Grand Lodge of England and Theoso-
phist Illuminism.

Brig. -Gen. Blakeney is himself a Theosophist and
a member of the Occult Society The QuesI as well as
of various other occult centres, as also of the Liberal
Catholic Church founded bv Charles Leadbeater.




Special- and War-Correspondent


Embassy of the United States of America

Berlin, November 1st. 1896.

My dear Reuss: — I thank you very much for your article on
the late Kaiser Manoeuvres, which you were so good as to send me.
I have found it both interesting and useful. I am now writing my
official report, and I have learned several things from you which
escaped my notice in the field. Your remarks on the Cavalry, the
Bicycle Detachment and the Commissariat Department I have made
use of in my report.

You certainly have a good eye for tactical situations and your
experience in writing, and perfect mastery of the German language,
make you very competent to report a manoeuvre. I shall send your
article on to Washington as an appendix to my report. I always send
one or two of the best newspaper reports to fill out my own. Please
do not forget to send me your report on the next manoeuvres.

Sincerely yours

Captain and Military Attache.

Berlin, February 13, 1890.

My dear .Mr, Reuss:
Soon after seeing you at the Subscriptionts-Ball last night, I
met Mr. W. C. Heick, who is one of the Managers of the New York
Herald. and who, 1 have always understood, is quite near its pro-
prietor. In the course of our conversation Mr. Reick asked me if I
could recommend any one to him as a Berlin Correspondent for the
Herald. I at once thought of you as being the best informed of the
American correspondents here; and therefore a suitable man for the
place, if you cared to take it, and if you could do so in consideration
of your engagement with the United Press. Mr. Reick said that he
would like to see you and talk the matter over, and I promised to let
you know that he was here and that you could find him at the Hotel
Bristol today. — Wishing you success, I am

Yours very truly

First Secretary to the United States Embassy.


The Central News Limited, 5 New Bridge street,

London, 11. May 1889.
This is to certify that Mr. Theodor Reuss is authorised t
represent the Central News in Westphalia.

The Central News, Limited


Theod. Reuss Esq.
St. George’s Club, Hanover Square, W.

The Central News, London, May 16″ 1889.

Dear Mr. Reuss!
I have had your various letters and telegrams and the work
has been to our satisfaction. 1 have telegraphed you to day to remain
and 1 am also sending you . . . Pounds by this post. When I want
you to return I will telegraph to you. The matter which you are sen-
ding us by mail comes in very useful to incorporate with your telegrams.
Yours faithfully

JOHN MOORE, Manager.

Theodor Reuss Esq.

The United Press, 187 Broadway, New York.

To whom it may concern :

This is to certify that Mr. Theodor Reuss is a special represen-
tative of the United Press of New York, and is hereby authorized to
forward news telegrams from various points to their representative in

London, July 17″ 1889. Special Commissioner.

The Daily Chronicle, 12 Salisbury square, E, C.

London, 2″ January 1890.

Theodor Reuss Esq.

Dear Sir,

I hereby declare and confirm your appointment as special corre-
spondent to the Daily Chronicle in Berlin. You are qualified to obtain
and forward all news, official or otherwise that may be necessary for
the paper.

Yours truly

ALF. B. HANCE, Manager.

United States Legation,

Berlin, June 23rd. 1891.
Dear Mr. Lincoln: — Let me present to you Mr. Th Reuss of
our United Press, of the London Chronicle &c, a Journalist, as you
see, but a Gentleman, and I take pleasure in sending him to you.
Yours very truly



The Dally Chronicle.

London, 25. March 1892.

Dear Sir.

Many thanks for your letter of 20. inst. 1 will not forget you
if we should be able to utilize your services for any special work
which you might be able to do for us.

Hoping to have the pleasure of occasionally running across
you I am

Yours faithfully


The Journal & The Morgen-Journal ol New York.

Dear Mr. Reuss. I am also looking for a secretary, some one
like yourself, who knows English well and has experience in American
newspaper matters. I should pay him anywhere about L. 500 — Accor-
ding to his value and more later on. I should be obliged to you for
advertising in the Times for such a man, and for picking out of the
correspondents those most likely to answer. With kind regards
Yours truly


The Central Press, 22 Parliament street,

London S. W., January 16″. 1892.
Dear Mr. Reuss;
I enclose the usual cheque which please acknowledge. I must
confess that you exercise marvellous ingenuity in collecting a great
variety of interesting facts which few others seem to give. If we have
patience we are bound to fetch them by and by.

Yours very truly


The United Press, (successor te the Associated Press).

Effingham House, Arundel street,

London, January 13″. 1893.

Theodor Reuss Esq.
Dear Sir: — I hereby appoint you correspondent at Berlin for
the United Press of Newyork, upon the terms of the agreement arranged.
Very truly yours


European Manager.

The United Press, New York Office, 27/2. 94.

Dear Mr. Loper: Although the remark may not be exactly per
fluent, I think it only fair to Reuss to say that he has done in my
opinion some very excellent work for us. On several occasions he has
beaten the world with his news, and has sent us matter which the
German dailies copied three weeks later from our report. If we should
lose him 1 doubt that he could be replaced.

Most sincerely



The United Press.

London, 22. April 1894.

Dear Sir,

New York writes on the 2nd April, complimenting you on the
excellency of the Bismarck birthday matter, and the expedition with
which it was sent. The opposition were out of it, and their papers had
to fall back upon the United Press cables.

Yours very truly


The United Press.

London, 28″. March 1895.

Dear Reuss,

The stuff you have already sent us from Friedrichsruh has been
very good, its graphic details being far better than Reuter’s, though
Reuter sends the speeches a little fuller than you do. You are doing
wery well indeed, old fellow, keep it up and knock the spots out of Wo///
next Sunday and following days.

Yours very truly


The United Press.

London 4″. April 1895.

My dear Reuss,
You did nobly over the Bismarck festival and 1 congratulate you.
Yours very truly


Das Kleine Journal,

Friedrichstrasse 239.
Berlin S. W., le 8. Avril 1897.
Monsieur Theodore Reuss est le representant de notre journal
pour la Turquie et la Grece et nous serons reconnaissants a toutes
les personnes qui lui seront utiles.

Victor Hahn.

Kaiserlich Deutsches Konsulat fur Griechenland.

Athenes, le 10/22. Avril 1897.
Le Consulat Imperial d’Allemagne pour la Grece requiert par la
presente toutes les autorites militaires et civiles de laisser passer
iibrement le porteur Monsieur Theodore Reuss, correspondant du Bureau
telegraphique des Etats Unis, et du Kleines Journal, qui pourvu d’une
lettre de recommandation de Son Excellence le Ministre de la Guerre
Mr. Metaxas a l’adresse de Son Altesse Royale le Prince Royal, se
rendra a la fronliere turco-grecque.

Le Consul General d’Allemagne,

. All communications intended for Mr. Reuss should be

Theodore Reuss, c/o. Messrs. Henry Klein & Co.

84, Oxford street, London. W.

2. Kneph. Anticnt & Primitive Rite of Masonry. Mani-
festo of the Sovereign Sanctuary, signed by John Yarker and
other members and officers of the Kite.





Manifesto of the Sovereign Sanctuary. ,U Ureal Britain. Ireland, etc.
To all Tolerant and Sincere Members of Masonic Craft ;

Greeting: — Peace, Tolerance, Truth.

WHEREAS at a recent meeting, held in Liver-
pool, it was brought to the notice of this
Sovereign Body that misrepresentations,
whether by error or design, are constantly
made in regard to this valuable Kite, by cer-
tain badly informed Masons, interested
persons, and others, who apparently forget
their Masonic duties and obligation*.

THEREFORE it was resolved that it was
advisable we should make known the follow-
ing facts with reference to its history,
its rights, and its privileges, in order that the
same may be brought prominently under the
notice of all Masons who have a sincere desire
to acquire truth and knowledge.

FIRST. — Early in the 18th century, there
existed in this and other countries, a system
termed Antient Masonry, and which included
such degrees as the Red Cross (of Babylon),
under various names, the Rosy Cross (modern
Rose Croix), the Kadosh ; and again the
Royal Arch, the Templar, the Templar Priest,
or York System. Carried to France by British
Jacobites, these became the nucleus of many
Rites that were cumulated later. All Antient
Rites, so called, include these degrees under
varied names, but the firts Cratt Grand
Lodge, constituted in 1717, ignored them
until 1813. All the first founders of our
Sovereign Body possessed these degrees, not
from one source, but various independent

SECOND — It follows, that our Sovereign
Body has a time immemorial right, as Antient
Masons of the higher degrees, to practise a
system which during the whole of the last and
present centuries conferred, and still confers,
the designation of Ancient Masons in this
and all other countries.

THIRD . — It was constitutionally esta-
blished at Freemasons’ Tavern, London, in
1872, when it united to its own organization
certain Chapters of the Red and Rosy Cross,
Kadosh, English Grand Inspector, &c,
existing independently from a time imme-
morial date. But it confers its degrees upon
Master Masons only in good standing under
some constitutional Grand Lodge, and it is

allied and ” Confederated ” with numerous
bodies, existing in all countries where Masonry
is practised.

FOURTH — It has an undoubted right
upon which it is prepared to insit, to the’
fullest protection under the following Article
wchich is No. 2 of the unalterable Constitu-
tion and unrepeatable Law of the United
Grand Lodge of England, mutually accepted
by the ” Antient ” and ” Modern ” Masons
when they united their forces in 1813, viz: —
” It is declared and pronounced that pure
” Ancient Masonry consists of three degrees,
” and no more, viz : Those ot Entered Ap-
” prentice, the Fellow Craft, and the Master
” Mason (including the Supreme Order of the
” Holy Royal Arch). But this Article is not
” intended to prevent anv Lodge or Chapter
” from holding a Meeting in any of the Orders
” of Chivalry, according to the Constitutions of
” the said Orders. ”

FIFTH. — All its degrees are as unsectarian
as those of Craft Masonry, and are accepted,
without scruple, by men of all religious opin-
ions ; one Chapter has even Initiated Par-
sees, Jews, Moslems, Trinitarian and Unita-
rian Christians. Besides this it was designed,
in establishing the Rite here to enable all
earnest Masons to acquire the fullest Masonic
knowledge and dignity at a moderate cost,
as opposed to prohibitive fees.

SIXTH. – Its Neophytes, being recognised
Master Masons, receive the Red and Rosy-
Cross of the ” Antients, ” under the modern
names of these decrees, in Rose Croix CHAP-
TERS. From this they are advanced to the
Kadosh and Grand Inspector in SENATES.
Finally they receive the philosophic Egyp-
tian grades in COUNCILS of 30-90°. Its official
grades are the Presidents or Masters. The
Sovereign Body has also added, under foreign
Charter, the Rite of Mizraim of 90° ; though
our first members obtained it from bodies
existing prior to 1823. when the Duke of
Sussex was its Chief in England, the Duke
ofLeinsterin Ireland, and Dr. Walker Arnott
in Scotland ; those authorities having long
become extinct. In an unprinted letter of


1862 the last named learned Brother states,
that the late Duke of Athol was initiated
into the Kite of Mizraim at Paris in 1797,
and goes on to express his regret that when
the Rite Ancien of 33° was established in
Scotland, in 1845, it did not combine that of
Mizraim with it.

SEVENTH. — Our Sovereign Body has
absolute right, under ihe above quoted
Article of Union to a peaceful practise of all
degrees that can tend to elucidate Masonic
Rites, symbolism, history, etc. We may point
out, in this relation, that Ireland, and its
later imitator England, are the only Masonic
kingdoms in the World in which the Unsec-
tarian A. & P. Rite has been unable to labour
peaceably with the Trinitarian A. &A Kite of
33°. In Egypt, Roumania, Spain, and some
other countries, there are mutual Treaties of
assistance between the Craft Grand Lodge ;
the A. & A. Rite of 33° , and the A. & P.
Rite of 95°. Even the A, & A. ” Mother
S. G. C. ” 33° of Charleston has members
who belong to both bodies, and we could give
very distinguished names. In France the
Grand Orient concorded in 1868 the degrees
of the A. & P. Rite with those of the A. & P.
Rite, and many other Rites possessed by
it; moreover the A. & A. Rite, and that of
Mizraim are allowed to give the three first
degrees. England alone swears its Trinitarian
Neophytes, that they will visit and belong
to no other system: this needs no comment.
Even in Craft Masonry the prevailing senti-
ments and ruling policy, in large towns, are
not commendable to just men. The late
Dr. Arnott who was one of the most eminent
Masons Scotland has had, in the letter pre-
viously quoted, says, ” The first principles
of Masonry, 1 was taught, were equality, so
far as regards civil or private fortune, and
to give high offices to those only who had
Proved themselves best Masons, provided
their character in the world was unblemished ;
by these principles I have been actuated
throughout. ”

EIGHTH. — However unpalatable it may be
to English Masons, of whom comparatively
few go beyond the third Degree, it must be

admitted that in foreign countries the (rat:
counts tor little in comparison with what arc
termed the High-grades. Moreover this Sove-
reign Body is the only one which has the
power to confer all known degrees in Free
Masonry ; it has full Rituals of all the Degrees,
whilst other Rites give by name all but 2 out
of 30°. It is our desire to bespeak no more
than a friendly rivalry with other Rites, for
we admit all, upon the assumption that they
seek the same end as ourselves : namely :
the promulgation of the principles of universal
peace and charity, and the general welfare
of mankind.

FINALLY, we need only add that earnest
enquirers may obtain such information as
they may desire by addressing any of the
following members and officers of the Rite.

Dated the 28th day of July, 1900, of

JOHN YARKEE, G. M. G., ad vitam, West
Didsbury, near Manchester.

HENRYMEYER, G. A. G., 39, Pembury Road,
Clapton, London.

RICHARD HICHAM, Gd. Ch. G., 49, Princess

St. Manchester.
HENRY HAWLEY, Gd. Sec. G., Rocky Lane,

B. McA. BANNATYNE, G. K. G. B., 26, Billiter

St., London, E. C.
ROBERT MORRISON, G. M. of C , 96, Napier’s

Hall St.. Glasgow.
JOHN HENRY PAGNI, G. R. of S. S., Wel-
lington, New Zealand.
FRED. GEO. OSBORNE, G. M. of L., Lagos,

West Africa.

” Ibadan, ” Lagos.
WM HY. QUILLIAM, G. M. T. of the North,

6, Manchester St., Liverpool.
THOMAS FRANCIS, G. M. T., of the South,

Freemasons’ Hall, Havant.
GEO. EDWD. TURNER. G. M. T. of the South,

” Purbeck, ” Blandford, (Dorset).
COLIN MACKENZIE, G. M. T. of Scotland,

7, Church St., Govan.

etc. etc. etc.


3. The following letters were addressed to Theodor Reuss
of Berlin by Dr. William Wynn Westcott, who was appointed
P. G. D. of Grand Lodge of England in 1902 and P. G. St. B. of
Royal Arch Chapter in the same year. This correspondence is
interesting as showing the link between English Grand Lodge
and German Illuminism, the Societas Rosicruciana in Angfia
and the O. T. O. See pages 510-512.

396,<jiamdin £AD.

Rondos. ijl.

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V”. ^ o^, ^ , +A*Jr
SxahJ-. I&Z tlx* W^ai-Tv^

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i/*U_ ^CA~^m^ ( \v*>»vvwkj Wlu&C_^



3^ b G^<4vv (fev<^<_^

44l_ [^Jt ^ ^f<- ^ ~; i^ a/



C^l ui ^4, fC&^r tf-



fa*- Sto2t£. to s^jZjUcL ^v. ^^^^ -v^^^Lej
5^*- <^/w~^~^ Crv<~-uj£, p-fv^Xe_ ?L

-YcJt^l ^JU^r

SwJJ- f^-^Jl^a, A^urv^w^ 6ti^n^»-»»r_ , ^-e^Ltr-vqX-.,



S>r. mm. mynn SQcatcort, S.fl>..

Memorandum from the Hi<;h Council,

396, Camden Road, N.

•Sure Fraicr,

,-‘ y (v< ^ ‘ ^ v – ^}*^- /- >< » ‘^«_-

t.^~ , ~— -r-t — ! ^* /VV — ■

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\^.frA ~{^OL j j – Vi«^<. ^6″‘«or. mm. M?un TKtotcott, S.fl).,

Menwanduvi from tht Hli.JJ COUNCIL,
. . 396, Cami>kn Road, N.

CD c

e r – *-> * 190

Cart hrntrr.

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v/L Ce^ — — »C« —


|vv*f ~ j^-a-.-fcc^v. , rt*Ar A*- ^> —

IN flNCLIfl.

Dr. nm. mynn Wcztcotx, 5.fH>., 3X

Memorandum from the HlGII COUNCIL,

396, Camden Road, N.

2-6 19° -2–

Lare Frattr,

— / « — «

0 •

^ >^^~ cL<n*.£~ n^gg^="" s&^^r-p="" 'we-="" ^-"jw*="" c-r-£^-o="" fcu,0="" fev^^i—^="" b^nrt^="" t="" fcj="" 23="" 6c="" r="" }zl-o="" 2.="" *$t+_="" sit*="" ott-tj-.="" \*^e*^="" &y*~*^.="" ^ve^acs-^="" vc»**t^cy="" .="" 24="" 2~="" 25="" ■*="" london.="" hi.="" ^f*r. Ham. TXflpitn TOlestcott, S.flD., 3,2″

Mttnoratuiutn from tke HIGH COUNCIL,

396, Output Roau. N.

O^W^^-A (Se^–t-^-«




4. This note is interpolated as showing the link between
the Soc. Rosicruciana in Anglia and German Illuminism. It
is not clear as to whom it is addressed. See page 296. Unfor-
tunately the condition of the negatives taken of the Patents
which it was intended to reproduce has not permitted the
reproduction of more than one, which follows. (See No. 10).

6* dtW

fast WwjI ttftJaX^ ¥l£utu4 fa U.


5. RITE OF SWEDENBORG. Letter from Dr. Wynn Westcott
to Theodor Reuss enclosing authority signed by John Yarker
and himself for the establishment of Provincial Grand Sweden-
borg Lodge and six subordinate Lodges in Germany, together
with list of Approved Officers for 1902.

y i^JU r Wr^__ f\l}^h

Vv- tvWSR*— 5^.^,.


/t*-^C>t &n_<^t*_ – C^^tL S^^y. ^»~fc~_

Nl-U * ^ ft <£~~5 •£*«.* Xx/^

^ e^tA. { – ov«^<_ tr^A* ,

3 «^»t-fV«~-*_ C^,t^^


ik^ tor

6. Letter from ” Papus ” (Dr. G. Encausse) to Theodor
Reuss on the subject of the Swedenborgian Rite and its repre-
sentation in Berlin. “Papus” requests him to communicate
with Dr. “Wynn Westcott in London.


Ex-Chef de Laboratoire
a IHopital de la Charite
Mederin de Consultation
de rtMptjJ S’-



MardielSamedide2i j heart i
(Teleph. 690-50)

36 CLIN1QUE — Lundi, Vendredi de 3 a 4 beures, 16, rue Rodier

7. The first letter is addressed by the Supreme Council
for Great Britain of A. & P. and Mizraim Rites to their cor-
respondent — Theodor Reuss — in Berlin, advising that the
application of Mrs Annie Besant for admission into that order
be not granted.

Reuss communicated the letter to Mrs Besant who
returned it stating that she had made no application for admis-
>/K? 34s~. slon lnt0 ” Adoptive Masonry “. The first letter bears the note
— – at the side ” To be returned to T. Reuss “. See page 548.

Park View House

June 5, 1904

the Cen. Grossmei sters und Souv.% Sross-Coromandeur
Gross-Orient des Schottischen A.*. & A.’. 33 Ritus & Souveranes
ctuarium des Memphis- und Mizralm-Ritus fur das Deutsche Reioh

jar Sir and Brother,

We have carefully considered the
ipplication of Mrs Annie Besant, which you hare submitted for our
opinion, and we are unanimously of opinion that it would be
Lnadvisable to grant it. We consider that the character of the
ark done by the applicant during the past eight or nine years

been such as to indicate -that her connection with our
rder would be undesirable in every way. We – ould go so far as

say that we think that her application is not disinterested,
it is part of a general plan of a secret nature having its

itre in India, the object of which is to get control over
ich organisations as ours for the furtherance of certain ends.

Yours fraternally

Suorerae Council for Great Britain

CouncU of Vniversai


MtmM’ oi th« Sup’am* Council ^5*”- ” W ^\

gr um – G .


***** * oj^KL ^


8. One of several letters from Mrs Katherine A. Tingley
to ” Comrade ” Th. Reuss, dated from Athens, Oct. 2, 1896.
See page 582.


ATHENS (Greece;

9. Letter from ” Dorec ” to Theodor Reuss. See page 354.
” Dorec” was the Secretary of the Martinist Order which
was headed by ” Papus ” (Dr. G. Encausse). On the identity
of ” Dorec “, it will be noted that the photo shows some partly
obliterated wording which appears to be (Hen)ri Staub, (Do)rec



Sttrflarimt t.Mhal

r?, Rue Thimonniar, 3 /c Zi t^i*^ /


St/St^*-, 3- ^ *+~+~/m* . ^ /OeJ!^- —

42 X


10. The Order of the Mopse. Letter from the Grand
Orient of Italy at Naples referred to oil pages 366-7.




e PALERMO fc, .

. — w+-t4 A


..■.^U-Ste as.-.


11. Certificate of appointment of Aleister ” St ” Edward
Crowley as National Grand Master of the O. T. O. for Great
Britain arid Ireland, signed by Theodor Reuss. See page 575.

A technical examination of the photo would appear
to show that the letters O. T. O. at the top were added by hand
after the original certificate had been printed.


In this Index, and also throughout the work, the following signs
have been employed :

$ The Seal of Solomon, indicating a Jew, Hebrew, or Israelite,
.’. indicating a Freemason, of a date subsequent to 1717,
:’; indicating a Member of The Martinist Order.

In certain dates given in this Index, the letter r means ” reigned “.

0 Abdallah Ibn Saba ( -652),

Abraham, Brother, 360, 361.
$ Abu Mansur Sadakah Ibn
Yussuf, 140.

Acollas, Emile, 637.

Acquaviva, Claudie (1542-
1615), 319.

Adare, Lord, 475.

Addis, Sir Charles, 658.
.-. Adet, Citizen, 388.

Adowa, Battle of (1898), 251.

Agha Khan, The, 136.

Ahmadiyyah sect, 545.

Ahmed Said, 135.

Ahura Mazda, 67.

Aijiro Onishi, 641.
» Alamos-Gonzales, 293.

Albert, Margrave, 165.

Albigenses, 163.

Alembert. Jean Lerond d’

(1717-1783), 184, 374.
$ Alexander, Abraham (1718-
1786), 193.

Alexander I, Tzar of Russia
(1801-1825), 36, 198.

Alexandrinus, Thomas Theo-
bald, 405.

Al-Hakim Blambellalu (r. 996-
1021), 138.

Ali, Caliph (r. 656-661), 135,

Alliance Israelite Universelle

339, 415, 486.
Almeida-Moraes, 202.
Alombrados, 307.
Alsop, alias of Orsini, ‘268.
Alta Vendita, 427.
Alviella, Goblet d’, 293.
American Civil Liberties Union


Ampthill, Lord, 182.
Amsterdam International, The,

Anabaptists, The, 171.
Anarchists, 526.
Anaximander (610-547 B. C),

Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rites, 357, 548, 575.

Ancient and Archaeological
Order of Druids, 528.

Ancient and Primitive Rite-
see Rite of Memphis, 443,

Anderson, James (1662-1739),

Andrea, Valentin (1586-1654),

150, 174.
Andreis, Carlo de, 301.
Anghera, Domenico, 340.
Anjou, Due d’, 348.
Anthroposophical Society, 535,

579, 604.




Anti-Saloon League,, 621, 626.
Antin, Due a”, (1665-1736), 334.
Antonelli, Cardinal (1805-

1876), 263.
Apadno, Book of, 220.
,• Arago, Emmanuel (1812-1896),

.• Arago, Etienne, 341, 412; 413,

.’ Archer, Major J. H. Lawrence
(1823- ), 520.
Arcula Mystica, 224.
Ardeschir Babejan, 66.
.• Argenson, Rene de Voyer,
Marquis d’, (1652-1721),

Aristotle (384-322 B.C), 97, 625.
Arminiaeus, Bertrand (1560-

1609), 405.
Arminiaeus, John, 405.
.-. Arnal, Etienne (1794-1872),

Arnauld, Antoine (1612-1694),

£ Artom, Isaac (1829-1900), 267.
.-. Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692),

Asia Mysteriosa, 39.
.”. Asproni, Giorgio, 276.

Asquith, H. H. (Lord As-
quith), (1852-1928), 394.
Assassins, 140.
if Astruc, Aristide (1831- ),

Attlee, C. R., 563.

Atwood Body, 425.

Aubertin, d’, 336.
£ Auld, Isaac, 193.

Aumont, Pierre, 351.
.-. Azeglio, Massimo d’ (1798-
1866), 245.

.’. Babeuf, Francois-Emile (1760-

1797), 380, 382, 561.
.-. Bacci, Ulisse, Sr., 286, 301.
.”. Bacci, Ulisse, Jr., 619.
if Bach, Rabbi Lee, 466.

Bacon, Francis (1561-1626),

3ahai Movement, 469.
.’. Bahardt, Charles Frederic, 371.
Baha’u’llah, 469, 651.

Bailey, Alice A., 226.
Bailly, Jean Silvain (1760-
1819), 381.
.-. Bakunin, Michael (1814-1876),
219, 267, 492, 526.
Balbanova, Angelica, 615.
Baldasseroni, 258.
.*. Ballesteros, General Francisco

(1760-1832), 202.
$ Ballin, Albert, 516.

Baldwin, Roger N., 630.
jjl Bamberger, Ludwig (1823-
1899), 418.
Bantry Bay Expedition (1796),

Baphomet, 113, 680.
.-. Baratieri, General (1841-1901),

Barbagallo, Lina, 243.
Barbarossa, Frederic I (1152-
1190), 142.
.-. Barbes, Armand (1809-1870),

.-. Barlet, T. Ch., 353.

Bartolotti, Giuseppe, 267.
Barruel, Abbe, 111.
,*, Basedow, Johann Georg (1723-
1790), 371.
Basilides (II Century), 35, 118,

Baure, 336.

Bavariae, Ludovicus, Rex
(1825-1868), 679.
.». Bazard, Armand (1791-1832),

447, 449.
Bielefeld, 537.
# Bien, Julius (1826- ), 465.

Biggar, Joseph G., 538.
.-. Biran, Marquis de (1766-1826),

$ Bischofsheim (1829-1908), 418.
Bismarck, Otto von (1815-
1898), 242, 249, 275, 418.
Bixio, Nino (1808-1865), 245.
Bizzoni, Col. Achille, 287.
Blaine, Senator, U. S. A., 622.
Blanc, Hippolyte, 347.
Blanchard, 144.
Bland, Hubert, 557.
.-. Blanqui, Louis-Auguste (1805-

1881), 449, 494.
.•. Blavatsky, Helen Petrovna
(1831-1891), 457, 509, 520,
525, 529-534, 542, 566.
<r bleichroeder,="" gerson="" (1822-="" 1893),="" 225,="" 238.="" o="" blonski,="" abraham,="" 150.="" blount,="" charles="" (1654-1693),="" henry="" (1602-1680),="" 157.="" bockhold,="" john,="" 173.="" bode,="" johann="" joachim="" chris-="" tophe="" (1730-1793),="" 371,="" 379.="" boehme,="" jacob="" (1575-1624),="" 149,="" 678.="" boleyn,="" anne="" (1507-1836),="" 159.="" bonanni,="" 402.="" .'="" bonneville,="" nicolas,="" chevalier="" de,="" 335,="" 381.="" borgja,="" francesco="" (1510-1572),="" 309,="" 319.="" bothwell,="" francis="" stewart,="" earl="" of,="" 117.="" bouche,="" madame="" (sister="" sa-="" lome),="" 37.="" .="" bourbon,="" francois="" louis="" 405.="" .-.="" henri,="" prince="" bournouf,="" eugene,="" 65.="" bovio,="" giovanni,="" 251,="" 291.="" brahminism,="" 40.="" brahmo="" somaj,="" 455.="" brailsford,="" noel,="" 637.="" brague,="" arnold="" brian="" boru,="" the,="" 515.="" brissot="" de="" warville,="" jacques="" pierre="" (1754-1793),="" 374,="" britons,="" 409.="" brockdorf-rantzau,="" count="" von="" (="" -1928),="" 631.="" bruce,="" robert="" (1274-1329),="" 349.="" bruix,="" admiral,="" 389.="" bruno,="" jordano="" (1550-1600),="" 98.="" brunswick-wolfenbuttel,="" duke="" 153.="" bruys,="" peter="" of="" -1126),="" 164.="" buchez.="" philippe="" (1796-1865),="" 447,="" 449.="" buchmanism,="" 643.="" bucolay,="" savalette="" 336.="" bukharin,="" nt,="" 615.="" buonarotti,="" filippe="" (1761-="" 1837),="" 382,="" 428,="" 449,="" 561.="" burdett,="" sir="" francis,="" 439.="" .■.="" burrows,="" herbert,="" 533.="" .'.="" busche,="" guillaume,="" baron="" buxton,="" 502,="" byron,="" lord="" (1788-1824),="" cabrinovic,="" 602.="" cadman,="" dr.="" s.="" parkes,="" 596,="" 625.="" cadorna,="" general="" raffaele="" (1850-1917),="" 217,="" 276.="" 724="" occult="" theocrasy="" $="" cagliostro,="" balsamo="" (1743-="" 1795),="" 184,="" 355.="" cahen,="" isidor="" (1826-1902),="" 4*6.="" cairo,="" lodge="" 134="" .•.="" cairoli,="" benedetto="" (1826-1889),="" caithness="" —="" see="" pomar.="" calderari,="" 318,="" 435,="" 445,="" 619.="" callahan,="" daniel="" j.,="" 551.="" calmeil.="" l.="" f.,="" 172.="" calvert.="" -34,="" 175.="" .v="" cambaceres="" (1733-1824),="" 339.="" camelinat,="" 271.="" camisards,="" 327="" et="" seq.="" canning,="" stratford="" (1786-="" .1880),="" cannon,="" bishop="" james,="" 626.="" canosa,="" 445.="" canti,="" gustave,="" 301.="" capo="" d'istria,="" (1776-="" 1831),="" 439,="" 440.="" caputo,="" monsignor,="" carabi,="" -1861),="" 265.="" caraffa,="" vincenzio,="" carbonarism,="" 200,="" 427.="" french,="" 447.="" carducci,="" giosue="" (1836-1907),="" 292.="" carlile,="" bichard,="" 87,="" 198.="" carmody,="" martin="" h.,="" 550.="" ^="" carpocrates,="" (ii="" century),="" 118.="" carpocratians,="" 119.="" carra,="" jean="" (1742-1793),="" .-,="" carriol,="" carson,="" edward,="" 393.="" £="" carvalho,="" jules="" (1820-="" ),="" 486.="" casement,="" boger="" (1864-1916),="" 516.="" castellazo,="" luigi,="" 279.="" cathares,="" 163.="" cavendish,="" frederick,="" 541.="" cavour,="" camille="" benso,="" conte="" di="" (1810-1861),="" 244,="" 245,="" 266,="" 272,="" 273.="" cecil,="" bobert,="" 639.="" centurioni,="" alessandro,="" cerdo,="" ceridwen,="" 101.="" .*.="" cerneau,="" joseph,="" 214,="" 423.="" cerneau="" bite,="" cerutti,="" joseph="" (1738-1792),="" 380.="" chabot,="" philip,="" chaillon="" joinville,="" 189,="" i,="" king="" england="" (1600-1649),="" iii,="" parma,="" 262.="" chartres,="" egalite,="" due="" (1747-1793),="" chassaignac,="" 424.="" chastanier,="" benedict,="" 331,="" 355,="" 537.="" chatterton-hill,="" george,="" 606.="" chayla,="" du,="" 410.="" chaytania,="" 457.="" cherrington,="" ernest="" chevillon,="" claude="" m.="" b.,="" choiseul,="" etienne="" francois,="" comte="" (1719-1785),="" christianity,="" 105.="" christian="" science,="" 553.="" churches="" christ,="" federal="" council="" chubb,="" percival,="" 557.="" cimadino,="" ambroise,="" civil="" liberties="" union,="" 598.="" clan-na-gael="" (v.="" c),="" 513,="" 590,="" claremont,="" john="" clark,="" dr.,="" 99.="" general,="" 388.="" clarke,="" william="" 292,="" clavel,="" 407.="" clemens="" alexandrinus="" 220),="" 122.="" clement="" ix,="" pope="" (1600-1669),="" 312.="" xiv,="" (1705-="" 1774),="" 312,="" 365.="" ,\="" clermont,="" (1709-="" 1771),="" 335.="" clinton,="" witt="" (1769-1824),="" clootz,="" anacharsis="" (1775-1794),="" 371.="" cluseret,="" (1823-1900),="" 484.="" index="" 725="" •.="" cobb,="" rev.="" geikie,="" 593.="" codrington,="" admiral="" (1770-="" 1851),="" cohalan,="" daniel,="" 591.="" judge,="" 516,="" cohen,="" moses,="" 192.="" cole,="" g.="" d.="" 563.="" colfax,="" schuyler,="" 472.="" collier,="" 156.="" collot="" d'herbois="" (1750-1796),="" colombiere,="" father,="" 313.="" colquhoun,="" patrick="" (1815-="" 400.="" co-masonry,="" 547.="" comenius="" (amos="" kominsky)="" (1592-1671),="" 153,="" 174.="" .".="" condorcet,="" marquis="" 1794),="" 369,="" 379,="" 380,="" confessio,="" 151.="" conolly,="" 584.="" constant,="" alphonse="" eliphas="" levi.="" constanza,="" 373.="" convulsionaries="" st.="" medard,="" 343.="" cooke,="" mathieu,="" 502.="" corberon,="" corbon,="" cosentini,="" cosse-brissac,="" 1792),="" 403,="" cottyto,="" goddess="" turpi-="" tude,="" 91.="" cowdery,="" oliver,="" 460.="" cox,="" benjamin,="" 501.="" cremer,="" 218.="" cremieux,="" adolphe="" lsaac(1796-="" 1880),="" 186,="" 339,="" 341,="" 412,="" 415="" seq.,="" 450,="" <x="" gaston="" (1836-1871),="" 416.="" cremonini,="" cesare,="" crimean="" war,="" 260.="" crispi,="" (1819-1901),="" 242="" cromwell,="" oliver="" (1599-1658),="" 157,="" 320.="" thomas,="" essex="" (1485-1540),="" 158.="" crooks,="" william,="" 475,="" 562.="" cross="" body="" (masonic),="" 425.="" crowley,="" edward="" aleister,="" ("="" the="" master="" therion="" "),="" (1875-="" 524,="" 569,="" 575,="" 588,="" croy,="" cryptic="" rite,="" 519.="" cubricus="" manes.="" cubrilovitch,="" veliko,="" 601.="" cucchi,="" colonel="" francesco,="" oreste,="" cullen,="" archbishop,="" 468.="" cumberland,="" (1721-="" 1755),="" 392.="" cusack,="" michael,="" 655.="" cyrus,="" persian="" empire="" (560-529="" b.="" 66.="" czerniewicz,="" stanislaus,="" dabricius,="" dacosta,="" isaac="" (1798-1860),="" 190.="" dakin,="" e.="" 554.="" dalcho,="" frederic="" (1770-1836),="" 193.="" danton,="" georges="" (1759-1794),="" darosi,="" mohammed-al="" (960-="" 1019),="" 136.="" dashwood,="" (1708-="" 1781),="" 476.="" daughters="" isabella,="" david="" scotland="" (1124-1153),="" david-neel,="" alexandra,="" 124.="" davidson,="" thomas="" (1840-1900),="" davis,="" jefferson="" (1808-1889),="" 210.="" davitt,="" 538,="" day,="" george="" decazes,="" elie,="" (1780-="" 1846),="" 279,="" 361.="" dee,="" (1527-1608),="" 154.="" defenders,="" 320,="" 323,="" kay,="" wesley,="" delignet,="" denham,="" ijj="" depasqualy,="" martinez="" (1700-="" 1779),="" 183.="" deraismes,="" marie,="" derby,="" lord,="" 269.="" 726="" desaguliers,="" theophile="" (1683-1744),="" 34,="" descartes,="" rene(1596-1650),="" silver,="" albert,="" 630.="" desmaret,="" desmoulins,="" benoit="" (1760-1794),="" valera,="" eamon,="" 590.="" devoy,="" diderot,="" denis="" (1713-1784),="" 526.="" dillon,="" blake,="" 467.="" p.="" 538.="" disraeli,="" beaconsfield="" (1804-1881),="" 255,="" 269,="" 415.="" (1776-1848),="" doda,="" seismit,="" doheney,="" 467,="" 481.="" dolfi,="" 247.="" "="" dorec="" ",="" 354.="" douglas-pennant,="" violet,="" 649.="" druidenorden,="" 104,="" 604,="" 632.="" druids,="" 100.="" drummond,="" josiah="" 423,="" druses,="" 136,="" 138.="" duffy,="" gavan,="" dugied,="" dumas,="" baron,="" 443.="" duodecimans="" or="" imanites,="" duperron,="" hyacinthe="" anque-="" til,="" duplessis,="" dupont="" l'eure,="" (1767-1855),="" 451,="" dupotet,="" mathieu="" (1796-1881),="" duprat,="" dupin,="" duras,="" henri="" durfort,="" (1625-1704),="" duvergier="" hauranne,="" (1581-1643),="" 325.="" dux,="" furlong,="" 679.="" dyonisius,="" 90.="" eastern="" star,="" 480.="" eastman,="" max,="" ebrington,="" eddy,="" asa="" gilbert,="" mary="" baker="" (1821-="" 1910),="" 553,="" 554,="" 555,="" 556.="" vii,="" (1868-1910),="" egan,="" patrick,="" egomism,="" einstein,="" a.,="" 651.="" eleusinian="" mysteries,="" 95.="" elizabeth,="" queen="" (1533-1603),="" 154,="" 171.="" ellam,="" elliot,="" emmett,="" robert,="" addis="" (1764-="" 1827),="" encausse,="" g.,="" nom="" plume="" papus="" q.="" v.="" <j="" engel,="" leopold,="" 509,="" engels,="" (1820-1895),="" 218,="" 560.="" •="" '.="" engers-kennedy,="" leon,="" 525.="" english="" reform="" bill,="" 270.="" jjl="" ephraim,="" veitel="" heine="" 1775),="" 184.="" epicurus="" (341-270="" 97.="" epiphanes,="" son="" 112,="" 118,="" 120.="" epiphanius="" (310-403="" a.d.),="" 121.="" erskine,="" (1750-="" 1823),="" esoteric="" 567.="" etherists,="" hetairia="" greece.="" ettinger,="" moritz,="" 465.="" eupamed,="" 126.="" fabian="" society,="" 383,="" fabre="" d'olivet,="" fabre-palaprat="" -1838),="" 404,="" fabrizi,="" nicola="" (1804-1885),="" fairchild,="" h.="" 621.="" fairman,="" col.="" blen-="" nerhasset,="" Fraina, Louis, 615.
Franceschini, Dr., 205.

Francis I, King of France

(1494-1547), 427.
Francis II, King of Naples

(Bombalino), (1836-1894),


$ Francken, Henry Andrews,

190, 423.
$ Franck, Rabbi Salomon, 156.
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke

(1863-1914), 601.
Frappoli, 262, 276.
Frater Perdurabo (see Crowley,

E. Aleister), 575.
Fravashis (Ferouers), 68.
Frazer, Leon, 658.
,’, Frederick II, the Great, King
of Prussia (1712-1786),
189, 313.
Jouin, Monseigneur Ernest
(1844-1932), 409.
Joyeuse, Admiral Villaret de

(1750-1812), 389.
Judaism, 75.
.’. Judge, William Q., 531, 582.
Juvenile Freemasonry, 634.

Kali, 62.
<i kalisher="" hirsch,="" rabbi="" of="" thorn="" (1795-1874),="" 487.="" karen,="" franciscus="" xavier,="" 319.="" .".="" kazimirovich,="" radoslav,="" 602.="" keller,="" depute,="" 268.="" .•,="" kellermann,="" t.="" c,="" due="" de="" valmy,="" marshal="" (1735-="" 1820),="" 339.="" kellner,="" karl="" (="" -1905),="" 571,="" 573,="" 575,="" 679.="" kelly,="" edward="" (1555-1595),="" 154.="" kem,="" sam,="" 156.="" kemal-ud-din,="" 546.="" .-.="" kenning,="" george,="" 506,="" 528.="" kent,="" duke="" of,="" 400.="" keogh,="" john="" (1740-1817),="" 388.="" .•.="" kerensky,="" alexander,="" 409,="" 466.="" keshub="" chunder="" sen,="" 456.="" khedive="" egypt,="" 278.="" kilwinning,="" ancient="" order="" 349.="" king,="" colonel,="" 231.="" james,="" 34,="" 175.="" kingsford,="" anna,="" (1846-1888)="" 566.="" kintore,="" earl="" (1852-1930),="" 649.="" ,',="" kipling,="" rudyard,="" 520.="" klapka,="" general,="" 267.="" klinger,="" g.,="" 615.="" knayat="" khan,="" 599.="" knigge="" (philo),="" baron="" (1752-1796),="" 337,="" 371.="" knight,="" sir="" richard="" payne="" (1750-1824),="" knights="" christ,="" 145,="" 403.="" columbus,="" 516,="" 550.="" the="" ku-klux="" klan,="" 497,="" 607.="" malta,="" 146.="" templar,="" 143.="" templar="" america,="" 384,="" 551.="" khoja="" sect,="" 136.="" ,-.="" konarski,="" simon="" (1808-1839),="" 255,="" 453.="" $="" konigswarter,="" maximilian,="" 486.="" kossuth,="" louis="" (1802-1894),="" 254,="" 255.="" kotterus,="" 173.="" kotzebue,="" august="" friedrichsen="" (1761-1819),="" 378.="" index="" 731="" kramarsch,="" (1860-="" ),="" 601.="" krishna,="" 56,="" krishnamurti,="" 533.="" kropotkin,="" prince="" pierre,="" 558.="" krudener,="" juliana="" (1764-="" 1824),="" 37.="" kuch="" behar,="" maharaiah="" kuhlmann,="" klan="" (k.="" k.="" k.),="" kyilkhors,="" 126.="" .'.="" labrunie,="" hippolite,="" 443.="" lacorne,="" 189,="" 336.="" la="" farina,="" giuseppe="" (1815-="" 1863)="" ,="" 245.="" .',="" favette,="" marie="" joseph,="" marquis="" (1757-1834),="" 203,="" 204,="" 374,="" 381,="" 449.="" laffon="" (1773-1863),="" 237.="" lafont,="" g.="" de,="" 65.="" jonquiere,="" jacques="" (1680-1753),="" .*.="" lalande,="" joseph="" jerome="" (1732-="" 1807),381.="" lamaism,="" 123.="" lamartine,="" alphonsc="" (1790-="" 1869),="" 185,="" 450.="" lamballe,="" therese,="" prin-="" cesse="" (1749-1792),="" 338.="" lameth,="" charles="" theodore,="" 380.="" lancelot,="" claude="" (1615-1695),="" 325.="" landebat,="" (1746-="" 1829),="" lang,="" jacob,="" 373.="" lansbury,="" 562.="" lao-tse="" (600="" b.="" c),="" 71.="" larkin,="" 613.="" larmenius,="" mark="" 1324),="" 402,="" 405.="" rochefoucauld,="" francois,="" (1613-1680),="" 379.="" laroque,="" <i="" laski,="" harold="" j.,="" 382,="" 561,="" p="" lassalle,="" ferdinand="" (1825-="" 1864)="" 415.="" .="" lathuile,="" (alias="" adriano="" lemmi),="" 265.="" laud,="" archbishop="" (1573-1645),="" 157.="" lavington,="" bishop="" exeter="" (1683-1762),="" 91,="" 118.="" law,="" william="" (1671-1729),="" 183.="" laynez,="" diego="" (1512-1565),="" lazare,="" bernard="" (1865-1903),="" 184.="" leadbeater,="" \v.,="" 533,="" 548.="" league="" nations,="" 187,="" 636.="" oppressed="" nations="" -="" see="" v.="" v.,="" 631.="" leblond,="" 403,="" 412.="" le="" changeur,="" 407.="" comte,="" general="" martin="" (1818-1871),="" 496.="" leczinska,="" marie,="" queen="" france="" (1703-1768),="" 348.="" ledochowsky,="" vladimir,="" ledru-rollin,="" alexandre="" au-="" guste="" (1807-1874),="" 267,="" 418,="" 450,="" 494.="" leibnitz,="" gottfried="" wilhelm,="" von="" (1646-1716),="" 99.="" lelewel,="" lubez,="" 218.="" maitre="" sacy,="" isaac="" (1758-1838),="" lemmi,="" (1822-1896),="" 219,="" 222,="" 250,="" 253="" et="" seq.,="" 492.="" silvano,="" 293.="" lenin,="" wladimir="" hitch="" ulia-="" now="" (1870-1924),="" lenoncourt,="" chevalier="" leo="" great,="" pope="" (r.="" 440-="" 461),="" 109.="" xiii,="" (1810-1903),="" 250.="" leroux,="" pierre="" (1798-1871),="" 418.="" lessing,="" gotthold="" ephraim="" (1729-1781),="" 372.="" leucht,="" alias="" johnson="" 1775),="" 183,="" 184,="" 350.="" leven,="" narcisse="" (1833-1915),="" levi,="" armand="" (1827-="" 288,="" 289,="" 492,="" 732="" occult="" theocrasy="" eliphas="" (alph.="" constant),="" (1810-1875),="" 36,="" 116,="" 542,="" 578,="" lucien,="" 547.="" lewis="" broom="" 262,="" 263.="" leyden,="" liberal="" catholic="" church,="" 534.="" lienkiewicz,="" gabriel,="" limerick,="" limperani,="" linati,="" 205.="" lindsay,="" lord,="" 475.="" little,="" r.="" wentworth="" (1839-="" 1878),="" 407,="" 463,="" 500,="" littler,="" henry,="" lodge,="" oliver,="" 474.="" l'olper,="" rabbi,="" 274.="" lombard="" langes,="" 337.="" £="" long,="" hyman="" isaac,="" 192,="" longfellow,="" 211.="" longley,="" george="" canning,="" 299,="" 536.="" xv,="" king="" (1710-1774),="" napoleon="" (napoleon="" iii)="" (1808-1873),="" philippe="" (egalite),="" d'orleans,="" char-="" tres="" (1747-1793).="" 336,="" loyola,="" ignatius="" de(1491-1556),="" 307,="" 308,="" 314,="" luby,="" thomas="" clarke="" (1821-="" 1909),="" 482.="" luke="" prague,="" 165.="" lulli,="" raymond="" (1235-1315),="" 151.="" lumden-madden,="" lytton,="" lord="" (1803-1873),="" 543.="" macabe,="" 387.="" macclenachan,="" t.,="" macdonald,="" ramsay,="" 557.="" macgregor,="" james="" 268,="" mackenzie,="" kenneth="" (1818-="" 1886),="" 300,="" 508,="" 528,="" mackey,="" albert="" 287,="" 291,="" gallatin="" (1807-1881),="" 195,="" 211,="" 222.="" mackintosh,="" (1765-="" 1832),="" 439.="" maclaine,="" w.="" mcbride,="" f.="" scott,="" 596,="" 621,="" 626.="" mcconnell,="" francis="" bp.,="" 596.="" mcgarrah,="" gates,="" 658.="" mcginley,="" mcgivney,="" father="" p.,="" mctier,="" madden,="" r.,="" c.="" s.,="" 171,="" 172,="" 327.="" maendl,="" baron,="" mafia,="" 620,="" 645.="" maggioro,="" abraham,="" 254.="" maghella,="" 433.="" magnan,="" mar-="" shal="" (1791-1865),="" mahomet="" (571-632),="" 133.="" maier,="" michael,="" (1658-1622),="" 149,="" 150,="" 152.="" maine,="" auguste,="" du="" (1670-1736),="" maitland,="" (1824-1897),="" malcolm,="" john,="" malebranche,="" nicolas="" (1638-="" 1715),="" 98.="" malet,="" fran$ois="" (1754-1812),="" 395.="" malon,="" 271.="" malone,="" dudley="" field,="" manasseh="" ben="" israel="" (1604-="" 1657),="" 160.="" manchester="" unity="" oddfel-="" lows,="" 436.="" manchu="" dynasty,="" 441.="" mancini,="" pascal="" stanislas="" (1817-1888),="" 276.="" manes="" (216-276),="" 108.="" manicheism,="" manuel,="" andre="" (1791-="" 1857),="" 203.="" eugene="" (1823-1901),.="" marat,="" jean="" paul="" (1743-1793),="" marchot,="" 733="" marcion,="" marconis,="" j.="" e.,="" marcus,="" •="" ".="" margiotta,="" domenico,="" 188.="" marie-anne,="" duchess="" ba-="" varia,="" marie-antoinette,="" (1755-1793),="" christine,="" queen,="" ■="" ••="" mario,="" alberto,="" 219.="" marion,="" elias,="" 329.="" marpa,="" 127.="" ■'•="" martin,="" georges,="" •'•="" #="" martinez="" pasquales="" (1700-="" 1779),="" 353.="" martinism="" :="" martinist="" order,="" marx,="" (mordechai),="" 1883),="" 218,="" 270,="" 413,="" 415,="" 484,="" 489,="" 526,="" 560.="" massa,="" thomas,="" massarenti,="" •"■="" massena,="" andre,="" ri-="" voli="" (1756-1817),="" 339,="" massenhausen,="" master="" (the)="" therion,="" (aleis-="" ter="" crowley),="" 575.="" mathers,="" s.="" l.="" mcgregor,="" 509,="" 534,="" 567,="" seq.="" tf.="" mrs="" mcgregor="" 1929),="" 569.="" mathias,="" mathieu,="" ,-,="" mauvillon,="" jas.,="" (1743-1794),="" 374.="" mavrocordato,="" maximilla,="" 36.="" maxwell,="" (1859-1929),="" 517.="" mayer,="" 506.="" mayo,="" katherine,="" 61.="" mazdaznan="" 579.="" mazdeism,="" mazza,="" 264.="" mazzini,="" (1805-1872),="" 196,="" 207="" 242,="" 257,="" 273,="" 434,="" 453,="" 468,="" 494,="" 530,="" 539,="" mazzoni,="" -1880),="" 279.="" •*•="" medico,="" umberto="" dal,="" 286.="" medmenham,="" monks="" 199,="" 476.="" melchior,="" dr.,="" melegari,="" a.,="" 257.="" melek="" taos,="" 132.="" memphis="" and="" mizraim,="" rite="" mendelssohn,="" moses="" (1728-="" 1786),="" 371,="" 376.="" menelek="" ii,="" abyssinia="" (1842-1913),="" 251.="" mercurian,="" eberhard="" (1514-="" 1580),="" "="" mesmer,="" frederic="" antoine="" (1733-1815),="" 355.="" metaxas,="" 301.="" metternich,="" clement="" wences-="" las,="" (1773-1859).="" 270.="" ."•="" meyer,="" 524.="" kuno,="" 606.="" meyers,="" m.,="" 191.="" michal,="" victor,="" 530.="" mignano,="" —="" nunziante.="" mignet,="" francois="" auguste="" (1796-1884),="" 413.="" '•="" milano,="" ageslas,="" 266.="" "•="" miller,="" siegmund,="" 537.="" •'-="" mirabeau,="" honore="" gabriel="" (1747-1791),="" mirza="" ali="" muhammad,="" 469.="" mizra="" ahmed="" sohrab,="" 651.="" ghulam="" ahmad,="" 545.="" misley,="" 205,="" ',="" mitchell,="" colonel="" 1875),="" 193,="" 467.="" william,="" 0="" mocatta,="" (1768-1857),="" modern="" illuminism="" oriental="" templars="" (o.="" o.),="" 571.="" (england),="" 399.="" 734="" (france),="" 402.="" (poland),="" 452.="" (sweden),="" 406.="" mohammed="" al-darazi="" (960-="" 1019),="" 138.="" al-hanafl,="" al-muntazar,="" molay,="" bourguignon="" (1244-1314),="" 194.="" mold,="" daniel,="" 288.="" molt,="" emil,="" 605.="" montanus,="" (circ.="" 160="" or="" 170="" a.="" d.),="" 35,="" montefiore,="" (1784-1885),="" 416,="" monteith,="" peter="" golden,="" montesquieu,="" secon-="" dat,="" (1689-1755),="" 412,="" 414.="" montgeron,="" 345.="" montmasson,="" bosalia,="" 243.="" montmorency,="" comte="" henri="" moore,="" roger,="" 320.="" mcleod,="" 401,="" mopses,="" 117,="" 365.="" moravians="" (herrenhuter),="" morayta,="" miguel,="" moreau,="" (1763-1813),="" 395,="" 396.="" morelli,="" morgan,="" captain="" 209,="" 228="" morin,="" stephen,="" mormons,="" the,="" 459.="" morris,="" robert="" -1888),="" 480.="" mostansir,="" calif,="" 137.="" jjl="" motta,="" emmanuel="" (1761-="" 1821),="" 193.="" mouler,="" jeanne,="" 346.="" muham-mab-ali,="" muncer,="" munk,="" solomon="" (1803-1867),="" murray,="" margaret="" alice,="" 112,="" 578.="" mussolini,="" benito,="" 619,="" mutazilites,="" 135.="" mythras,="" 67.="" murat,="" joachim="" (1767-1815),="" 433,="" 435.="" (1803-="" 1879),="" 264,="" nadir="" shah="" (1688-1747),="" i="" (1769-1821),="" iii="" 244,="" 261,="" 410,="" narodna="" odbrana,="" if="" nathan,="" ernesto,="" 251,="" national="" land="" league,="" 538.="" nearing,="" 630.="" neilson,="" samuel="" (1761-1803),="" netchaieff,="" 518.="" netchvolodow,="" lt.="" gen.="" alexandre,="" 76.="" nettelbladt,="" netter,="" (1828-1882),="" 486,="" new="" dispensation,="" 458.="" history="" society,="" nicephorus,="" 404.="" ,•.="" nicholas="" tzar="" russia="" (1868-1918),="" nicholson,="" nickel,="" goswin,="" nicolai,="" christopher="" frie-="" drich="" (1733-1811),="" 313,="" nicole,="" (1628-1695),="" ,%="" nietzsche,="" friedrich="" (1844-="" 1900),="" nihilists,="" nilus,="" sergius="" (1862-1929),="" 409.="" nithard,="" f.,="" 311.="" nitschmann,="" david,="" 167.="" noailles,="" alexis,="" (1783-1835),="" nobili,="" norbert,="" 312.="" nordau,="" max="" (1849-="" 410.="" nordenskjold,="" august,="" 331.="" norman,="" montagu="" collet,="" 659.="" north="" berwick="" witches,="" 117.="" 735="" noyelle,="" (1615-="" 1686),="" nubio,="" 427.="" nunziante,="" 272.="" oates,="" titus="" (1649-1705),="" o'brien,="" wm.="" smith="" 1864),="" 467,="" o'connor,="" arthur="" (1763-1852),="" occultism,="" 24.="" oddfellows,="" independent="" 471.="" odger,="" (1820-1877),="" 490,="" 491.="" o'flaherty,="" o'gorman,="" o'kelly,="" olcott,="" henry="" steel="" (1831-="" 1907),="" 531,="" 542.="" o'leary,="" jeremiah,="" oliva,="" giovanni="" paolo="" (1689-="" 1757),="" olliver,="" w.,="" olivier,="" sidney,="" olympians,="" o'mahoney,="" (1816-1877),="" 481.="" one="" big="" union="" ",="" 200.="" ophites,="" 35.="" orange="" 391.="" 634.="" 296,="" 341,="" 466,="" 503,="" 677-705.="" rainbow,="" universal="" co-free-="" masonry,="" light,="" orleans,="" philippe,="" d'="" (1674-1723),="" (1747-1793),="" oromazes,="" orpheus,="" 74.="" orpheism,="" 90.="" orsini,="" felice="" (1819-1858),="" o.="" templars.="" oudet,="" lieut.="" col.="" (1773-1809),="" oxenstiern,="" axel="" (1583-1650),="" pagan="" mysteries,="" 93.="" pagitt,="" palladism,="" 239,="" palladium,="" 215.="" palmerston,="" (1784-1865),="" 214,="" 260,="" pam,="" judge="" max,="" 623.="" pancoast,="" dr.="" seth,="" 531.="" pankhurst,="" pansophia,="" 174.="" .'•="" papus="" (dr.="" gerard="" encausse)="" (1865-1916),="" 353,="" 574,="" paracelsus="" (theophrastus="" hohenheim)="" (1493-1541),="" 148,="" 678.="" paris,="" (1690-1727),="" 343.="" parnell,="" stewart,="" 538,="" 655.="" parsees,="" 66.="" parsva,="" 69.="" pascal,="" blaise="" (1623-1662),="" patterson,="" 553.="" iii,="" 1534-1549),="" 308.="" payne,="" 175,="" pearse,="" p.="" h.,="" pease,="" edward,="" peckham,="" 335.="" pelletan,="" camille,="" 341.="" pelletier,="" penkett,="" richard,="" 156,="" pepe,="" guillaume="" (1782-="" 1855),="" 200,="" pernety,="" (1716-="" 1777),="" pethick-lawrence,="" .-,="" petroni,="" giuseppe,="" 279,="" 428.="" philadelphians,="" philaletes,="" vau-="" ghan.="" society="" 369.="" 736="" philalethes,="" irenius="" (george="" starkey),="" bel,="" france,="" 1285-1314),="" 81.="" phoenix="" skibbereen,="" 485.="" piancini,="" count,="" picard,="" piccolomini,="" francesco="" (1520-="" 1614),="" pichegru,="" (1761-1804),="" pierri,="" pike="" (1809-1891)="" 188,="" 554,="" 618.="" pitt,="" (1759-="" 1806),="" 380,="" 389.="" pitris,="" book="" 52.="" pius="" ix,="" (1792-1878),="" plato,="" (429-347="" 97.="" plunket,="" (1629-="" 1681),="" •"•="" podmore,="" frank="" (1856-1910),="" poggio,="" gerasimos,="" pollard,="" captain,="" 320,="" 323,="" 387,="" 421,="" 481,="" 513,="" 541,="" pollock,="" channing,="" 624.="" pomar,="" duchesse="" (lady="" caithness)="" -1895),542.="" •••="" portal,="" rev.="" 519.="" portman,="" maurice="" vidal,="" primitive="" original="" phre-="" masons="" (swedenborgian="" rite),="" prinzip,="" priscilla,="" prohibition,="" american,="" 643.="" protocols="" wise="" men="" zion,="" 80,="" 654.="" prudhon,="" 526.="" pullen,="" hyde,="" putnam,="" puysegur,="" m.="" chas-="" tenet="" (1751-1825),="" pyat,="" felix="" (1810-1889),="" pyrrho,="" (iv="" century="" pythagoras,="" (vi="" quelch,="" quesnel,="" pasquier="" (1634-1719),="" quiller-couch,="" arthur,="" 100.="" quillian,="" quimby,="" phineas="" parkhurst,="" -1866),="" rackets,="" radziwill,="" princess="" catherine,="" ragon,="" (1781-="" 1862),="" rampolla,="" cardinal="" (1843-="" 1913),="" (1686-="" 1743),="" 97,="" 334.="" ratazzi,="" u.="" (1808-1878),="" 266,="" ravenshaw,="" 502.="" raymond,="" rene,="" 333.="" red="" cross="" constantine="" holy="" sepulchre,="" redmond,="" 394.="" reimarus,="" herman="" (1694-1768),="" renato,="" camillo="" (xvi="" cen-="" tury),="" 150.="" matteo,="" 287.="" re-theurgist="" optimates,="" 213.="" retz,="" franz,="" gilles="" (1404-1440),="" 27.="" reuss,="" 298,="" 354,="" 507,="" 525,="" 537,="" rhygas,="" constantin="" (1754-="" 1798),="" 438.="" ribbon="" 421.="" riboli,="" timoteo,="" ricci,="" lorenzo="" (1703-1775),="" i,="" england="" 1189-1199),="" 142.="" richet,="" charles,="" riesser,="" (1806-1863),="" ripon,="" 182,="" 737="" rivail,="" allan="" kardec="" (1803-1869),="" rive,="" la,="" 220,="" 233.="" robespierre,="" maxime="" (1758-="" 1794),="" 381,428.="" roettiers,="" e.="" (1771-1858),="" rohan,="" commodore="" (1734-1803),="" rokyzana,="" romano,="" liborio,="" roome,="" liliana="" pike,="" 210.="" roothaan,="" johannes,="" ,\="" rosa,="" rosen,="" paul,="" 177,="" 363.="" rosenkreutz,="" christian,="" rosenthal,="" samuel,="" rosicrucianism,="" 147.="" rosmer,="" rossa,="" jeremiah="" o'donovan,="" 485,="" 513.="" v="" rothschild,="" house="" if.="" rousseau,="" jacques,="" rowan,="" archibald="" hamilton="" (1751-1834),="" roy,="" rajah="" ram="" mohun="" (1774-="" 1833),="" 455,="" rudio,="" riige="" (rouge)="" arnold,="" 489.="" russell,="" bertrand,="" karl,="" laze="" (1852-="" 1916),="" 539.="" (1st="" earl),="" russellites,="" international="" bible="" students,="" rutherford,="" 540.="" sadoul,="" st.="" albans,="" jermyn,="" saint="" etienne="" rabaud,="" 381.="" fargeau,="" pellctier="" germain,="" count="" (other="" names="" daniel="" wolf="" rakosky)="" (1710-="" 1784),="" father,="" 313.="" (1713-1803),="" medard,="" cemetery="" patrick="" boys,="" 454.="" salazar,="" galeatino="" sampter,="" jessie="" 639.="" sandeman,="" sandwich,="" sanfedesti,="" 318.="" sankey,="" h.="" (1829-="" 1908),="" santallier,="" sat="" bhai="" »*;="" savalette="" lange,="" saviola,="" aurelio="" 1788),="" saxe="" gotha,="" ernest="" scelsi="" brothers,="" scharnhorst,="" gerhard="" (1755-1813),="" 377.="" tf="" schiff,="" jacob="" (1847-1921),="" 614.="" schlegel,="" frederic,="" 377="" schlciermacher,="" schorst,="" 408.="" schure,="" edouard,="" 604.="" schwab,="" julius,="" 527.="" scotland,="" royal="" scottish="" philosophic="" rites,="" 397.="" sellon,="" 52="" senoncourt,="" robert,="" sexton,="" s="" t="" seymour,="" harry="" 425,="" 426,="" 523.="" shaw,="" bernard,="" 557,="" 563,="" 637,="" ralph,="" 597.="" sieyes,="" abbe="" (1748-1836),="" 369,="" 379,="" silva,="" alvaro="" da,="" simmons,="" 007,="" 609.="" 738="" magus,="" simon,="" (1638-1712),="" sinclair,="" upton,="" 027.="" sineo,="" singer,="" sinn="" fein,="" 090,="" 013.="" j3="" sliosberg,="" smith,="" fielding.="" …="" (1805-1844),="" admiral="" sidney="" (1704-1840),="" snow,="" lorenzo,="" 401.="" snowden,="" viscount="" philip="" viscountess,="" 474,="" societas="" rosicruciana="" in="" an-="" glia,="" 290,="" 499,="" 577.="" societe="" theosophique="" d'orient="" d'occident,="" socinianism,="" 153.="" socinius,="" faustus="" (1539-1004),="" lelio="" (1525-1562),="" socrates="" (408-400="" 92,="" sorge,="" 490.="" sothern,="" sovanovitch,="" 002.="" spalding,="" solomon,="" spener,="" (1035-1705),="" 107.="" sperber,="" spinoza,="" baruch="" (1032-1077),="" spiritism,="" modern,="" 473.="" spitzer,="" springer,="" stern,="" heinrich="" k.,="" und="" zu="" (1757-1831),="" steiner,="" rudolph="" (1861-1925),="" 570,="" 588,="" 001.="" stella="" matutina,="" 510,="" 569,="" 588.="" stephens,="" (1825-1901),="" 483,="" stetson,="" augusta="" (1812-1928),="" 554.="" stone,="" nick="" (1580-1047),="" 155.="" storch,="" nicholas,="" 171.="" strict="" observance,="" 351.="" struve,="" gust="" (1805-1870),="" stubner,="" mark,="" sufism="" (occidental),="" summers,="" 110.="" sun="" yat="" 442.="" suppas,="" supreme="" council="" em-="" perors="" east="" west,="" 335,="" 359.="" sussex,="" swedberg,="" jasper,="" swedenborg,="" (1088-="" 1772),="" 331,="" swedenborg.="" bite="" taboritcs,="" tagore,="" debendra="" nath,="" also="" written="" devendranath="" ta-="" kur,="" 455.="" taiping="" bevolt,="" (1851)="" tallard,="" camille.duc="" (1052-="" 1728),="" talleyrand-perigord,="" (1754-1838),="" talmud,="" 8="" 1="" tamajo,="" senator="" tamburini,="" michele="" angelo,="" tandv,="" napper="" (1740-1803),="" 385.="" tankosich,="" major,="" tantras,="" 57.="" tavanensis,="" taylor,="" (1808-1887),="" 464.="" tcherezigs,="" 125.="" templarism,="" tenri="" kenjukai,="" 641.="" teste,="" themis="" aurea,="" theodoret="" (396-458),="" 55.="" theophilus,="" alexan-="" dria="" (385-412),="" 96.="" theosophical="" educational="" trust,="" 529,="" 004.="" 739="" ame-="" rica,="" 535,="" 582.="" jerusalem,="" 332.="" world="" univer-="" sity,="" thiellay,="" eugene,="" 52s.="" thiers,"="" adolphe="" (1797-1877),="" 249.="" clement,="" 495.="" (damascus="" affair),="" thome,="" 332,="" thompson,="" hopkins,="" 425.="" thomson,="" brig.="" -1930),="" thoth="" hermes,="" 73.="" thugs,="" 62,="" 645,="" tibaldi,="" paolo,="" tigre,="" picolo,="" tingley,="" {catherine="" todorovitch,="" tolain,="" tone,="" theoboald="" wolfe="" (1763-="" torregiani,="" domizio,="" 619.="" tournon,="" (1="" 187-1562),="" triangles="" (palladist="" lodges),="" 216.="" trochot,="" trotzky,="" leon,="" leon="" bronstein,="" 611.="" tsong="" khapa,="" tugendbund.="" turner,="" major="" turr,="" stephen="" tynan,="" .).,="" 5!1.="" ubaid="" allah="" el="" mahdi.="" ugoni,="" 201.="" ulrika,="" sweden="" (1685-1711),="" unger,="" unione="" sicilione,="" united="" brotherhood,="" irishmen,="" 385,="" 121.="" unorthodox="" islam,="" 131.="" utzsehneider,="" valadi,="" valentinians,="" 122.="" valentinius="" -161),="" valle,="" felicita,="" valois,="" vandervelde,="" vangaluka,="" vannini,="" lucilio="" (1585-1619),="" vardhamana="" mahavira="" 527="" varlin,="" vaughan,="" (philalethes)="" (1612-1665).="" 154,="" venedv,="" (1805-1871).="" 414,="" vergennes,="" gravier,="" (1717-1787),="" victor="" emmanuel,="" italy="" (1820-1878),="" victoria,="" (1819-1901),="" viennet,="" joan="" baptiste,="" villafranca,="" treaty="" (1859),="" villars.="" de.="" marechal="" (1653-1734).="" 328.="" visconti,="" ignazio,="" vitelleschi,="" mutio="" -1906),="" vogt="" d'hunolstein,="" volpi,="" voltaire,="" arouet="" (1694-1778).="" 181,="" 430.="" vorovsky,="" y.="" vereinigung="" verge="" waltigter="" volker="" (v.="" v.),="" wagner,="" (1813-1ss3),="" waite.="" 444,="" waldenses,="" 463.="" walder.="" phileas="" -1893),="" 282.="" waldo,="" (ml="" century),="" waldorf="" system,="" 740="" wales,="" (edward="" vii)="" (1841-1910),="" wallace,="" 393.="" wallas,="" graham,="" walter,="" erich,="" warburg,="" warren,="" 1776),="" webb,="" pass="" lady="" pass-="" webster,="" nesta="" 295,="" 614,="" 631,="" wedmar,="" baltzer,="" weed,="" thurlow="" (1797-1882),="" 229.="" weinholz,="" weishaupt,="" adam="" (1748-="" 1830),="" 370.="" wells,="" wesley,="" (1703-1791),="" 170.="" wessely,="" naphtali="" hartwig="" (1723-1805),="" westcott,="" wynn="" (1848-1925),="" 536,="" 568,="" weston,="" *="" whartons,="" white,="" whitmer,="" 461.="" whitney,="" 627.="" whitton,="" bridge,="" 462.="" •*«="" whytehead,="" bowman,="" 400,="" wickersham,="" wickliffe,="" (1324-1384),="" 164.="" wildey,="" (1783-1861),="" 212,="" wiley,="" wilhelmsbad,="" convent="" (1782),="" wilkes,="" (1727-1797),="" willermoz,="" jean,="" (1650-1702),="" wilson,="" charlotte="" (1777-1849),="" 202.="" winkoop,="" d.,="" witchcraft,="" 112.="" wittgenstein,="" (1769-1843),="" wolf,="" lucien="" wolff,="" johann="" christian="" (1690-="" 1770),="" 152,="" 161.="" woodforde,="" 501,="" 568.="" woodman,="" -1891),="" woodruff,="" wilford="" (1807-1898),="" wren,="" (1692-="" 1723),="" xerophagists="" (italian="" mopses),="" 366.="" yarker,="" (1833-1913),="" 520,="" 522,="" 524,="" 543,="" yezidees,="" ygdrasil,="" young,="" brigham="" (1801-1877),="" young="" england,="" europe,="" 435,="" germany,="" ireland,="" 468.="" italy,="" 434.="" poland,="" switzerland,="" turk="" movement,="" 585.="" youth="" 653,="" peace="" federation,="" 652,="" 653.="" ypislanti,="" yuan="" shi="" kai,="" zahorowski,="" hieronimus,="" 317.="" zam="" bhotiva,="" 39.="" zangwill,="" (1864-1926),="" 741="" zbaraski,="" zend="" avesta,="" zeno,="" zetland,="" zinnendorf,="" (1700-1760),="" 368.="" zinovieff,="" apfelbaum,="" zinzendorf,="" 166,="" zionism,="" zwack,="" 371.'=""